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Electric Railway Journal 

Volume 51 

January to June, 1918 


McGraw-Hill Company, Inc. 

Tenth Avenue at Thirty-sixth Street 
New York City 



Instructions for Use of Index 

This index is essentially a subject index, not an index 
of titles, and articles treating a number of different sub- 
jects are indexed under each of them. In addition, a geo- 
graphical reference is published wherever the article relates 
to any particular railway company, or to the State matters 
of any particular State. The geographical method of 
grouping serves to locate in the index any article descrip- 
tive .of practices, conditions, events, etc., when the searcher 
knows the electric railway, city or State to which the 
article applies. Groupings are made under the name of the 
city in which the main office of the company is located, but 
an exception is made in the case of electrified sections of 
steam railroads, such entries being made direct under the 
name of the railroad. City or State affairs appear direct 
under the names of the city or State involved. 

In the subject index, the alphabetical method is followed, 
and if there is a choice of two or three keywords the one most 
generally used has been selected, cross references being sup- 
plied. Below will be found a list of the common keywords 

used in the index. This list has been subdivided for conven- 
ience into sixteen general subjects, but the general subject 
headings, shown in capital letters, do not appear in the 
body of the index. As an example, if a reader wished to 
locate an article on power-driven tower wagons he would 
obviously look in the list under the general subject "ve- 
hicles," and of the two keywords that appear under this 
caption, only "Service and tower wagons" could apply to the 
article in question. The reader would therefore refer to 
this keyword under "S" in the body of the index. 

In addition to the groups of articles covered by these 
headings the papers and reports from railway associations 
and technical societies are grouped under the names of the 
various organizations. Proceedings of other associations 
are indexed only in accordance with the subject discussed. 
Short descriptions of machine tools appear only under the 
heading "Repair Shop Equipment" and are not indexed 
alphabetically, because of the wide choice in most cases 
of the proper keyword. 


Accidents (including wrecks) 
Accident claim department 

Public service and regulative 

Public service corporations 
Safety-first movement 


Car design 

Cars (descriptive) 

Cleaning and washing of cars 

Gasoline cars 


Heating of cars 

Lighting of cars 

Storage battery cars 

Ventilation of cars 

Work and wrecking cars 





Controllers and wiring 
Couplers and bumpers 
Current-collecting devices 
Doors and steps 
Fenders and wheel guards 
Gears and pinions 

Seats and windows 
Trucks, car 


Strikes and arbitrations 


Fare collection (including ap- 


Freight rates 




Appraisal of railway property 




Operating records and costs 

Traffic investigations 

Heavy electric traction (gen- 

High-voltage d.c. railways 
Interurban railways (general) 

Low-voltage d.c. railways 
Single-phase railways 

Cleaning and washing of cars 
Inspection of cars 

Maintenance records and costs 

Paints and painting 

Repair shop equipment 

Repair shop practice 

Repair shops 

Tests of equipment 

Welding, special methods 

Carhouses and storage yards 
Operating records and costs 
Passenger handling records 
Schedules and time tables 

Stopping of cars 

Train operating practice 


Boilers and equipment 

Energy consumption 

Overhead contact system 

Power distribution 
Power generation 
Power stations and equipment 
Purchased power 
Substations and equipment 
Third-rail contact system 
Transmission lines 
Turbo-generators and equipment 

Maintenance records and costs 
Operating records and costs 
Passenger handling records 
Record forms 



Carhouses and storage yards 
Power stations and equipment 
Repair shops 

Terminal stations and terminals 
Waiting stations 



Rail joints and bonds 

Special work 

Track construction 
Track maintenance 

Freight and express 
Public. Relations with 
Routing of cars 
Traffic investigations 
Traffic stimulation 

VEHICLES (not on tracks) 
Motor buses 

Service and tower wagons 

Fire protection and insurance 
Lightning protection 
Loading limits for cars 
Manufacturing conditions 
Municipal ownership 
Public. Relations witli 
Timber preservation 




[ Vol. 51 


Jan. 5 1 to 68 

Jan. 12 69 to 116 

Jan. 19 117 to 164 

Jan. 26 165 to 212 

Feb. 2 213 to 260 

Feb. 9 261 to 304 

Feb. 16 305 to 350 

Feb. 23 351 to 398 

Mar. 2 399 to 444 

Mar. 9 445 to 488 

Mar. 16 489 to 552 

Mar. 23 553 to - 598 

Mar. 30 599 to 644 

Apr. 6 645 to 688 

Apr. 13 689 to 736 

Apr. 20 737 to 792 

Apr. 27. . 793 to 838 

May 4 . . 839 to 888 

May 11 889 to 944 

May 18 945 tc 998 

May 25 999 to 1038 

June 1 1039 to 1080 

June 8 1081 to 1122 

June 15 1123 to 1176 

June 22 1177 to 1218 

June 29 1219 to 1262 

Abilene. Tex. : 

Abilene Street Ry : 

Receiver appointed, n 105 
Accidents : 

Akron. O.. Fatal wreck, n 1255 

Boston Elevated Ry., Turbine wrecked, 

n 40li : 564; Comment. 555 

-Boston. Fire destroys carhouse *780 

Buffalo, N. Y., Fire destroys carhouses. 

n 197; Causes much damage *244 

Campaign, III., Crossing- accident, n 298 

■ Chicago, 111., Railroad crossing", n 789 

Cleveland, O., Fire destroys cars, n 781 

Columbus. O.. Prevention record, *709 

■ Fort Wayne, Ind., Automobile accident re- 
port, n 681 

Graphical presentation of accident data, 


— Kansas City power plant explosion, n 199 

Motorman sentenced to penitentiary for 

reckless driving, n 583 

— New Albany. Ind., Fatal collision, n 254 

Newark, N. J.. Fire destroys cars and car- 
house, n 474; n 1255 

New York City report, n 158; Investiga- 
tion, n 992 

— New York Rys. Co., Report, n 254 

Ohio has severe storm, 148 

• Salt Lake substation and car house dam- 
aged by fire, n 1024 

Severe storm in West, 7100 

• Toronto, Can.. Car house and equipment 

destroyed by fire, n 335 

Vancouver. Can. suffers tie-up from storm 

Wheeling, W. Va„ Fire causes damage, n 


Accounting : 

Classification for N. Y. electric railways, 

228; n 986 

Adirondack Lakes Tr. Co. (see Gloversville, 
N. Y.) 

Administration work should be deputized. Com- 
ment. 490 

Air-Piping precautions that prevent freezing. 

Akron, O.: 

Northern O. Tr. & Lt. Co.: 

Fatal wreck, n 1255 
Fare increase sought, n 1255 
Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 

Interurban cars for city service ob- 
jected to, n 729 
Interurban terminal building. *465 
Patriotic safety posters used, 1090 
Safety campaign, [Fenton], *234 
Statement of financial and operating' 
conditions, 477 
Albany. N. Y. : 

Albany Southern R. R. : 

Fare increase sought, 990 

United Traction Co.: 

Fare conference, n 993: Changes sus- 
pended. 1073; Increase souglit. 
Hearing, 1253 
Financial statement, 1067 
Higher fares essential [Weatherway] , 
. 1234 

Liberty loan activities. *604 
Operating difficulties, 231 
Six-cent fare pamphlet, '322 
Wage increase, 1107 

Albuquerque, N. M. : 

City Electric Co.: 

Fare increase, n 1116 
Allen & Peek. Inc. (see Syracuse, N. Y.) 
Allentown. Pa.: 

Lehigh Valley Transit Co.: 

Fare charge upheld, n 592 

Fare increase sought, 934 

Operating difficulties, 231 

Statement of earnings, 385 

Wage increase, n 929 
Alliance. O.: 

Stark Electric R. R. : 

Fare increase sought, n 729, n 1168 

Wage increase, n 1247 
Alton. 111.: 

Alton, Granite & St. Louis Tr. Co.: 

Fare increase sought, n 1116, n 1211; 

Hearing. 1252 
Strike. 381, 1245 

Alton & Jacksonville R. R. : 

Abandonment authorized, 248 
Property sold for junk, n. 292 
Suspension order rehearing sought, 
n 200 

Amalgamated Assn. of Street & Electric Rail- 
way Employees of America: 

Actions of associations speak louder than 

their words. Comment, 840 
American Cities Co. (see New York City) 
American Electric Railway Association : 

Annual convention announcement, 795, 820 

Annual report. 374 

Article on freight haulage reprinted from 

trie Railway Journal in pamphlet 
form, 1199 

Committee- on electric railway revenue, 

Subscription, Comment, 214 

Company Section Activities : 

Advocated [Stoves], 136 
Capital Traction Co.. 866, 1018 
Chicago Elevated, 43, 424, 625. 820, 

Connecticut Co., 43, 140; Need for 
higher fares, »187; Comment, 
166, 424. 776, 866 

Cumberland County Pr. & Lt. Co., 
43, 470. 667, 866 

Formation of company sections dur- 
ing war times. Comment, 599 

Manila, 279, 525, Prizes awarded, 
578. 820, 866, 1018, 1244 

Membership cup awarded to Rhode 
Island Co.. Comment. 1081 

Milwaukee, 470, 1018, 1244 

New section should be full. Comment, 

Public Service Ry,, 141; Economy 
meeting-, *470, 624, 865; [Bolen], 

Rhode Island Co.. To organize, n 578; 
Committee appointed. 625: Larg- 
est section organized in smallest 
state. 715; Issues challenge, *776; 
Comment, 946; Receives charter 
membership cup. *980; Presen- 
tation of cup, 1104 
Toledo. 141, 279, 1199 
Convention. Committee meeting. 926: Octo- 
ber meeting- assured, 469; Program for 
Atlantic City meeting, 1063 

War board : 

Activities described at New England 
Street Railway Club banquet, 653; 
Discussed at Illinois Electric Rail- 
way Association meeting-, 1231 
Appointments and labor appeal of 

President, 719 
Bulletin number 3 issued, *43; Coal 
for electric railways. 469; Gov- 
ernment control, 624; Unneces- 
sary improvements, 667: 16, 17, 
18 and 19 issued, 1018; 25 is- 
sued, 1199 
Co-operation with shipping board, *853 
Financial relief for electric railways 
urged before House of Repre- 
sentatives. 1163 
General suggestions, 140 
Increased revenue to offset higher 

wages, [MeCarter], 1227 
Interurban rate of 3 cents a mile 

urged, 1099 
Meeting, 140, 279, 526, 715; Special 
freight issue of Electric Railway 
Journal pleases, 980; Interurban 
rates and transportation dis- 
cussed, 1157 
Personnel changes 469 
Questionnaire issued, 139 
Support of all railways needed, 1199 
Traffic bureau organized, 139 
Washington meeting- with War Labor 
Board considers rates and wages, 
1323; Comment, 1219 
American Electric Railway Accountants Asso- 
ciation (see Accountants Association) 
American Electric Railway Engineering Asso- 
ciation : 

Appointment of joint committee with 

American Society for Testing Materials, 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers: 

Annual convention. Power generation and 

transmission progTess. *1229 

Mid-winter convention, *373 

American Pr. & Lt. Co. (see New York City) 

American Railway Engineering Association: 

Annual convention. 565; Report. 618 

American Railways (see Philadelphia. Pa.) 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers: 
Fuel conservation and clean coal. Spring- 
meeting. Comment. 1125 
Appalachian Power Co. (see Bluefield, W. Va.) 
Anderson. Ind.: 

Union Traction Co.: 

Axles for electric railway cars. Should 
they be larger [Hemming], 423 
Fare increase granted. 60: Sought, 935; 
Hearings concluded, 1073; Granted 
n 1116 
Financial statement, 932 
Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 

Highway signal for dangerous cross- 
ing, •1101 

Liberty loan activities, *603 

Wage increase, n 929 
Appraisal of Railway Property: 

Dallas Railway, Valuation, 337 

Dallas, Tex., Contract refused by city. 

n 199 

■ Minneapolis, Minn., 245 

Pittsburgh, Pa., Chooses commission, 582 

Rhode Island Co.. *570 

St. Louis, Mo.. 783 

Spokane, Wash., 201. 584, 985 

Arbitration (see Strikes and arbitration) 
Arkansas Association of Public Utility Opera- 
tors "• . 

Annual convention. 1096 

Arkansas Valley Ry., Lt. & Pr. Co. (see Pueblo. 
Colo. I 

Army and Navy openings (see Recruiting 

Asbury Park, N. J.: 
Atlantic Coast Electric Ry.: 

Appeal in transfer order case. 880 

Fare increase sought. Franchise rate 
limit removed by supreme court, 
Ashville. N. C: 
Ashville Pr. & Lt. Co.: 

Wage increase, n 1252 
Athol, Mass.: 

Northern Massachusetts Street Ry.: 

Zone system approved by commission. 

Atlanta. Ga.: 

Georgia Ry. & Pr. Co. : 

Better public relations. 149 

Fare increase sought, n 882; Opposed, 

n 993; Hearing. 1113, 1252 
Fuel supplied to employees. 468 
Relief sought by stockholders. 782 
Wage increase, n 722 

Atlantic City, N. .1.: 

Atlantic City & Shore R. R.: 

Fare increase sought, n 729: Granted 

Jitney competition bill killed, n 883 
Jitney riding cured by better public 
relations work, [Campbell], 233 
Strike, 1063; Settled, 1106 
Atlantic Coast Electric Ry. (see Asbury Park, 
N. J.) 

Atlantic Shore Ry. (see Sanford, Me.) 

Atlantic & Suburban Ry. (see Pleasantville. 

N. J.) 
Attleboro, Mass. : 
Attleboro Branch R.R.: 

Wage increase, n 1202 

Zone system being studied, n 1256 
Interstate Consolidated Street Ry.: 

Segregation of sober and intoxicated 
persons, n 883 

Wage increase, n 1202 

Zone system being studied, n 1256 
Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R. (see Wheaton. 

Aurora. III.: 

■ Chicago. Aurora & DeKalb R. R.; 

Receiver sought, n 200; Appointed, 
n 250 

Austin. Tex.: 

Augusta & Aiken Ry.: 

Auburn & Syracuse Electric R. R. (see Syra- 
cuse, N. Y.) 
Augusta. Ga.: 

Augusta-Aiken Ry. & Elec. Corpn.: 

Fare increase, n 591, 726 
Austin Street Ry.: 

Motor bus extension installed, 787 

— — Melbourne Suburban electrification. New 
type of cars, '718 

Design, manufacture and service. [Litch- 
field] '235. *283; Comment 261; 328 

Failure. Reasons for [Dee], 280; [Dalg- 

leish], 380 

Interurban car axles. Expediences with 

[Metcalf]. *94 
Larger axles for electric railway cars. Are 

they necessary [Hemming], 423 
Welding with electric arc. Third Avenue 

Ry. [Parsons], ••1136 


Ballston Spa. N. Y.: 

Eastern New York R. R. : 

Property sold under 

foreclosure, n 

(Abbreviations. *Illustrated. n Short news item.) 

January-June, 1918] 



Baltimore, Md.: 

United Rys. & Elee. Co.: 

Employees to receive food at eost, 

Employees prove what systematic. 

saving will do, 777 
Full car orders modified. 436 
Holiday greeting card, *61 
Motorman purchases $.3000 Liberty 

Bond, n 87.'i 
Ship stops applied to entire system, 


Staggered skip stops installed, 882 

Trainmen's poster, *662 

Women conductors employed, n 1169 

Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis Elec. 

R. R. : 

Cantonment service, *1097 
Fare increase sousrht, n 1108 

Bamberger Electric R. R. (see Salt Lake. Utah) 

Bangor, Pa. : 

Bangor & Portland Tr. Co.: 

Fare increase sought, n 546 

Bartlesville, Okla. : 

Bartlesville Interurban Ry.: 

Advertising on top of cars, *124 

Batavia, N. Y. : 

Batavia Traction Co.: 

One-man cars save property from 
failure, n 250 

Bay State Street Ry. (see Boston, Mass.) 

Bearings : 

Armature bearings. Good record of. Buffalo, 


Ball bearings on electric railways. 284 

Lubricants for anti-friction bearings. 769 

Waste Saturation tanks increase car mile- 
age (Milwaukee Tank Works), *1154 
Beaumont. Tex.: 

■ Beaumont Traction Co.: 

Service to shipyard workers, 1185 
Wage increase, n 984 
Beave; - Valley Traction Co. (see New Brighton, 

Beach Grove. Ind.: 

Beach Grove Tr. Co.: 

Operation will continue, n 294 
Berkshire Street Ry. (see Pittsfield, Mass.) 
Berlin Street Ry. (see Germany) 
Bethlehem, Pa.: 

Traffic investigation report, n 781 

Billings. Mont.: 

Billings Traction Co.: 

Property dismantled, n 724 

Binghamton. N. Y.: 

Binghamton Ry.: 

Fare case answer filed. 544 
Tariff suspension ordered, n 482: 
Changes suspended, n 939 

Birmingham, Ala.: 

Birmingham Ry., Lt. & Pr. Co.: 

Wage increase, n 1108 
Birmingham. N. Y.: 
-Birmingham Ry.: 

Wage increase, n 983 
Blackwell and the electriv railway industry, 

[Dawson], 867 
Bloomirigton, 111. : 

Bloomington & Normal Ry. & Lt. Co.: 

Wage increase, n 1159 
Bluefield, W. Va.: 
Appalachian Power Co.: 

Service improvements. 1016 
B'ue Hill Street Ry. (see Canton, Mass.) 
Bluff ton. Ind.: 

Bluffton, Geneva & Celina Tr. Co. : 

Dismantlement proceedings, n 539 
Junking of property advocated, 475 

Marion & Bluffton Tr. Co.: 

Fare increase sought, n 298 

Board of Supervising Engineers (see Chicago, 

Boilers and equipment: 

Carbon dioxide chart shows boiler room 

losses, *1020 
Coal, How to increase the energy output 

[Smith], "953 
Condensate. Automatic return from heating 

pipes to boiler [Foote], *765 

Control of excess air, Comment, 1123 

Efficient boilers from scrap pile. Little 

Rock, Ark., 189 
Feed water testing and cleaning [Smith], 


Gas firing produces economies. 976 

High-pressure boilers for Joliet plant, *146 

Remodeling of plant at Montreal, Can., 


Tests of boiler operation [Smith], *514 

Uniform boiler laws sought, 133 

Walnut Creek plant, Columbus Ry. Pr. 

& Lt. Co.. *407 
Windsor power plant of West Penn. Rys., 

Boise, Idaho: 

Boise Valley Tr. Co.: 

Financial statement, n 1027 
Bonner Springs, Kan.: 

Kansas City. Kaw Valley & Western Ry. : 

Fare increase sought, n 1253 

Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 

Strike, n 873 

Boone. Ia.: 

Fort Dodge. Des Moines & Southern R. R. : 

Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 

Boston & Maine R. R. (Electric Branch) (see 
Concord. N. H.; Portsmouth, N. H.) 

Boston. Mass.: 

Bay State Street Rv.: 

Abandonment of lines authorized, 539 
Appeal against jitney competition, 

n 1159 
Arbitration agreement, 246 
Fare increase conference approved. 

"Jim Jitney" poster, *325 
New schedule of fares filed. 679 
Public control provided for by legis- 
lature. 1093 
Rate changes suspended, n 1115 

Boston, Mass.: 

Bay State Street Ry.: (Continued) 

Reorganization plans, 1250 

Skidding test on east-steel wheels 

[Quinn], *1102 
Triangle talks prove profitable, 227 
Wage increase, n 1159 
Zone fare arrangement made for Lynn, 
785; Schedule postponed, n 882: 
Case closed, 937 

Boston Elevated Ry.: 

Address of 85,000 words at one hear- 
ing, 1050 

Car design. Changes in new equipment 

Car equipped for hospital service, 

Carhouse destroyed by fire, *780 
Commission recommendations to legis- 
lature, 272 
Fare increase prospects, 871 
Governor sends relief message to legis- 

ture, 472 
Labor situation is critical, 429 
Legislative action likely, 778 
Liberty loan activities, *606 
Maintenance practice discussed before 

commission, 600 
M. C. Brush turns over property to 

state, *1170 
New head should be picked from com- 
pany. Comment, 1222 
Public control law of Massachusetts 
Legislature, 1057; Comment, 
1040; Not municipal ownership. 
Comment. 1083; Approved by 
stockholders. 1106. 
Public Service Commission offers aid, 

Relief urged by governor, n 419; Pro- 
visions are worthy of enactment. 
Comment, 796; Bill redrafted. 928; 
Passed by Governor and Senate, 

Service-at-cost plans discussed by 

legislative committee, 575 
Six-cent fare bill introduced, n 158; 
Favored rather than zone system, 
229; 324 
Skip stop will be used, 1029 
Sleet causes tie-up. 150 
Subway stations overcrowded, n 426 
Trustees named for new plan of opera- 
tion. 1247 
Turbine accident. 564; Comment. 555 
Unions. What they should stand for, 

Wage increase sought, 1158; Re- 
ferred to new trustees, n 1203 

War conditions discussed, 252 
Boston & Worcester Street Ry. : 

Wage award accepted, n 630 

Garfield order, Effect on railways, 182 

Stone & Webster: 

Texas men meet, n 929 

Traffic investigation report, 313 

Bowling Green, Ky.: 

Southern Traction Co.: 

Abandonment prevented by Court. 104 

Brakes : 

-Air cut-off mechanism at Springfield, O., 


■ Air-piping. Precautions that prevent freez- 
ing. 242 

Effect of braking on energy consumption 

[Squier], '504 
Levers made in wheel press at Spokane, 

Wash.. 379 

Sander designed to prevent causes of stop- 
page (Holden & White Inc.), '49 

Slack adjusters as a war-time economy, 

•625; Produce economy at Brooklyn, 
N. Y.. '1019 

Squealing shoes to be eliminated in New 

York City n 984 

Stops which insure action on double truck 

cars. Columbus, O. [Foote], *282 

Brantford. Can.: 

Brantford Municipal Ry.: 

Wage increase, n 1108 

Brazil : 

Electrification plans, 197 

Brazil, N. D.: 

Northwestern Traction Co.: 

Property scrapped, n 1110 

Bristol, Tenn. : 

Holston Valley Ry. : 

Operation discontinued, n 1205 

British Columbia Electric Ry. (see Vancouver. 

Brockton & Plymouth Street Ry. (see Plymouth, 

Biookfield, Mass.: 

Worcester & Warren Street Ry.: 

Fare increase and its results, *457 
Brooklyn. N. Y.: 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.: 

Brake slack adjusters produce economy, 

Bridge toll decision favors company, 
n 722 

Calibration of switchboard watt-hour 

meters [Smith], 716 
Car order controversy. Hearing, 247: 

Settled. Two-car train operation. 


Car with raised motors for flooded 
streets 709 

Coal. How to increase the energy out- 
put [ Smith 1. '953 

Coal saving number of B. R. T. Month- 
ly, 322 

Coasting records, 242 

Compromise on commission schedule 
order. 638 

Convex versus concave bonding com- 
pressor screw terminals [McKel- 
wayl, 527 

Feed water testing and cleaning 
[Smithl, «751 
Freight car made from old passenger 
equipment, *924 

Brooklyn, N. Y: 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.: (Continued) 

Hand tools lor way department, 
Selection and care of [Cram I, 

Heating of cars ordered, 254 
Labor conditions. 424 
Labor saving methods in the way de- 
partment [Cram]. *517 
Line testing [McKclwayl. 742 
Mayor's statement not authentic, n 583 
New mortgage proposed, 870 
New series of publicity talks, n 482 
Newspapers praise appointment of Vice- 
president, n 102 
Oil rehabilitation for steam turbine 

plants [Smith], *1131 
Protest to commission order, 543 
Rail wear Earlv experimental study 

I Cram], *168; Comment. 167 
Schedule order extension granted, n 
789; Final is^ue. n 989; Ordered 
posted, n 1032 
Service order of commission. 481 
Special work Construction cost data 
[Bernard I '195; Developments 
[Bernard], *863: Shop facilities 
for maintenance [Cram I. *1137 
Spring duties of the maintenance of 

way department [Cram J. *740 
Testing organization of electric rail- 
ways [Smithl. *51J 
Third Liberty Loan [Williams], 603 
Time table cards posted in all cars, 
n 1116 

Track spiral standardization [Ber- 
nard]. 1017 
War Finance Corporation hearing. 

1025; Assistance given. 1204 
Women labor protested by union. 253; 
Meet the te^t. n 391: Labor 
Bureau and Federal investigation 
report, *1006 
Buffalo. Lockport & Rochester Ry. (see Roches- 
ter. N. Y.) 
Buffalo. N. Y.: 

Belt line electrification requested, 335; As- 
sured. 535 

Buffalo & Lake Erie Tr. Co.: 

Abandonment of some lines sought, 

Fare increase sought. 930; Commis- 
sion sees need but cannot grant 
relief. 1165 n 1253 

Navv will finance improvements, n 

Wage increase sought, n 983 

Frontier Electric Ry. : 

Purchase of property by steam line 
allowed 677; Appealed, n 933 

Garfield order. Effect on railways. 183 

International Ry.: 

All-steel interurban cars being placed 

in service, n 803 
Armature bearings. Good record of. 99 
City will not co-operate for improve- 
ments. 54 ; May buy and loan 
equipment to railways, 253; Au- 
thorities show hostile attitude, 

Conductors fined for stealing fares, 
n 1203 

Electrical interlock for folding car 

steps. *46 
Fare decrease sought, n 1255 
Fare increase sought. 992. 1105. 1115; 

Advocated by city. 1209. 1253 
Fire destroys earhouses. n 197. '244 
Legislation protested 537 
Liberty loan activities. •OOS 
New line opened, n 1247 
Offices moved to new location, n 824; 

Occupied, n 1108 
Smoke fund for soldiers helped, n 151 
Traffic recommendations accepted. 203: 

Investigation report. 341 
Strike agitators active, n 984 
Jitney measure passed n 789; Vetoed by 

Governor 1023 

Traction expert employed, 154 

Bumpers (see Couplers and bumpers) 

Cairo. 111.: 

Cairo Elec. & Tr. Co.: 

Wage increase, n.984 
Calais. Me.: 
Calais Street Ry.: 

Fare increase sought, n 1032 
California : 

Automobile regulation. 880 

Commission recommends electricity in 

place of steam. 437 

Inductive interference report of Commit- 
tee. 38 

Transbav rate case suggests consolidation 

of three systems, 878; Hearing, n 1164 

Canada : 

Bond issues under regulation, n 57 

Canton. Mass.: 

Blue Hill Street Ry.: 

Fare increase sought, n 1032 
Cape May. N. J.: 

Cape May. Delaware Bay & Sewell's Point 

R. R. : 

Property purchased and operated by 
Navy Department, n 724 
Cape Town. South Africa : 
Cape Elec. Ry.. Ltd.: 

Financial statement. 540 
Capital Traction Co. (see Washington. D. C.) 
Carbon Transit Co. (see Mauch Chunk, Pa.) 
Car Design: 

Classification of cars for given conditions 

[Litchfield], «370 
. Considerations in the choice of car equip- 
ment [Squier], *354 
Economy as well as st~°"igth must be con- 

sidered [Litchfield] . *754 

(Abbreviations. *Illustrated. n Short news item.) 


Car Design: (Continued) 

Front-entrance, center-exit car makes for 

higher schedule speed, *120 
Fundamentals of successful transportation 

[Eddy], 91 

Savings attainable [Litchfield], '496 

Special features of Montreal interurban 

cars (Ottawa Car Mfg. Co. Ltd.), *377 
Stanchions for longitudinal seat cars [Wing 

& Lipps], *363 
Standarization shown by 1917 statistics, 

Comment, 70 
Steel car body adapted to resist stresses 

[Litchfield], *965 
Underframe construction development and 

durability [Litchfield], *1142 
Carhouses and storage yards: 

— Eliminating unnecessary lighting and heat- 
ing [Mullaney], 668 

■ Inspection shop reconstruction at Columbus. 

O., *972 

Sand storage for ear service at Springfield, 

Mass., *774 

Trenton, N. J., Rebuilding after fire. '471 

Carolina Power & Light Co. (see Raleigh, N. C.) 
Carolina Traction Co. (see Rock Hill. S. C.) 
Car order details: 

Boston, Mass., 1175 

Brooklyn, N. Y.. 487 1121 

Buffalo, N. Y., 793 

Charleston, S. C, 1261 

Cleveland, 0„ 644 

Fort Wayne, Ind.. 837 

Gary, Ind., 1217 

Harrisburg, Pa„ 487 

Hot Springs, Ark., 735 

Murphysboro, 111., 644 

Newark, N. J., 1217 

Pen Argyl. Pa., 598 

Philadelphia, Pa., 443, 552 

Saginaw, Mich., 597 

Springfield, Mo., 735 

Syracuse, N. Y., 997 

Washington, D. C, 793, 794 


Air-operated doors and steps installed at 

New Brighton, N. Y., *1060 
Better maintenance an urgent necessity 

[Lambert], «524 
Boston Elevated Ry. orders cars of new 

design, 1136 
Cleveland, O., Small wheels and motors on 

new cars, n 654 
Converting to prepayment type, New York 

Rys., »529 

Dayton, O., Center entrance and exit pay- 

as-you-pass trailers, *669 
Equipment, Betterments available in 

[Squier]. *500 
Equipment failures should be analyzed, 

Comment, 490 
Four-motor multiple-unit cars at Dayton, 

O., *814 

— Freight ear made from passenger equip- 
ment, Brooklyn, N. Y., *924 

Gasoline rail car de Luxe (Commercial 

Cars Construction Co.), »99 

Hospital car built at Boston, *766- At 

Chicago, *1153 

Interurban car of Montreal & Southern 

Counties Ry., [Wilson], *331 

Melbourne, Australia uses new type on 

suburban electrification. *718 

Motor equipment determined by service con- 
ditions [Squier], »748 

Pas-as you-pass. How it was developed 

[Witt], *30 

Raised motors for flooded streets, Brooklyn 

N. Y.. 709 

Rebuilding old heavy cars versus buying 

new light-weight cars. Comment, 600 

Remodeling 150 cars at Rochester, *773 

— Zone system. Advantages [E. B. M.], 775 

Cartoon on teamster nuisance ("Electrogram"), 

Cedarburg, Wis.: 

Milwaukee Northern Ry.: 

Fare increase sought, n 1115 
Central Electric Railway Association: 

Accountants' Association, Work of [Van 

Driesen], 419 

Annual Brown Book issued, 1016 

Annual meeting program, 384; Meeting 

418; Proceedings, 453; Papers [Wil- 
coxon], 454 

Tariff No. 17 issued, n 1074 

Central Electric Traffic Association: 

Annual meeting- and report, 176 

Central Illinois Public Service Co. (see Mat- 
toon, 111.) 

Central New York Southern R. R. Corp (see 

Ithaca. N. Y.) 
Chambersburg, Greencastle & Waynesboro Street 

Ry. (see Waynesboro, Pa.) 
Charleston, S. C: 

Charleston Consolidated Ry. & Ltg. Co. : 

Fare increase sought, 638; Denied 
n 1032 

How railways can help win the war 

[Gadsden], 714 
Skip stop preparation, 993 
Charlotte, N. C: 

Piedmont & Northern Ry.: 

Army camp increases revenues 55 per 

cent, n 784 
Financial statement, 676 
Freight^Jiandling possibilities [Cole], 

Southern Public Utilities Co.: 

Camp extensions help win the war 

Publicity always the best policy 
[Carraway], 280 

Red Cross activities. 473 
™. , . ^ a?e increase, n 1024; n 1066 
Charlottesville, Va.: 
Charlottesville & Albemarle Ry • 

Fare increase, n 831, 1030 
Chattanooga, Tenn.: 
Chattanooga Ry. & Lt. Co : 

Strike. Declared off, n, 335 


Chester, Pa.: 

Southern Pennsylvania Tr. Co.: 

Double track laid by Shipping Board 
Emergency Fleet Corporation, 

Fare increase, n 1032 
Chicago, Aurora & DeKalb R. R. (see Aurora, 

Chicago. Harvard & Geneva Lake Ry. (see Wal- 
worth, Wis.) 

Chicago & Joliet Elee. Ry. (see Joliet, 111.) 

Chicago, 111.: 

Board of Supervising Engineers : 

Ninth annual report ready, n 1066 
Spiral standardization. Simplicity is de- 
sirable [Weston], *1156 

Chicago Elevated Rys.: 

Annual report, 337 
Coasting records, 97 
Damage suit against construction 

denied, n 1248 
Fare increase sought, 59; Comment, 

Liberty loan activities, *606 

Skip stop tried out, n 1032 

Wage increase sought, 1022, n 1066; 

Men appeal to Washington, n 1158 
Chicago Stage Co. granted operation privi- 
lege, 198 

Chicago Surface Lines : 

Billy Sunday revival causes traffic 

problem, n 592 
Hospital car built for Cook County, 


Liberty loan activities, *602 

Snow plows made from sprinklers and 

work cars, '285 
Track construction method in great 

street widening plan, *609 
Traction fund payment, 781 
Wage increase sought, 1022, n 1066; 

Men appeal to Washington, n 1168 
Work cars Converted into snow plows, 


Chicago & Interurban Tr. Co.: 

Financial statement, n 1027 

Chicago & West Towns Ry. : 

Accident, Railroad crossing, n 789 
Fare increase, 295 
Financial statement, n 877 
Title taken to Suburban R. R„ 875 

Freight handling plans of surface and ele- 
vated lines discussed, n 108; Endorsed, 
325; Discussed, n 384; Ordinance 
not yet drafted, 1065 

Garfield order, Effect on railways, 183 

H. M..Byllesby & Co.: 

Military service folder, n 873 

Northern States Pr. Co.: 

Financial statement, 1068 

Parcel freight plan for elevated and sur- 
face lines, 85 

Standard Gas & Elee. Co.: 

Dividend policy outlined, 723 
Financial statement, 1204 

Storm emphasizes need of subways, 196 

Street railway service pays. 279 

-Traction and subway development : 

Authorities should read Boston traffic 

report. Comment. 490 
Controversy, 927 
Discussion makes headway, 722 
Franchise controversy, New proposal, 
872; Settlement terms, 982; Es- 
sentials fixed, 1105 
New plans for operation placed before 

bankers, 1159 
Ordinance hearing, n 384; Acceptable, 

Partnerships feature of new ordinance 

proposal. Comment, 1222 
Plans advanced, 582; Moving well, 629 

Traction report issued, n 155 

Wage payments by credit system on Motor 

Bus line, »89 

Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend Ry. (see 
Michigan City, Ind. ) 

Chicago. Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry.: 

Flash suppressor application [Storer & 

Hague], 858; Comment. 891 

Locomotive, New design for passenger ser- 
vice, *237 

New 266-ton locomotive [Shepard], *559; 

Comment. 554 

New 3000-volt gearless locomotive [Arm- 
strong], *561; Comment, 554 

Substation equipment for new electrifica- 
tion, 1198 

Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee R. R. (see 

High wood, 111.) 
Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Ry. (see Ottawa, 111.) 
Chicago, South Bend & Northern Indiana Ry. 

(see South Bend, Ind.) 
Chickasha, Okla.: 
Chickasha Street Ry. Co.: 

Fare increase, n 681 

Valuation adjustment made, n 105 

Wage increase, n 722 
Chico, Cal.: 

Northern Electric Ry.: 

Bondholders purchase property at pub- 
lic auction, n 1111 

Financial statement. 930 

Foreclosure sale ordered, n 676; Sale, 
n 827 

Reorganization planned, 1161 
Chillieothe, O.: 

Chillieothe Elee. R. R.. Lt. & Pr. Co.: 

Purchase by Chillieothe & Camp Sher- 
man Elee. Ry. authorized, n 1251 

China : 

Hongkong railway profits almost equal cap- 
italization, 782 

-Peking merchants petition for railway sys- 
tem, n 983 

Shanghai railways show great progress, 876 

Tokio subway plans, n 56 

Cincinnati. Dayton & Toledo Tr. Co. (see Ham- 
ilton, O.) 

[Vol. 51 

Cincinnati. O.: 

Cincinnati & Dayton Tr. Co. : 

Operation to be carried on by Warren 
Bicknell Co.. n 1250 

Successor to the Cincinnati, Dayton & 
Toledo Tr. Co., n 87^ 
Cincinnati, Georgetown & Portsmouth R. R. : 

Freight rate increase granted, 295 
Cincinnati, Milford & Loveland Tr. Co.: 

Fare increase, n 992 
— Cincinnati Traction Co. 

Double stops eliminated, n 155 

Electric shovels prove their value, '534 

Franchise revision hearing, n 824; 
Plans, n 929 

Skip-stop plans revised, n 789 
Coal saving from economy measures reach 

large total, 460 
Columbus, Delaware & Marion Ry. : 

Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 

High water interrupts all street railway 

traffic. 295 

Interurban Ry. & Ter. Co.: 

Abandonment of division proposed, n 
58: Authorized, n 634; Carried 
out, n 1070 
Fare increase movement, 252; Sought, 
n 391 

Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 

Rapid transit progress, 536; Negotiations, 


Street railway department established, n 103 

Circuit breakers (see Switchboard equipment.) 

City Ry. Co. (see Mt. Vernon, 111.) 

Claremont, N. H.: 

Claremont Ry. & Ltg. Co. : 

Fare increase granted, 788 

Freight rate increase allowed, n 591 

Cleveland, O : 

Cleveland & Chagrin Falls Ry. Co.: 

Fare increase, n 992 
Cleveland & Eastern Tr. Co.: 

Fare increase order appealed, n 206 : 
Case won, n 681 

Cleveland Ry.: 

Allowance increases approved by city. 

Annual meeting, 336 
Arbitration of wage demand, 871 
Cars with small wheels and motors, 
n 654 

City representatives inspect railway. 

n 583 

City wishes to avoid further fare 

increase, 1165 
Discharge of employee sustained, n 474 
Fare increase movement, 252; Rate 
not sufficient, n 543; Increase 
sought, 635; Dispute, 680; High- 
est rate in effect, 785: Increase 
sustained by court, n 883 
Financial statement, n 1070 
Investigation by Chamber of Com- 
merce committee, 1031 
Liberty loan activities, *606 
New franchise arrangements, n 103 
Pa von g case decided, n 291 
Serviee-at-cost plan explained, 627 
Substation design and operation for 

maximum efficiency, *700 
Towline helps to keep track clear, 534 
Wage increase sought. 779; Discussion. 
821; Decision liberal, 927; Situa- 
tion under advisement of War La- 
bor Board, 1064 
Zone systems being studied, n 1256 

Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Ry.: 

Fare increase sought, n 1253 
Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 

Increase in class and comodity rates 
sought, n 1253 

Elevated railway plans suggested, 382 

Garfield order. Effect on railways, 183 

Lake Shore Elee. Ry.: 

Fire destroys cars, n 781 
Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 

Near-side stops desired, n 109 

Rapid transit survey begun, n 929 

Subway. Preliminary survey, 55; Com- 
mission meeting, 198; Cases heard. 
471 ; Ordinance declared legal, n 
722; Survey fund sought, 780 

Coal : 

(see also Market conditions. Coal) 

Conservation : 

Boiler room employees need instruc- 
tion. 51 

Cincinnati, O., Electric railways. 460 

Clean coal, A. S. M. E. Spring meet 
ing. Comment, 1125 

Coal saving number of B. R. T. 
Monthly. 332 

Commissioners indorse saving. 97 

Conference between public utility rep- 
resentatives and Fuel Administra- 
tion, 1186 

Connecticut commission recommenda- 
tions, 135 

Connecticut Co. campaign, 468 

Denver. Colo.. *277 

Fuel administration issues skip stop 
bulletin, 340; Announces zone 
system of distribution, 623: Con- 
ference, 776 

Fuel administrator for Rhode Island 
appointed, n 1024 

Fuel order. Effect on electric railways, 

Fuel problem discussed at N. E. L. A. 

convention, *1180 
Garfield order, Cooperation of electric 

railways, 182; Ordered continued, 


Getting more energy out of coal 
[ Smith 1, *953 

(Abbreviations. "Illustrated, n Short news item.) 

January -June, 1918] 




Conservation : (Continued I 

Government control ol railroads dors 
not remove duty to save. Com- 
ment, 1 

How use will be economized, 87 

Manila reduces consumption by bonus 
plan [Blaisdell], '308 

Motormen can voluntarily aid, Com- 
ment, 313 

New York committee recommenda- 
tions, 135 

New York Second District campaign 
begins, 43 

Organization Chart of Fuel Admin- 
istration, 134 

Portland, Me., 183 

Posters from the Fuel Administra- 
tion, "577 
Power checking devices on cars should 

be installed, Comment, 1039 
Rochester, N. Y. [Hamilton), 270; 

Comment, 361 
Service economies in several sections 

of the Country, 44 
Skip stop; Massachusetts railways 

adopt, 988; Estimated savings, 

1103; Should be adopted by every 

city, Comment, 1133 
Sources of fuel waste, 98 
True thrift, Comment, 553 
Washington, D. C. recommendations, 

267; Comment, 361 
Why waste 85 per cent of heat in fuel. 

Comment, 491 
Effect of inferior quality upon operation 

[Wood], *573 

Energy, How to obtain more, '463 

Handling of coal at Windsor power plant 

of West Penn Ry., *364 

Investigation to increase output, 667 

Organization formed to insure clean coal, 


Preventing spontaneous combustion in stor- 
age, 663 

Priority order revoked, 473 

Production of bituminous coal better, n 621 

Rate of production, 341 

Relation to power production in war times 

[Slade], 567 

Requirements per kilowatt-hour, 535 

Should be purchased and stored this sum- 
mer. Comment, 1041 

Storage and distribution, 780 

Storage difficulties and precautions, 1061 

War Board bulletin, 469 

Shortage at Kansas City, 93; Ohio, 92 

The zone system of distribution instituted, 

667; Embarasses railway, 810; System 
explained, '968 

Columbus, Delaware & Marion Ry. (see Cincin- 
nati, O.) 

Columbus, Ga.: 

Columbus R. R. 

Wage increase, n 939 

Columbus, Marion & Bucyrus Ry. (see Marion, 

Cclumbue, O. : 

Columbus Ry., Lt. & Pr. Co.: 

Accident prevention record, *709 
Annual report, 337 

Fare collection pamphlet issued, 544 
Fare increase movement, 352; Refused 
by city, 480; President MeMeen 
explains, 589: Increase sought, 
934, 1167; Hearing, 1207 
Liberty loan activities, '606 
Loading and unloading stations to han- 
dle large fair crowds, •846 
Operating conditions explained, 737 
Publicity campaign for fare increase, 

536; *1013 
Service-at-cost plan discussed, 738; 

Ordinance introduced, 1345 
Shop reconstruction, *972 
Walnut Creek power station and equip- 
ment, *407 

Commonwealth Pr., Ry. & Lt. Co. (see Grand 

Rapids, Mich.) 
Company sections (see American Electric Rail- 
way Association.) 
Concord. N. H.: 

Boston & Maine R. R. (Electric Branch) : 

Financial statement, 875 
Connecticut Co. (see New Haven, Conn.) 
Connecticut Valley Street Ry. (see Greenfield, 

Consolidated Street Ry. (see Strong City, Kan.) 
Contact System (see Overhead contact system; 

Third rail contact system.) 
Controllers and wiring: 

Field control. How savings are possible 

[Squier], «502 

Governor maintenance decreased [Brown], 


Lightning arrester selection to suit re- 
quirements [Brackett], *1145 

Lightning protection equipment for cars 

[Wagner], «758 

■ Reclaiming warped resistance grids, Den- 
ver [McAloneyl, *47 

Renewing worn controller parts, Wilkes 

Barre & Hazelton Ry [Brown], *144 

Six-Motor multiple-unit trains for Mont- 
real [MacLeod], *.403; Comment 399 

Conventions, May be patriotic duty to resume. 
Comment 352; Afford educational op- 
portunities for students, Com- 
ment, 739 

Conway, Mass. : 

Conway Elec. Street Ry. Co.: 

Financial statement, 875 
Cooperstown, N. Y. : 

Southern New York Pr. & Ry. Corp.: 

Increase in class and commodity rates 

sought, n 1253 
New time schedule for Sunday and 
holiday excursions, n 831 
Council of National Defense: 
Report, 93 

Couplers and bumpers: 

Automatic couplers accelerate train make- 
up [SquierJ, '505 
Covington, Ky.: 

South Covington & Cincinnati Street Ry. : 

Fare increase suggested, n 681 
Franchise ruled perpetual by court, 823 

Crossing signals (see Signals.) 

Croydon Corporation Tramways (see Great Brit- 
ain, London) 

Cumberland County Pr. & Lt. Co. (see Port- 
land, Me.) 

Cumberland, Md.: 

Cumberland & Westernport Elec. Ry.: 

Fare increase sought, n 1116 


Dallas, Tex. : 

-Dallas, Ry.: 

Advertising campaign, n 789 
Aviation camp service, 1185 
Financial statement, 586 
Improvement sanctioned by city com- 
mission, 831 
Metal ticket use begun, n 298: Supply 

exhausted, n 939 
Officials study operating conditions on 

other properties, 1166 
Owl car service considered, n 592 
Power contract change, n 151 
Receipts for first month of opera- 
tion, 57 

Reorganization cost allowances, n 725 

Returns decrease, n 153 

Skip stop instituted, n 546; Experi- 
ment, n 882 ; Inaugurated, n 992 

Statement of earnings, 475 

Valuation report, 337 

Wage increase, n 428, n 983 

Jitneys lose in election, 1031; n 1074 

Speed limits increased by ordinance, n 


Texas Electric Ry. : 

Annual meeting of stockholders, n 433 
Strike at Waco, n 583; Ended, n 722; 

Strike, n 929 
Wage increase, n 383, n 675; Bonus, 
n 983; n 1253 

Traffic investigation arranged for. 981 

Valuation contract of street railways re- 
fused by city, n 199 
Danbury, Conn.: 

Danbury & Bethel Street Ry. : 

Claim period set, n 58 
Davenport, la. : 
Tri-City Ry. : 

Fare increase sought, n 1255 

Power house flooded, n 1248 

Wage increase, n 1203 
Daylight saving. Comment, 70; Peak flattening 

crusade, Comment, 599 
Dayton, Covington & Piqua Tr. Co. (see West 

Milton, O.] 
Dayton. O.: 
City Ry.: 

Strike, n 1303 
Dayton, Springfield & Xenia Southern Ry. : 

Abandonment appeal dismissed, n 387 

Fare increase sought, n 391 

Unprofitable line tied up, n 152 
Dayton Street Ry. : 

Strike, n 1203 

Merger of all railways proposed, n 1164 

Oakwood Street Ry. : 

Cars of four-motor multiple-unit con- 
struction, *814 

Grinding wheels, Quick method [Mer- 
rick], *240 
Peoples Ry. : 

Center entrance and exit pay-as-you- 
pass trailers, *669 

Strike, n 1203 

Skip stop plan adopted, n 206; Retained, 

n 831 
Strike, n 1246 

Traffic problem given attention, n 1032 

Decatur, Ind. : 

Fort Wayne & Decatur Tr. Co.: 

Freight rate increase granted, 295 

Denton, Tex. : 

Denton Traction Co.: 

Property sold for junk, n 877 

Denver, Colo. : 

Denver & Interurban, R. R. : 

Fare increase denied, n 1033 

Receiver appointed, n 1350 
Denver & South Platte Ry.: 

Fare increase sought, n 831 
Denver Tramway: 

Bonding equiment increased in useful- 
ness, *579 

Crane car built in shops [McAloney], 

Fare increase sought, 937 
Fuel saving records, *377 
Insulation cutter for overhead lines 

[Morse], *1101 
Inter-departmental co-operation, 379 
Reclaiming warped resistance girds 

[McAloney], *47 
Reducing lighting maintenance costs 

[Wefel], 978 
Special work designed for longer life 

[Whitlock], *537 
Track, Built-up sections for diverting 

traffic [Whitlock], «770 
Depreciation (see Appraisal of railway property) 
Des Moines, Iowa: 

Des Moines City Ry. : 

Cross-town service abandoned, n 298 
Fare Increase request dropped, 202 ; 

Increase sought, n 1032, n 1168 
Railway dragged into politics, n 583 
Skip stop being tried out, n 298, n 591 
Statement of earnings, 475 
Strike, n 630 

Wage advance and increase in fares 

suggested, n 824 
Wage increase, n 430, n 1159 

Des Moines, Iowa: (Continued) 

Inter Urban Ry.: 

Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 
Detroit, Mich.: 

Detroit United Ry.: 

Age limit for employees raised, 1158 
Arbitration of wage request, n 823 
Financial condition not "shrouded in 

mystery," "133 
Financial statement, 1035 
Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 

Loading surface cars at 400 passen- 
gers per minute [Cann], *88 
Qur-ve loading and orderliness, 726 
Reduced schedule speed, Comment, 117 
Skip stop resumed by permission of 

Fuel Board, 55 
Speed diagram, *107 
Statement of earnings, n 387 
Strike settlement basis, 928 
Traffic investigation recommendations, 

Wage situation under advisement of 
War Labor Board, 1064 

War attitude made plain, 1107 

Rapid Transit plans, 289; Report, '420 

District of Columbia (see Washington, D. C.) 
Dixon, Cal.: 

Sacramento Valley Elec. Ry.: 

Property abandoned, n 105 
Dixon, 111.: 

Sterling. Dixon & Eastern Ry.: 

Fare increase sought, n 938 
Doors and steps: 

Air operation installed at New Brighton, 

N. Y., *1060 
Electrical interlock for folding steps, Buf- 
falo, »46 

Gutters on cars protect passengers [Potter], 


Pneumatic control [Squier], *506; Phila- 
delphia, Washington and Kansas City, 

Dover, N. H.: 

Dover. Somersworth & Rochester St. Ry. : 

Fare increase, n 158 
Dubuque, la.: 

Dubuque Electric Co.: 

Arbitration of wage request, n 824 

One-man car petition tabled, n 343 
Union Electric Co.: 

Wage increase, n 984 
Duluth, Minn,: 
Duluth-Superior Tr. Co.: 

Wage increase, 733 
Dunkirk, N. Y.: 
Dunkirk Street Ry. : 

Service reduction and higher fares 
sought, n 58 
Durham, N. C: 
Durham Traction Co.: 

Fare increase sought, n 546 

Publicitv campaign for increased fare. 

Eastern New Ydrk Railroad (see Ballston 
Spa, N. Y.) 

Eastern Pennsylvania Rys. (see Pottsville, Pa.) 
Eastern Wisconsin Electric Co. (see Sheboygan, 

East Liverpool, O.: 

Steubenville, East Liverpool & Beaver Val- 
ley Tr. Co.: 

Paint gun. Economies in the shop 

[Pettinger], *464 
Wage increase, n 1066 
Easton, Pa.: 

North Hampton, Easton & Washington Tr. 


Fare increase sought, n 483; Granted, 

East St. Louis, 111.: 

East St. Louis & Belleville Elec. Ry.: 

Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 

East St. Louis & Suburban' Ry.; 

Constructive co-operation from Mer- 
chants' Association, 363 
Fare increase sought, n 1211; Hearing, 

Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 

Strike, 1159 
Wage controversy, 1245 

East St. Louis Ry. : 

Fare increase sought, n 1211: Hearing, 

Wage controversy, 1245 . 
Edmonton, Can.: 

Edmonton Municipal Street Ry.: 

Fare increase discussed, 1030 
Edmonton Radial Ry. : 

Fare increase, 107 3 

One-man cars. Novel entrance door, 


Electrical Properties of Vulcanized Fibre [Eves], 

Electric Bond & Share Co. (see New York 

Electric Railway Journal: 

A. E. R. A. company section trophy cup 

awarded, Comment. 916; Presented to 
Rhode Island Co., «980 

Announcement of Freight Handling Num- 
ber. 839 

Changes in makeup. Comment, 1 

Mechanical and engineering number an- 
nouncement. .327 

— Monthly mechanical issue broadens Journal 

service. Comment, 351 

Periodical Publishers' Association criticises 

zone law. 862 

— - — Special monthly issues. Comment, 946 

(Abbreviations. *Illustrated. n Short news item.) 



[Vol. 51 

Electric Railway Journal: (Continued) 

Supplement "Our Marines," Comment, 1177 

War Board pleased with special freight is- 
sue. 980 
Electric Railways : 

Aversion of many railways to use of equip- 
ment holding patent rights, Comment, 

Construction where unnecessary should 

cease. Comment. 447 

Co-operation more essential than ever. Com- 
ment, 2 

Co-operation with technical schools 

[Ewing], 423 

Crisis exists. Reasons for, 461 

• Filing- systems for keeping- track of infor- 
mation. Comment. 400 

Making both ends meet a real job. Com- 
ment, 2 

Officials should use cars more and auto- 
mobiles less. Comment, 447 
Partnership plan of operation worth fur- 
ther extension. Comment, 305 

Planning for the future very important. 

Comment, 401 
Radical readjustment of situation neces- 
sary [Wilcoxon], 454 

Review and prophecy. Comment, 1 

■ Statistics 34, 30. 30, 41 

Wartime conditions: 

Air-raid warning sign at Croydon, Eng- 
land, *846 
Ambulance presented to army by In- 
terborough Rapid Transit em- 
ployees, *535 
Associations should resume their con- 
ventions. Comment, 445 
Automatic operation of equipment. 

Comment, 947 
Beaumont, Tex. has 3,500 shipbuild- 
ers, 1185 

Bill for government operation of ship- 
yard lines introduced, n 384 

California commission disapproves con- 
struction during the war. 627 

Cantonment service of Washington, 
Baltimore & Annapolis Elec. R. R.. 

Car equipped for hospital service at 
Boston. *766 

City may buy and loan equipment to 
railway at Buffalo. N. Y.. 253 

Charlotte, N. C, Company extends ser- 
vice to camp, *1049 

Commandeering of railways asked. 61 

Commission of California discusses 
problems. 761 

Conservation study proposed. 823 

Co-ordinated control for any properties 
needed by government, Comment, 

Dallas, Tex., Service to aviation camps, 

Drafted men will be moved over in- 
terurban lines where facilities 
permit, 1195 

Effect of war on cost and quality of 
public utility service. 75: On rail- 
way industry. Comment, 447 

Efficiency and output must be in- 
creased. Comment, 262 

Electrical engineers organize regiment, 

Electrification should be stimulated by 
War, Comment, 3 

Fair rate of return especially necessary 
now, Comment, 213 

Federal authorities co-operate to in- 
crease service for munition work- 
ers, 390 

Federal government can raise utility 
rates [Gadsden], 1091; Comment, 

Freight handling activities and possi- 
bilities of electric railways in the 
United States [Cole], *893 

Gardens for employees should be urged 
by railways. Comment. 891 

Government not planning to take over 
electric lines. 102; Co-operation 
needs outlined, 326; Control of 
railroads will not affect electric 
lines, 630; Should get together 
with industries, 762; Operation of 
railways and freight handling, 
862 ; Has power to take over lines, 
n 929; Takes over electric lines of 
Southern Pacific R. R., 1021- 

Greater coherence needed in railway 
industry. Comment, 117 

How railways can help win the war 
[Gadsden], 714 

Kansas City Ry. service flag, 97 

Labor, Questions to be investigated 
by Federal Commission, Comment, 
399; Program of Council of Na- 
tional Defense, 426 

Liberty loan activities. The Third Lib- 
erty Loan. Comment, 599; 
[Shonts], 602; [Williams], 603; 
Chicago, 111., *602: Rochester, N. 
Y„ *602; Minneapolis. Minn., 
•603; Anderson, Ind„ *603; Wash- 
ington, D. C, '604; Richmond, 
Va„ *604; New Haven, Conn.. 
•604; Albany, N. Y.. *604; Provi- 
dence, R. I., '605; Newark, N. J., 
•605: Washington, D. C. *605; 
Buffalo, N. Y., »605; Peoria, 111., 
•606; Cleveland, O., *606; Kan- 
sas City. Mo.. *606; Columbus. O., 
•606; Chicago, 111., *606; Boston, 
Mass.. *606; Toledo, O.. '607; 
Portland, Me.. *607; Youngstown, 
O., *607; Third Liberty Loan 
boosting, '819; Pittsfield, Mass., 
•857; Connecticut Co. tank, »1059 

Loading at congested industrial points. 
Comment, 307 

Electric Railways: 

Wartime Conditions : (Continued) 

Machine tools needed for gun manu- 
facture. 137; Comment. 117 
Meeting war burden at Croydon, Eng. 

[Goodyear], 200; Comment, 214 
Mobile, Ala., handles ship builders, 

Navy Yard traffic problems at Phila- 
delphia. 389 

Necessity of unhindered public utility 
operation. Comment, 399 

New Orleans saves coal by rerouting, 

Newport News line accelerates avia- 
tion and shipbuilding, *1048 

Norfolk, Va., handles an extra hundred 
thousand, *1187 

Operation and manufacturing. Com- 
ment, 946 

Power to take over operation of prop- 
erties delegated to U. S. Shipping 
Board, 1247 

Present situation will prove blessing 
[Doherty], 222 

Price level statistics [Hagenah], *970 

Public improvements should be de- 
ferred wherever possible, Com- 
ment, 400 

Public utility situation outlined by 
national committee. 619 

Railroad electrification as a war meas- 
ure [Wynne], 81 

Red Cross, Activities at Charlotte, N. 
C 473; Car at New York City, n 

Safeguarding property from enemies 
within, n 781 

Ship building transit bill passed by 
Senate, 672 

Shipping board and war board co-op- 
erate, '853 

Shipyard transportation survey, 779 

Skip-stop adoption may be ordered na- 
tionwide, 428 

Staten Island cars operated by ship- 
yard workers, 1186 

Substation employees, Suggestions for 
employment. Comment, 1124 

St. Louis, Comment. 214 

Thrift stamp campaign. Backed, Com- 
ment, 796; Car in New York 
City, *991 

Transportation of war workers an im- 
mense problem. Comment, 306; 
Bill passed by House, n 675; 
Housing should be put under 
same head. Comment, 832 

Unnecessary work should be avoided, 

Utility efficiency is vital to nation, 427 
War Board (see American Electric 

Railway Association.) 
Wilmington, N. C. company increases 

sarvice for shipbuilding plant, 


War direction of security issues sought 
by investment bankers, 200 

War Finance Corporation (see Fi- 
nancial. ) 

Working and fighting go hand in hand, 
Comment, 839 

Zone system of distribution of bitu- 
minous coal, *968 

Elkhart, Ind.: 

St. Joseph Valley Ry. : 

Sale of property ordered, n 433; Of- 
fered for sale, n 586: Sold under 
foreclosure, n 725; Partly re- 
claimed, n 1110, n 1251 

Elmira, N. Y.: 

■ Elmira Water. Lt. & R. R. Co.: 

Fare increase petition withdrawn, n 
992: Increase sought, n 1074 
Emergency Fleet Corporation (see U. S. Ship- 
ping Board) 

Empire State Railroad Corp. (see Syracuse, 

N. Y.) 
Employees : 

(See also Strikes and abitrations; Wages.) 

Advisory council on labor formed at Wash- 
ington, 289 

Applying engineering and selling princi- 
ples to electric railway transporta- 
tion [Lang], '8 
Baltimore, Md.. conductor says what sys- 
tematic saving will do, 777; Train- 
men's poster, *662 
Bay State Street Ry. bulletin proves profit- 
able. 227 

Bulletin of wages, Department of Labor, 


■ -Causes of labor unrest, 333 

Checking devices for motorman. Economy 

of [Gould], 1103 

Coasting instructions at New Haven, *412 

Conductors knit socks at Minneapolis, 

1061 ; Fined for stealing fares at 

Buffalo, N. Y., n 1203 
Co-operation from old and new men 

[Winsor], 1189 

— Fare increase co-operation. Comment, 945 

*2 — Fundamentals of successful transportation 

[Eddy], 961 
Good judgment more important than strict 

obedience to rules, 526 
■ Government employment agency opened, 

n 1024 

Inspectors, Instruction of, Syracuse, N. Y., 


Jamestown, N. Y., Conductors sentenced for 

theft, n 158 
Keeping in touch with the boys at the 

front, 715 

"Knocking" the management. Comment, 


Employees: (Continued) 
Labor : 

Administrator appointed, n 984 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.. 424 

Decisions, Trend of, 466 

Must co-operate with capital. Cpm- 
ment 351 

Problems discussed at N. E. L. A. 
convention, 1181 

Seattle, Wash., 155 

Legislation to protect women. 291 

Magazine published at Vancouver. Can, 


Mahoning & Shenango Ry. & Lt. Co. Men 

explain car situation to public. 428 

Master mechanics. Two distinct kinds. Com- 
ment 351 

Merit and demerit system at Portland. Ore., 


Minneapolis conductor sings his instruc- 
tions, 298 

Motormen : 

Can voluntarily save coal, Comment, 

Licensing bill rejected at St. Paul, n 


Operation should be checked for con- 
servation of power. Comment, 

Purchases $5000 Liberty Bond, n 873 
Sentenced to penitentiary for reckless 
driving, n 583 
Organized labor should not profiteer. Com- 
ment, 71 

Portland, Ore. club appoints new officers, 

n 151 

Power cheeking devices (see Energy con- 
sumption ) 

Technical men in the power plant [Smith], 


Trainmen's pledges subject of War Board 

bulletin No. 3. »47 

Union : 

Button agreement at Kansas City, 820 
Leaders should enforce their contracts, 

Comment. 840 
Membership, What it should stand for. 

United Rys. & Elec. Co. distributes food at 

cost, 251 

Value of courtesy [Hamilton], 1191 

Wages of shopmen not conducive to long 

service, Comment, 947 

War Labor Board discussion important, 

Comment, 1124 
Washington Ry. & Elec. Co. employs stu- 
dents, 1113 

War garden assistance should again be ex- 
tended by railways. Comment, 891 

Welfare work should be sympathetic, not 

paternalistic. Comment, 353 ; Reviewed, 
Comment, 1177 

Energy consumption; 

(see also Coal, Conservation; Employees; 

Sale of power; Purchased power) 
Checking devices for motormen, Economy 

of [Gould], 1103 
■ — — Power checking devices should be installed 

on ears, Comment, 1039 
Power saving campaign produces results at 

New Haven, 1152 
Power saving recorder; Improvements 

[Arthur], *770 
Evansville, Ind.: 
—Public Utilities Co.: 

Cars heated by coke, 376 

Fare increase granted, n 831 
Everett, Wash.: 

Puget Sound International Ry. & Pr. Co.: 

Wage increase, n 873 
Exeter. Cal. : 

Visalia Electric R. R. : 

Proposed sale of property, 539 
Exeter. N. H. : 

Exeter, Hampton & Amesbury St. Ry. : 

Property will not be abandoned, n 678 


Fairmont, W. Va.: 

Monongahela Valley, Tr. Co.: 

Fare increase, n 789 

"Service" is slogan, 156 

Water circulation impeded by scale in 
heaters [Folwell], 925 
Fare collection: 

■ Fare boxes replace ticket choppers on Hud- 
son Tunnel Line, 422 

Front-end collector accelerates schedules, 

Comment, 490 

Pay-as-you-leave one-man car at Plymouth, 

Mass., '241 

Pay-as-you-pass car, How it was developed 

[Witt], '30 

Fares : 

Discussed at New York Electric Railway 

Association meeting, 1232 
Equitable rates urged of Massachusetts 

Governor, 107 
Federal government can raise utility rates 

[Gadsden], 1091; Comment, 1082 
France grants increases to cover war 

bonuses, 10<47 
Guarantee of utility investment or state 

ownership must come, 1092 

Higher fares essential [ Weatherwax ] , 1234 

Increased fare refusal is "bunghole econ- 
omy" for public, Comment 738 
Increase fare movement : 

Big gain in number of companies se- 
curing financial relief 544. 

Commissions should face question 
squarely. Comment, 446 

Edmonton, Can., 1030. 

Illinois Association, *417 

Increased revenue to offset higher 
wages [MeCarter], 1227 

(Abbreviations. "Illustrated, n Short news item.) 

January-June, 1918] 




-Increase fare movement: (Continued) 

More publicity needed [ liegeman], 

Municipal Counsel often deserves se- 
vere reprimand. Comment, 1001 

Now is the time to act. Comment, 215 

Pamphelet on the problems of the 
street railway issued at Kansas 
City, »1228 

Petitions should be based on facts 
Comment, 400 

Prepare Commission cases thoroughly 
[Geisse], 008 

Publication of financial statement will 
aid campaign. Comment 707 

Six-cent fare pamphlet of United Trac- 
tion Co., *322 

Status of higher fare [Conway], 1235 

Steam railroad passenger rate increase 
to help electric railways, Com- 
ment, 445 

.Increases * 

Albany, N. Y., Changes suspended. 

Albuquerque, N. M., n 1110 
Anderson. Ind.. n 1116 
Atlantic City, N. J., 1020 
Augusta, Ga„ n 591; 726 
Aurora, 111.. 342 

Boston, Mass.. Bay State files new 
schedule. 670; Sliding scale, 1057; 
Bay State compromise approved, 

Brookfield. Mass.. Results, *157 

Charlottesville, Va., n 831; 1030 

Chester, Pa., n 1032 

Chicago & West Towns Ry. 295 

Chickasha, Okla.. n 681 

Cincinnati, O., n 992 

Claremont, N. H., 788 

Cleveland O., Increase order appealed, 
n 206; Disputes, 680; Highest 
rate placed in effect, 785 ; In- 
crease, n 992 

Dover. N. H., n 158 

Easton. Pa., 588 

Edmonton, Can., 1073 

Evansville, Ind.. n 831 

Fairmont, W. Va., n 789 

Fort Wayne. Ind., 541 

Greenfield, Mass., Reduced rate ticke's 
withdrawn, 786 

Greensboro, N. C, n 158 

Holyoke, Mass., *77 

Houghton. Mich.. Sustained, n 437 

Indiana interurbans granted blanket 
increase to 2% cents a mile, 1114 

Indianapolis. Ind., 204, 225 

Jackson, Mich. 787 

Johnstown, Pa., Protested by city, n 

Kansas City, Kan., 934 

Kansas City. Mo., 1254 

Keene, N. H., n 681 

Lewiston, Me., n 1116 

Lexington, Ky., n 729 

London, Can., n 789 

Lynchburg, Va.. n 1116 

Manchester. N. H. n 1116 

Manistee. Mich., n 938 

Mauch Chunk. Pa., n 729 

Milwaukee, Wis., 1112 

Mount Carmel, Pa., n 62 

Necessities of long standing and vital 
[Treat], 1053 

New Bedford, Mass., n 1115 

New Brighton, Pa., n 109 

Newell. W. Va., n 1032 

New Haven. Conn.. Hartford contro- 
versy. 588; Increase sustained by 
Commission, 620; Hartford will 
appeal decision. 729 : Appealed, 

New York City, 1115; Hudson & Man- 
hattan fare increase postponed, 

Oakland. Cal., 1208 

Ocean City. N. J., 881 

Ossining, N. Y., n 1116 

Paducah. Ky., n 938 

Peekskill, N. Y., Rehearing asked by 

city. 436 : Increase, n 939 
Peoria. 111., 1029; Decision reviewed, 


Pittsburg. Kan., n 546 
Pittsburgh, Pa., 204; Results, *278, 

Portland, Ore.. 108. 184; Protested by 
city, n 297: Appeal by city coun- 
cil 388. 437: Commission ruling 
upheld by court, 617; Appealed by 
city, 681 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y., 1209 

Reading, Pa.. 154 

Rockford. 111., n 158 

St. Louis, Mo., 988, 1014; Results of 
initiation. 1166; Appeal. 1253 

Salt Lake. Utah, n 158; Upheld by 
court. 1030 

Scranton, Pa., n 437 

Shawnee, Okla.. n 158 

Sheboygan. Wis., n 1117 

Sioux Falls. S. D., Granted by city 
election. 1113 

Sistersville. W. Va.. n 992 

Spokane, Wash.. 251 

Taunton. Mass., 199 

Toledo. O.. 982 

Trenton. N. J., n 1032 

Warehouse Point. Conn., 1028 

Waverly. N. Y., 342: n 1074 

West Milton. O.. n 391 

Wheeling. W. Va., 1114 

White Plains. N. Y., n 1115 

Wilmington, Del., n 1169 
-Increases denied : 

Charleston, S. C, 1032 

Columbus. O., 480 

Denver, Colo., n 1032 

Fares : 

Increases denied: (Continued) 

Lincoln. Nebr., n 1256 

London, Can., 1028 

Roslyn, N. Y., 125; Comment, 118 

Springfield, 0„ Indiana line. 789 

Syracuse. N. Y.. n 1255 

Toronto. Can.. 878 

Trenton, N. J.. 481 

Youngstown, O.. 252 
Increases in internrban fares necessary 

[C. E. R. A. annual meeting I. 453 
Increases necessary to pay higher wages, 

War Labor Board, 1223; Comment. 


Increases sought: 

Akron. 0.. n 1255 

Albany. N. Y.. 990; Hearing. 1253 

Allentown, Pa.. 934 

Alliance. O., 729; n 1168 

Alton. 111., n 1116. n 1211 

Anderson, Ind., 935 

Atlanta, Ga., n 882: Opposed by city, 

903; Hearing. 1113. 1252 
Atlantic City, N. J., n 729 
Baltimore. Md.. n 1168 
Bangor. Pa., n 546 
Bluffton, Ind., n 298 
Bonner Springs, Kan., n 1253 
Boston. Mass.. Relief message of gov- 
ernor to legislature, 472; Pros- 
pects, 871 : Bill for elevated rail- 
way passed bv governor and sen- 
ate. 1023; Record address, 1050 
Buffalo. N. Y.. 930. 1105. n 1115; 
Commission sees need, but cannot 
grant relief, 1165; Advocated by 
city, 1209; 1253 
Calais, Me., n 1032 
Canton, Mass., n 1032 
Cedarburg, Wis., n 1115 
Charleston, S. C. 638 
Charlotte. N. C. 341 
Chicago, 111., 59; Comment, 165 
Cincinnati, O., n 206; n 391 
Cleveland. Ohio. 635. 1253 
Columbus. O., 536; President McMeen 
explains, 589. 934. Publicity 
methods, *1013, 1167; Hearing. 

Covington, Ky., n 681 

Cumberland, Md., n 1116 

Davenport, la., n 1255 

Dayton. O., n 391 

Denver. Colo., n 831. 937 

Des Moines la., n 1032, n 1168 

Dixon, 111., n 938 

Dunkirk, N. Y., n 58 

Durham, N. C, n 546, *635 

Easton. Pa., n 482 

East St. Louis, 111., n 1211; Hearing, 

Elmira, N. Y., Petition withdrawn, 
n 992; n 1074 

Findlay, O., n 638 

Foxboro, Mass., n 1115 

Frankfort, Ky., n 343 

Gettysburg, 111., n 254 

Grand Rapids, Mich., n 1169 

Great Britain, 1057 

Houston. Tex., n 1255 

Indianapolis, Ind., 109; Hearing con- 
cluded. 1073 

Jackson. Mich., n 591 

Joliet, 111., n 1211 

Kalamazoo. Mich., n 831 

Kansas, City, Mo., 388, 542, n 591; 
Hearing. 828. 931 

Keene, N. H.. n 591 

Keyport. N .J., n 729. n 939 

Lewiston. Me., n 992: Hearing, n 1074 

Lexington, Ky., n 254 

Lincoln. Neb.. Emergency petition de- 
nied, 435: Hearing, 587, n 1074 

Little Rock, Ark., n 729 

London. Can., 545; Publicity campaign, 

Los Angeles, Cal.. 1114 

Lynchburg, Va„ 158; Hearing, n 883 

Manchester,, N. H.. n 882 

Mansfield, O., n 391 

Mattoon, III., n 831 

Memphis, Tenn., n 482 

Milwaukee, Wis., 83: Hearing, n 831 

Minneapolis. Minn., n 1032. n 1116 

Missoula. Mont., n 1255 

Missouri convention discussion, 1053 

Moncton, Can., n 992 

Muskegon, Mich., n 1115 

New Albany. Ind., n 546, n 638; Hear- 
ing, n 883 

Newark. N. J.. 478; Hearings. 680. 
n 939: Hearings. 990. 1071, 112 

New Jersey Supreme Court removes 
franchise rate limit, 1208 

New York City, Hearing. 437; Re- 
quests dismissal of Third Avenue 
case, 480; Lively discussion be- 
tween mayor, railways and com- 
, missioners, 628: Thw-d Avenue 

Ry., 679; Court decision blocks 
financial relief. 812; Employees 
appeal to public. 1246 

New York State, n 109, 590; Review 
of six cases. 636; Court decision 
further removes justice, 696; 
Comment. 691 ; Renders commis- 
sions without power, 811; Com- 
ment, 797: Mayor's conference has 
injured public by preventing in- 
crease. Comment. 841. 880; 
Movement. Comment. 947 

Northampton, Mass., n 939 

Oakland, Cal.. 341 

Ogdensburg. N. Y.. 479 

Olean. N. Y„ n 125.3, 1255 

Omaha. Neb., n 992; n 1032 

Ottawa. 111., n 883 

Paducah, Ky., n 729 

Fares : 

Increases sought: i Continued) 

Patton. Pa., n 11H8 
Peekskill. N. Y„ 541 
Peoria. 111.. 295; Hearing, 389, 479, 

Philadelphia, Pa„ 981, 1031 

Pittsburg, Kan., 935 

Pittsburgh. Pa., 60, n 108, n 831 

Plcasantville, N. J., n 939 

Portland. Me.. 339. *456; Hearing, 
479; Application for dismissal re- 
fused, n 831, n 1074 

Portland. Ore.. Existence of commis- 
sion threatened, 479, 543; Contro- 
versy, 728 

Pottsville. Pa., n 938 

Providence. R. I., Zone system recom- 
mended. 480, 545, 591. 679: Six- 
cent fare refused in favor of zone 
system. 710 

Quebec. Can., n 638 

Reading, Pa., 435 

Rochester. N. Y., n 391 

Saginaw, Mich., n 592: Publicity cam- 
paign, n 789 

San Diego, Cal., n 1168 

Scranton. Pa., n 1253 

Seneca Falls. N. Y., Hearing, 990 

St. Joseph. Mo., n 1074 

St. Louis, Mo., 390, 544; Hearings, 
785, 870 

Sanford, Me., n 1255 

Schenactady, N. Y., n 1211 

Scranton Pa,. 342. n 787, 1255 

Seattle, Wash., 251 

Shebovgan Wis., n 1256 

Sioux Falls, S D„ n 1032 

South Bend, Ind., interurban lines. 

Spokane. Wash., 156. n 1256 

Springfield. Mo., n 1256 

Springfield. O., 252 

Stockton. Cal.. n 1168 

Syracuse, N. Y., 1072 

Tacoma. Wash., Case to determine 

status of franchise. 629; Appliea- 

cations involved, 727; Denied by 

court. 936 
Tennessee state-wide appeal for relief. 


Titusville. Pa., 342 
Toledo, O.. Controversy. 1021 
Trenton, N. J., n 437, 589; President 
McCarter explains need, 622: 
Hearing, 726. 789, 988, 1028. n 
1116, n 1117, 1207 
Tuscaloosa. Ala., n 1169 
Walla Walla. Wash., n 681 
Warsaw. Ind.. n 681 
Waynesboro. Pa,, n 546 
Wheaton. HI., Partial relief granted. 

n 1165 
Wheeling, W. Va., n 1256 
Williamstown. Pa., n 546 
Wilmington R. C, n 1074 
Worcester, Mass., n 1115 
York. Pa.. 1254 
Youngstown. O, n 1032 

Interurban rates should be raised now. 

Comment, 1083 

Local community responsible for adequate 

rates. Comment. 1039 

Mexican fare reduction explained. 786 

Montreal rate to be fixed by new com- 
mission, 873 

Passengers should pay only transportation 

charges. Comment. 738 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit lease agree- 
ment, 179; Comment, 166 

Rail rate increase, Effect on utilities [Put- 
nam], 1103 

Reduction at Hoboken refused, 1029 

Seattle Municipal Ry. proposes to reduce 

fares, n 436 

Service-at-cost, Plans for Boston discussed 

bv legislative commission. 575; Ex- 
plained. 627; Discussed at Columbus, 
O.. 728: Boston, 778: Measures pro- 
vided for all Massachusetts railways, 

Six-cent fares rather than Zone system 

favored at Boston. 229 

Sliding scale of rates recommended, *463 

Three cents a mile for interurbans urged 

War Board. 1099 
Who put the nick in the nickel. Cartoon, 


Zone system : 

Athol. Mass.. 881 

Boston Elevated Ry.. Believed possible 
for, 324, 785, 937 

Deserves fair trial. Comment. 69 

Effect on congestion of cities. Com- 
ment, 401 

Holyoke, Mass. to give trial, *77 

Lewiston, Me., *654 

Milford, Mass.. 992 

Peoria, 111.. 297 

Pittsburgh. Pa.. 1072 

Practise on Shore Line Elec Ry. [Per- 
kins], *80 

Providence. R. I.. Recommended by 
special legislative commission, 
•570. 786, 830 

Should be used under franchise lim- 
itations. Comment. 1039 

Springfield, Mass.. Approved by com- 
mission. 663 882 

Traffic study shows reasons for zon- 
ing. Comment, 1177 

Feeders : 

Insulated negative return system at Lynch- 

burgh, Va., [Way], «861 
Financial : 

Annual reports (Indexed under the rail- 
way ) 

Bankers' duty to finance utilities, Comment, 


(Abbreviations. *Illustrated. n Short news item.) 


Financial: (Continued) 

Boston Elevated Ry., Rehabilitation recom- 
mendation, 272 

California Ry. & Pr. Co. brings suit against 

United R. R.s, u 152 

Earnings of electric railways: 

Albany, N. Y., 1067 

Allentown, Pa., 385 

Anderson, Ind., 932 

Boise, Idaho, n 1027 

Boston & Maine R. R (Electric 

Branches), 875 
Cape Town, South Africa, 540 
Charlotte, N. C, 675 
Chicago, 111., 337, n 877, n 1027, 

1008, 1204 
Chico. Cal., 930 
China, 782 
Cleveland, O., n 1070 
Columbus, O., 337 
Dallas. Tex., 57, 475, 586 
Des Moines, la., 475 
Detroit, Mich., n 387, 1025 
Fort Worth, Tex., n 677 
Geographical analysis of A. E. R. A„ 
249, 432. 632, 826, 1067, 1249 
Glens Falls, N. Y., 1067 
Harrisburg, Pa„ n 784 
Increase 10 per cent in 1917, 985 
Indianapolis, Ind.. n 877 
Iowa interurban lines, 784 
Jamestown, N. Y., n 784 
Kansas City, Mo., 931 
Kewanee, HI., n 1164 
Kingston, Jamaica, 876 
Lethbridge, Can., n 1205 
Lima Peru. 1204 
London, Can., 539 
Los Angeles. CaK, 1161 
Louisville, Ky., :>40 • 
Macon, Ga., 250 
Minneapolis, Minn., 986 
Newark, N. J., 782 

New York City lines 248, 293, 338, 

1026, 1027, 1110, 1161, 1163 
Ottawa, Can., 584 
Plattsburgh, N. Y., 1067 
Port Arthur, Can., 475 
Portland, Ore., 1026 

Publicity of figures advantageous to 
company, Comment, 739 

Publication of financial statement will 
aid in fare increases. Comment, 

Raleigh, N. C„ u 1027 

San Francisco. Cal., 104, n 387, n 1070 

Seattle, Wash., n 387 

Spokane, Wash., 825 

Tacoma Municipal Ry., 338 

Toronto, Can., 431 

Troy N. Y., 1067 

Vancoucer, Can.. 584 

Walworth, Wis., n 932 

York, Pa., 585 
Electric railway relief urged before House 

of Representatives, 1163 
Fair rate of return especially necessary 

now. Comment, 213 

Federal Corporation urged. 248 

Federal Reserve Board passes on new financ- 
ing, 152; Committee requires full 
data, 431 

Great Britain in 1917, 293 

Helena, Mont., Company pays bonus to city, 

n 338 

Income tax data, 249 

— Ithaca, N. Y., Properties acquired by Ford 

Bacon & Davis, n 152 

— Oakland, Antioch & Eastern Ry reorganiza- 
tion, 103 

Reasonable rate of return has advanced, 

83; What is reasonable now. Com- 
ment. 737 

Receiverships and foreclosures of 1917, 39 

Reorganization at Chico, Cal., 1161 

Revenue hearings of ways and means com- 
mittee begun, 1109 
Tax question before House of Representa- 
tives, 677 
War burden chart, 1026 

— —War direction of security issues sought. 

War Finance Corporation: 

Advance made to Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit Co.. 1204 

Bill, Introduced in Congress. 292: 
amended. 431; Agreement. 676; 
Signed by President, 724: Unsatis- 
factory to utilities, Comment, 

Board named, 875, Sworn in, 1025 
Cannot finance companies in need of 

increased revenue. Comment, 1039 
Directorship appointment confirmed. 

n 932 

Federal Reserve Board passes on new 
financing, 152; Corporation urged, 


New York bankers refuse to indorse 
public utility obligations. 1162 

New York State Rys.. seeks aid, n 987 

Organization delay embarrasses rail- 
ways, 825 

Scope of bill, Comment, 601 

United Rys. of St. Louis seeks aid, n 
987; Given assistance, 1069; Ex- 
plained, 1109 

Urges prompt consideration of appli- 
cation for rate increases, Com- 
ment, 1041 

Warning given concerning direct fed- 
eral financing, 1069 


Toledo, Bowling Green & Southern Tr. Co; 

Fare increase sought, n 638 
Fire Protection & Insurance: 

Fire test of building columns, *194 

Fires (see Accidents) 

Food price increases since 1907, 464 


Fort Dodge, Des Moines & Southern R. R. (see 

Boone, la.) 
Fort Scott. Kans.: 
Fort Scott Gas & Elec. Co.: 

Receivership proceedings against, 476; 
Operation discontinued n 725 
Fort Smith, Ark.: 
Fort Smith Lt. & Tr. Co.: 

Two-man operation controversy, n 883 
Fort Smith-Oklahoma Lt. & Tr Co.: 

Personnel changes, n 386 
Fort Wayne & Decatur Tr. Co. (see Decatur, 

Fort Wayne, Ind.: 

Fort Wayne & Northern Indiana Tr. Co.; 

Automobile accident report, n 681. 

Bulletin to patrons explaining neces- 
sity of fare increase, 226 

Fare increase, n 482 541 

Freight, Rate increase granted, 295: 
Handling possibilitis [Cole], *893 

Skip-stop adopted, n 482 

Ticket elimination desired, n 1073 

Wage increase, n 630 
Fort Worth, Tex.: 
Northern Texas, Tr. Co.: 

Financial statement, n 677 

Staggered hours of business in effect, 
n 1116 

Fostoria, O.: 

Lake Erie, Bowling Green & Napolean Ry. : 

Abandonment confirmed. 249 

Foxboro, Mass.: 

Norfolk & Bristol St. Ry.: 

Fare increase sought, n 1115 

France : 

Rate increase granted to cover war bonuses, 

Franchises : 

Chicago settlement terms, 982: Essentials 

fixed, 1105 

Effect on freight handling possibilities of 

electric railways [Cole], '893 

Fares not controlled by franchise restric- 
tions [Conway], 130 

Montreal, Can., Tramways, 288 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit lease agreement, 

179; Comment, 166 

St. Louis, Mo., 244; Controversy, *468 

Toledo, O., proposal, 289 

Freight and express: 

Census of all freight cars, 157 

Chicago, Parcel freight plans. 85; Dis- 
cussed, n 108, n 384; Endorsed, 326; 
Ordinance not yet drafted, 1065 

Development essential to the war [Gads- 
den], 889 

Electric freight handling a necessity. Com- 
ment, 889 

Electric lines must move more freight. Com- 
ment, 839 

Electric railways in a position to haul more 

freight [Cole], *893 

Indiana, Rate hearing, 155 ; Increase al- 
lowed, 206, 271 ■ 

More railways should handle L. C. L. busi- 
ness, Comment, 999 

Motive power equipment [Woods], *1059. 

New England Electric Freight Association 

formed, 175 

— New Jersey permits day delivery by elec- 
tric railways, n 430 

Ohio interurban lines confer on freight 

handling at Columbus, 635 

Passenger cars re-arranged for freight haul- 
ing, «924 

-Rhode Island Co., Increased business dur- 
ing eight years, '1003 
Freight Rates: 

Connecticut commission plans simpler 

classifications, [Curtis], 323; Com- 
ment, 507 

Increases : 

Cincinnati, O., n 295 
Decatur, Ind., n 295 
Fort Wayne, Ind., n 295 
Indiana, Hearing, 155; Increase, 206, 

Providence, R. I„ n 939 
Throught rate for electric lines in Central 

States, 917 
Frontier Electric Ry. (see Buffalo, N. Y.) 

Galesburg & Kewanee Elec. Ry. (see Kewanee, 

Gait, Can.: 

Lake Erie & Northern Ry. : 

Aluminum catenary construction, 142 
Galveston, Tex.: 
— — Galveston Electric Co.: 

Wage increase, n 474, n 984 
Galveston-Houston Elec. Co.: 

Wage increase, n 383, n 984 
Gary, Ind. : 

Gary & Interurban R. R. Co.: 

Part of property dismantled, n 386 
Wage increase depends upon fare 
raise, 927 

Gears and pinions : 

Effect of poor gears on power consumption 

[Squier], *502 
Geneva, Seneca Falls & Auburn R. R. (see 

Seneca Falls, N: Y.) 
Genoa, 111. : 

Woodstock & Sycamore Tr. Co.: 

Foreclosure sale, n 1262 

Property sold for junk, n 827, n 1111 
Georgia Lt., Pr. & Rys (see Macon, Ga.) 
Georgia Ry. & Pr. Co. (see Atlanta. Ga.) 
Germany : 

Berlin Street Ry. : 

Ball bearing tests on street cars. 284 
Gettysburg 111.: 

Gettysburg Ry. Ltg. & Pr. Co.: 

Fare increase sought, n 254 

[Vol. 51 

Glens Falls, N. Y.: 
Hudson Valley Ry.: 

Financial statement 1067 
Gloversville, N. Y.: 
Adirondack Lakes Tr. Co.: 

Auction sale of property. 930 
Grade crossing signals (see Signals.) 
Grand Rapids. Mich.:: 

Commonwealth Pr., Ry. & Lt. Co.: 

Cost increases explained, 723 

Grand Rapids, Grand Haven & Muske- 
gon Ry. : 

Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 

Increase in class and commodity rates 
sought, n 1253 
Grand Rapids Ry.: 

Fare increase sought, n 1169 
Great Britain : 

Fare increase petition, 1057 

Financing for 1917, 293 

London : 

Croydon Corpn. Tramways meet war 
burden [Goodyear], 220: Com- 
ment, 214; Air raid warning sign. 

Letters from, 52, 243, 425, 671, 870. 

London United Tramways reaches 
agreement with County Council. 

Safety-First Council report, 1059 

Municipal Tramways Association report, 


Outside-switch and double-switch types of 

special work. '1061 
Rush-hour shoppers warned against use of 

tramway cars, 1005 
Greenfield, Mass. : 

Connecticut Valley Street Ry.: 

Abandonment of part of property, n 

Reduced rate tickets withdrawn, 786 
Greensboro, N. C: 
North Carolina Pub. Ser. Co.: 

Fare increase, n 158 

Legislation to help one-man cars, n 


Hamilton. Can.: 

Hamilton Street Ry. : 

Wage increase sought, n 583: Recom- 
mended by arbitrators, n 874 

Hamilton, O.: 

Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Tr. Co.: 

Reorganized as Cincinnati & Dayton Tr. 
Co., n 634; Plans outlined. 723 

Harrisburg, Pa.: 

Harrisburg Rys. : 

Financial statement, n 784 
Skip-stops inaugurated, n 437 
Wage increase, n 781 

Walkers' club formed. 545 

Hartford & Springfield Street Ry. (see Ware- 
house Point, Conn.) 

Haverhill, Mass. : 

Massachusetts, Northeastern Street Ry. : 

Appeal against jitney competition, 

Zone system sought, 828 
Hazelton, Pa.: 

Wilkes-Barre & Hazelton Ry.: 

Governor Maintenance decreased 

[Brown]. »93 
Renewing worn controller parts 

[Brown], *144 

Headlights : 

New floodlighting unit (Electric Service 

Supplies Co.), *147 
Heating of Cars: 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. receives order, 


Circulating water in heaters, Columbus, 

O., 239 

Coke, Use at Evansville, Ind., 376 

Effect on winter power consumption [Ham- 
mond], 577 

Scale impedes water circulation [Folwell], 


Heavy Electric Traction : 

Electrification as a means to conservation 

of national resources [Rice], 367 

Electrification progress in Scandanavia, 652 

Further railroad electrification important 

[Shepard], *4 

Pennsylvania R. R., New extension, 672 : 

Extension to Chestnut Hill, *799; Com- 
ment, 795 

Progress during 1918. Comment, 1081 

Railroad electrification as a war meas- 
ure, [Wynne], 81 

War should stimulate electrification. Com- 
ment, 3 

Helena, Mont.: 

Helena Lt. & Ry. Co.: 

Abandonment of line approved, n 338 
Bonus paid to city, n 338 

Highway crossing protection (see Signals) 

High wood, 111.: 

Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee R. R.: 

Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 

McAdoo travels via electric. *860 
Midnight interurban express service 

popular, 156 
Service during severe storm praised by 

newspaper. 436 
Special train carries Secretary Daniels. 


• Wage increase sought, n 1247 
H. M. Byllesby & Co. (see Chicago. 111.) 
Holston Valley Ry. (see Bristol, Tenn.) 
Holyoke. Mass.: 

Holyoke Street Ry. : 

Zone system to be given trial, *77 
Honolulu, T. H. : 

Honolulu Rapid Transit & Land Co. : 

Employees entering military service 

may retain seniority, n 1203 
Wage increase, n 824 

(Abbreviations. * Illustrated, n Short news item.) 

January-June, 1918] 



Hot Springs, Ark.: 

Hot Spring Street Ry. : 

Reduced rate ticket sale discontinued, 
n 437. n 546 

Houghton, Mich.: 

Houghton County Tr. Co.: 

Fare increase sustained, n 437 

Houston. Tex.: 

Houston Electric Co.: 

Fare increase sought, n 1255 
One-man cars installed, n 591, n 681 
Wage increase, n 474. n 984 

Jitney drivers arrested, n 158 

Trainmen requested to help enforce law, 

n 254 

Hudson & Manhattan R. R. (see New York 

Hudson River & Eastern Traction Co. (see Os- 

sining, N. T.) 
Hudson Valley Ry. (see Glens Falls, N. T.) 
Huntington, N. Y. : 
Huntington R. R. : 

Rate decision of Second District Com- 
mission [Conway], 130 
Huntington, W. Va.: 
Ohio Valley Elec. Ry.: 

Newspapers praise general manager, 

Wage increase, n 630 
Hutchinson, Kan.: 
Hutchinson Inter-Urban Ry.: 

Radial trucks for power saving and 
better riding *815 


Soldiers must pay full fare, n 789 

Utilities make blanket relief petition, 295 

Illinois Electric Railway Association : 

Annual meeting. War Board activities, 


Illinois Traction System (9ee Peoria, 111.) 

— — Class rate increase asked by all interurban 
railways, 1209 

Fuel economy committee appointed, 44 

Rate case decision, 157 

Indianapolis, Ind.: 

Garfield order. Effect on railways, 183 

Indianapolis & Cincinnati Tr. Co.: 

Fare increase sought, 109; Granted, 
204 225 

Indianapolis Street Ry.: 

Security holders anxious, n 1111 

Indianapolis Tr.. & Ter. Co.: 

Commission upheld in fare case. 59 
Financial statement, n 877: Condition 

serious, n 784 
Increased revenue is needed, n 784 
Interurban freight terminal [Mis- 
Math], 816 
Skip-stop instituted, n 546; Operation 

extended, n 789 
Spiral standardization should be 
stimulated [McMath], 1155 

Interurban lines contribute Liberty Loan 

advertisement, n 781 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Tr. Co. : 

Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 

Hearing on purchase of Western 
Indiana Utilities Co., n 784 

Permission to take over the West 
Indiana Utilities Co., n 338 
Indianapolis & Louisville Tr. Co. (see Seotts- 

burg. Ind.) 

Interborough Consolidated Corporation (see 

New York City) 
Interborough Rapid Transit Co. (see New York 


International Ry. (see Buffalo. N. Y.) 
Interstate Commerce Commission : 
Report for 1916. n 569 

Interstate Consolidated Street Ry. (see Attle- 

boro, Mass.) 
Inter Urban Ry. (see Des Moines. Ia.) 
Interurban railways: 

Freight handling electric lines of the United 

States [Cole], *893 

Rates should be raised without delay, Com- 
ment, 1083 

Three cents per mile rate urged by War 

Board, 1099 

Interurban Railway & Terminal Co. (see Cin- 
cincinnati. O.) 


Financial report for interurban lines. 784 

Icwa Electric Railway Association: 

Annual convention, 1090 

Ithaca, N. Y.: 

Central New York Southern R. R. Corp.: 

Financial interest acquired by Ford. 
Bacon & Davis, n 152 

Jackson, Mich.: 

Michigan United Rys.: 

Fare increase sought, n 591 : Granted. 

Jamaica : 

West India Elec. Co.. Ltd.: 

Financial statement, 876 

Jamestown, N. Y.: 

Jamestown Street Ry. : 

Conductors sentenced for theft, n 158 
Financial statement, n 784 

Japan : 

Government Rys.. Statistics, 724 

Railway taxes cancelled, n 289 

Tokyo will have rapid transit. 767 

Jersey Central Traction Co. (see Keyport, N. J.) 
Jitney buses: 

(see also Motor buses) 

Abolished at Winnipeg. Can., 989 

Appeal against competition made by Massa- 
chusetts railways, 1159 

Jitney buses: (Continued) 

Bay State Street Ry. poster on "Jim Jit- 
ney." *325 

Bonding company retires, n 62 

— — Dallas, Tex., Defeated at election, 1031, n 

— — Duplication of service must be eliminated, 
Comment. 263 

Los Angeles, Cal. Report on operation, ^467 

Minneapolis ordinance, n 883 

New York municipal jitney bus bill vetoed 

by Governor, 1023 

Portland, Ore., Jitneys win in election, 1065 

Tacoma, Wash., Sanctions free bus opera- 
tion, n 298: Service resumed, n 638 

Terre Haute, Ind.. Licensing measure up- 
held by City Council, n 729 

Waste man power in unessential work, 1199 

Johnstown, Pa. : 

Johnstown Traction Co. : 

Fare increase protested, n 831 

Joliet, 111.: 

Chicago & Joliet Elec. Ry. : 

Fare increase sought, n 1211 
Joplin & Pittsburg Ry. (see Pittsburg, Kana.) 



Kalamazoo, Mich.: 

Michigan Ry. : 

Battle Creek, Mich, cannot grant 

cent fare, n 1169 
Fare increase sought, n 831 
Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 
Kankakee. 111.: 

North Kankakee Electric Lt. & Ry. Co.: 

Sale of property to Chicago & Inter- 
urban Tr. Co. desired, n 1110 

Kankakee & Urbana Traction Co. (see Urbana, 

Kansas City, Kan.: 

Kansas City- Western Ry.: 

Fare increase, 934 

Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 

Strike. 927 

Kansas City, Kaw Valley & Western Ry. (see 

Bonner Springs, Kan.) 
Kansas City, Mo. : 

Interurban Union Station ordinance passed. 


Kansas City, Clay County & St. Joseph 


Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 

Joint rates with steam road adopted, 
n 391 

Personnel changes, 293 
Kansas City Rys.: 

Asphalt plant used also for sand dry- 
ing [Harvey], '46 

Coal zoning plan causes embarrass- 
ment. 810 

Commission rules that it has juris- 
diction over fares, 728 

Fare increase sought, 388, 542, 931; 
Hearing, 991; Granted, 1254 

Financial statement, 931 

Folder of "Where to Go in Kansas 
City" published, n 789 

Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 

Increased rate for sale of power to 
light company granted, n 1027 

Industrial slackers scored, 197 

Labor conditions aided by weekly pub- 
lication, 481 

Liberty loan activities,*606, *819 

Operating difficulties, 231 

Pamphlet issued on the problems of 
the street railway, *1228 

Pneumatic door and step control, 765 

Poem "The Nickel," 728 

Power plant accident, n 199 

Public Service Commission to study 
conditions. 205 

Service flag, 97 

Service investigation by Commission, 

Skip-stop plan looked upon favorably 

by city, n 1117 
Skip-stop proposed, 935 
Staggered business hours urged, n 


Strike settled. 674 

Track spiral standardization limita- 
tions, 775 

Traffic problems placed before com- 
mission, 436: Changes, 545 

Union button agreement reached 821 

Women conductors trained, n 206; Em- 
ployed, *1145 
Missouri & Kansas Interurban Ry.: 

Fare increase sought, n 591 ; Hearing, 

Police reinstated, n 824 

Sympathetic strike of labor unions does 

not affect railways, 629 
Keene, N. H.: 
Keene Electric Ry.: 

Fare increase sought, n 591; Granted 
n 681 
Kenosha, Wis.: 

Wisconsin Gas & Electric Co.: 

Strike of women employees, n 1066 
Women conductors, Strike and operat- 
ing conditions, *1147 

Kentucky Traction & Terminal Co. 
ington, Ky.) 

Kewanee, HI. : 

Galesburg & Kewanee Electric 

Financial statement, n 1164 

Keyport, N. J.: 

Jersey Central Tr. Co.: 

Fare increase sought, n 729, n 939 

(see Lex- 


Lackawanna & Wyoming Valley R. R. (see 

Scranton. Pa.) 
La Crosse, Wis. : 

Wisconsin Ry., Lt. & Pr. Co.: 

Metal electrode welding [Treat], 665 
Lake Erie. Bowling Green & Napoleon Ry. 

(see Fostoria, O.) 
Lake Erie & Northern Ry. (see Gait. Can.) 
Lake wood. N. J. : 

Trenton, Lakewood & Seacoast Ry.: 

Application made for receiver, 585; 
Denied, n 634 
Lancaster, Pa. : 

Consolidation of all Lancaster County elec- 
tric railways proposed, n 294 
Leetonia. O. : 

Youngstown & Ohio River R. R. : 

Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 

* K ! I .' ', 

Strike, n 1159 

Legal : 

Bridge toll case decided in favor of Brook- 
lyn Rapid Transit System, n 722 ~"~ 

Bridge suit won by city of Seattle against 

Puget Sound Tr., Lt. & Pr. Co., 1023 

Court ruling blocks New York fare in- 
creases, 696: Comment, 691 

Electric^ railway legal decisions, 438, 832, 

Labor decisions, Trend of, 466 

New York ruling renders commissions 

without power, 811; Comment, 797 
Paving case decided in favor of New "fork 

Rys., n 723 

Rate ease decision in Indiana 157 

San Francisco sued by United Railroads 

for construction 01 competing line 


Washington court denies application for 

investigation, 936 
t e I"g n . Valley Transit Co. (see Allentown Pa ) 
Lethbndge, Can.: 
Lethbridge Municipal Ry.: 

Financial statement, n 1205 
Lewisburg, W. Va.: 

Lewisburg & Ronceverte Elec Ry • 

Property sold, n 294 
Lewiston. Me.: 

Lewiston, Augusta & Waterville Street Ry • 

iare increase sought, ,n 992; Hearing 
n 1074; Granted, n 1116 

Lexington Ky . rearran6rements authorized. «654 

Kentucky' Tr. & Terminal Co : 

Fare increase sought, n 254; At Frank- 

T 0< Hoi !^ " 3 *2' n 39 J : Gr a"ted. n 729 
IJW Legislators will not be favored, n 62 
Liberty Loan activities (see Electric railways 

War time conditions) 
Lighting of Cars: 

Motor generator set for interurban car 

lighting, (General Electric Co.) »33i 
Reducing costs [Johnson], »612 

L^STrote™tion tenailee C ° StS tWefel] ' 978 

^iBrackeUL^n^ ^ ***™>»»« 

Car protection equipment [Wagner] «758 

Ll ehtning arresters. Co-operation between 

. departments. Comment 690 

Lima. Peru: 

Lima Lt. Pr. & Tramway Co ■ 

Financial statement, 1204 
Lincoln. 111.; * 

Municipal operation of railway a success 


Lincoln, Nebr. : 

Lincoln Traction Co • 

Emergency petition denied. 435 

n's^fin^ri Marine. 587, 
Little Rock. Ark ? ' ° 1074 : Demed ' n 1356 
Little Rock Ry. & Elec. Co ■ 

c?ent fr0 189 SCr3P phe made effi " 
Fare increase "sought, n 729 
Wage increase, n 1247 

Class-T locomotives of 
Central line. 695 
— Resign. Mechanical problems in 99 

Development during 1917 47 

* lash suppressor applied ' on the St 

■p™;JJ! t9rer and Hague], 858 

freight ^equipment characteristics [Woods], 

Freight a handhng electric lines of the United 
HidustrnU locomotive made more efficient, 

Latest commercial type [Hill], «556; [Shep- 

rKattpl ?r§i [Armstrong], *561; 
xt l^att e], *564; Comment, 554 

New York Central R. R.^jsts n 1111 

-Passenger locomotive 

waukee & St. Paul , 

Switzerland railroad ne 

locomotive, *805 
London, Can.: 

London & c Lake Erie Ry. & Transportation 

Municipal ownership negotiations 631 
Keport on abandonment and consolida- 
tion with London & Port Stanley 
±v. K-., 1021 

Sale ° f Property Offered to city, n 

London & Port Stanley Ry.: 

Fare increase, n 789 
London Street Ry.: 

Fare increase favored by labor 545- 

fufed, C1 i y 028 CamPai&n ' * 839: Rel 
Financial statement, 539 
London United Tramways (see Great Britain) 
Long Island R. R. (see New York City ) ' 

the New York 


Chicago, Mil- 

>0-ton electric 

(Abbreviations. *Ulustrated. n Short news item ) 



[Vol. 51 

Los Angeles. Cal. : 
Los Angeles By. : 

New publication, n 482 

Woman conductor employed, n 882 
■ Pacific Electric By. : 

Construction disapproved by commis- 
sion, 627 

Fare increase sought. 1114 

Financial statement. 1161 

Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 

Wage increase, n 874. 1159 
Watch inspection methods. 1098 
Women employees only in a case of 
emergency, n 1117 

Transfer interchange sought by city, n 


Louisville, Ky. : 

Garfield order, Effect on railways, 182 

Louisville & Interurban B. B.: 

Live stock business increased, n 159 
Louisville By.: 

Financial statement, 540 

Begulation recommendations with- 
drawn, n 474 

Ship stop installed, n 1255 

Wage increase n 722 
Street railway commissioner appointment 

suggested, n 291 
{Louisville & Southern Indiana Tr. Co. (see 

New Albany. Ind.) 
Low-voltage d.c. railways: 

Switzerland railroad. New 50-ton locomo- 
tive, *805 
Lubrication : 

Waste saturation tanks increase car mile- 
age (Mulwaukee Tank Works), *1154 
Lykens Valley By. (see Williamstown, Pa.) 
Lynchburg. Va. : 

Lynchburg Tr. & Lt. Co.: 

Fare increase sought, n 158: Hearing. 

n 883: Granted, n 1116 
Insulated negative return feeder sys- 
tem [Way] *861 

Lynn : Mass. : 

Nahant & Lynn Street By. : 

Appeal against jitney competition, 


Macon, Ga.: 

Georgia Lt. Pr. & Bys.: 

Financial report. 250. 

Mahoning & Shenango By. & Lt. Co. 
(see Youngstown. O.) 

Maintenance records and costs: 

Better car maintenance an urgent neces- 
sity [Lambert], *524 

Labor-saving methods in the way depart- 

Insurance against obsolesence a prime 

necessity. Comment. 1221 
ment [Cram], *517 

Memphis Street By. keeps valuable rec- 
ords, *807 

■ Pneumatic tie tamping at San Francisco, 


■ Spring duties of the way department 

[Cram], *740 
Track construction and maintenance 

[Cram], *357 
Manchester, N. H. : 
Manchester Street By. : 

Fare increase sought, n 882: Granted, 
n 1116 

Manhattan & Queens Traction Corp. (see New 

York City) 
Manila, P. I.: 

Manila Electric B. B. & t-.t. Corp. 

A kilowatt-hour and the coal required 
to produce it, 525 

Coal consumption reduced by bonus 
plan, [Blaisdell]. *308 

Farewell tribute to Mr. Cairns. *38 

Shortage of coins for carfares, n 591 
Manistee. Mich.: 
Manistee City By.: 

Fare increase, n 938 
Mansfield, O.: 

Mansfield Public Service & Utility Co.: 

Fare increase sought, n 391 
Manufacturers By. (see St. Louis, Mo.) 

Freight handling electric lines of the Unit- 
ed States, *893 
Lynchburg, Va.. *861 

Montreal Tramways power rehabilitation, 

•72; Comment. 71 

Newport News & Hampton By.. Gas & 

Electric Co.. Bailway lines, "1 048 

New York Connecting B. B.. 556 

Pittsburgh. Pa.. Traffic investigation re- 
port, »842 

Bhode Island Co., 572, *1003 

Washington, D. C, *849 

Zone system of coal distribution. *968 

Marion & Bluffton Tr. Co. (see Bluff ton, Ind.) 

Marion, O.: 

Columbus. Marion & Bucyrus By.: 

Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 

Market Conditions: 

. (Current prices of materials appear in each 


Advance in prices of materials during 

three years, 1260 

Air-brake devices. 302 

Alloy Steel. 1261 

Armature and field coils. 1078 

Asphalt paving, 735 

Atlantic Welding Co.. Be-organization as 

Lincoln Bail Welding Co.. 1121 

Australian Bailways. 597 

Ball bearings, 487 

Bituminous ' coal. 1079. 1216. 1260 

Boilers, 442. 596 

Brake shoes. Self-truing, 396 

Brush-holders. 734 

Market Conditions: (Continued) 

Buying at low ebb, 642 

Carnegie sales organization changes, 686 

Cars, 442: Design, 642: Equipment and 

material, 303; Manufacture Statistics. 

486; Seating, 596; Materials, 


Cash in payment of freight bills, 1121 

Catalogue dates, 349 

Cedar poles, 258 

Cleveland Armature Works, Inc., 1079 

Coal, 1036; Crushing apparatus, 642; Price 

regulation. 480; Production, 792. 942; 
Situation, 886: Supply, 837; 

Commercial bribery criminal offense. 1078 

Commutator brushes, 48? 

Copper. 211 1037; Wire. 67; Wire prod- 
ucts. 686 

Cost of railway material advanced. 1260 

"Cost-Plus" basis abandoned, 1078 

Curtain specialties, 734 

Curtain Supply Co., J 036 

Dumping cars, 735 

Effect of favorable legislation. 1037 

Effect of Federal control of railroads, 115 

Electric Koist Manufacturers' Association, 


Electric railway credits, 997 

Equipment and operating costs Southeast, 


Fare boxes, 1079 

Financial and natural conditions, 162 

Freer buying expected, 67 

Freight, Cars, 943; Congestion, 114; Han- 
dling. 67 . 

Gear manufacturers hold convention, 887 

General Electric business, 836 

Goldschmidt Thermit consolidation, 349 

Government contracts, 211; Purchasing de- 
partment created, 734; Work, 396 
Hardware, 997 

Iron and steel, 303. 442; Prices 687 

J. G. Brill Co.. 396 

Laconia Car Co., 348 

Lightning arresters, 258 

Line material. 210 

Lubricants and oils 596 

Machine tools, 943 

Manufacturers work close to government, 


Metal conduit. 1079 

Metal prices, 162 

Ohio Electric & Controller Co., 943 

Open-car equipment, 887 

Overhead material, 349 

Pacific Coast Bys., 210 

Pneumatic door control, 996 

Pole deliveries, 687 

Power house equipment, 443, 1120 

Price fixing, 163 

Priority transportation, 115; Bules, 348; 

Allocation of Steel, 1121 
Purchsing, 162 

Purchasing agents should use foresight, 


Bail manufacture, 114 

Bailroad Administration car orders, 887 

Bails, 942 

Bailway. Appliance exhibit. 642: Credits in 

Middle West. 1078; Credits in South- 
east, 258: Lamp stocks, 1036; 
Material deliveries, 836 

Baw material supplies, 643. 793 

— Bepair equipment and material. 550 

Beview of conditions for 1917, 66 

Bevised prices. 1260 

Boiling stock. 597, 792; Second-hand. 211 

Booting materials, 348 

Botary converters, 886 

Safety devices, 210 

St. Louis Car Company's strike, 1037 

Sangamo Economy watt-hour meters, 1037 

Scrap metals and licenses, 259, 942 

Shipbuilding activity increases railway traf- 
fic, 396 

Shop equipment. 397 

Sleet scrapers. 115 

Small tools, 1174 

Snow and ice removal equipment 302 

Snowplow equipment, 792 

Southeastern roads, 1174 

Standardization, 163; Catalogue sizes, 837 


Steel. 115, 1120; Galvanizing, 687: Orders 


Ties. Combined wood and steel, 1261 

Tin shortage and higher prices, 687 

Track material. 259, 686 

Transformers. 943 

Transportation service, 258 

Trolley cord, 114. 734, 1216 

Varnish and paint. 551 

Western Electric Co., 837 

Western prices higher, 550 

Westinghouse Elee. & Mfg. Co., 1036; Ship 

plant, 1078 

Window glass, 348, 397, 550 

Wire, 115, 258, 793, 942, 1079, 1216 

Women employees in railway supplies 

plant. 1175 

Wood handles for tools, 996 

Wool waste, 302 

Mason City. Ia.: 

Mason City & Clear Lake B. B. : 

Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 

Massachusetts : 

Equitable rates of fare urged by Governor, 


Service at cost. Approved by commissions. 

226; Before legislature, 290; Investi- 
gated by legislature, 246; Pro- 
vided for all railways in the State, 

Skip-stop to be adopted throughout State, 


State directors, not public ownership, urged 

by legislature, 100 

n 482 

that prove 


Mason City, la.: (Continued) 

Suburban and interurban operation a losing 

proposition. 818 
Massachusetts Northeastern Street By. (see 

Haverhill, Mass..) 
Mattoon, 111.: 

Central Illinois Public Service Co. : 

Fare increase sought, n 831 
Mauch Chunk. Pa.: 
Carbon Transit Co.: 

Fare increase, n 729 
Memphis, Tenn.: 
Memphis Street By.: 

Fare increase sought. 

Maintenance records 
valuable, *807 

Mexico : 

Fare reduction explained, 

Mexico, Mo.: 

Mexico Investment & Construction Co.: 

Property abandoned, a 105 
Beorganizing plans rejected, 386 

Michigan City. Ind. : 

Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend By. : 

Electric railway situation needs radi- 
cal readjustment [Wilcoxon], 454 
Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 

Freight transfer ruling of commission 
protested by steam railroad, n 

Michigan By. (see Kalamazoo. Mich.) 
Michigan United Bys. (see Jackson. Mich.) 
Middlesex & Boston Street By. (see Newtonville, 

Milford, Mass.: 

Milford. Attleboro & Woonsoeket Street 


Wage increase, n 1202 

Zone fare system sought, n 883. 992 
Military openings (See recruiting notices.) 
Milwaukee Northern By. (see Cedarburg, Wis.) 
Milwaukee, Wis.: 

Milwaukee Elec. By. & Lt. Co.: 

Fare increase sought. Hearing n 831 : 
Granted, 1112; Beferendum con- 
ducted through newspapers. 1160 

Purchase of Milwaukee Lt. Ht. & Tr. 
Co., proposed, 293 

Bail rate increase. What it means 
[Putnam], 1103 

Eeasonable rate of return has ad- 
vanced, 83 

Service praised by newspaper, n 247 

Wage increase, 982 

Women employment order will be com- 
plied with, n 1066 
Minneapolis, Minn.: 

Franchise settlement with street railway 

urged, n 384 
Jitney ordinance, n 883 

Minneapolis, St. Paul. Boehester & Du- 
buque Elec. Tr. Co.: 
Operating prospects brighter, n 827 
Be-organization plans. 57 
Service-at-cost proposal. 719 
Track spiral standardization [Wilson], 

Valuation report, 245 

Twin City Bapid Transit Co.: 

Arbitration commission report. 382 
Conductor puts song into his work, 

Conductors knit socks. 1061 
Ex-employees demand reinstatement, 

Fare increase sought, n 1032, n 1116 
Financial statement. 986 
Labor, Eeport, n 538; Investigation, 
n 675 

Liberty loan activities. *603 
Pay-as-you-enter service experiment, n 

Shop floor made of asphalt mastic. 

Wage increase, n 1024 
Missouri Association of Public Utilities: 

Annual meeting, 1053 

Missoula. Mont.: 

Missoula Street By. : 

Fare increase sought, n 1255 
Missouri & Kansas Interurban By. (see Kansas 

City, Mo.) 
Mobile, Ala.: 

—Mobile Lt. & B. B. Co.: 

Shipbuilding necessitates greatly in- 
creased facilities, "1185 
Moncton, Can.: 

Moncton Tramways, Electricity & Gas. Co.: 

Fare increase sought, n 992 

Monongahela Valley Tr. Co. (see Fairmont, W. 

Monroe, La.: 

Municipal Street, By.: 

Strike, 245 
Montreal, Can.: 

Commission appointed and will fix fare 

charges, 873 
Montreal & Southern Counties By. : 

Interurban cars. Special features, [Wil- 
son], '331, 377 
Montreal Tramways: 

Car hoists for changing wheels [Mac- 
Leod], *142 

Cars moved through congested inter- 
section [Gaboury]. 233 

Franchise report. 196 ; New provisions, 
288; Agreement approved, n 383 

Power. Behabilitation, *72' Comment. 
71; Distribution. *449: Comment, 
446: Plant remodeling. *1085 

Six-motor multiple-unit train opera- 
ation, [MacLeod], 403; Comment 

Wa"" increase, n 1247 
Morristown. N. J.: 
Morris County Tr. Corp.: 

Lease agreements proposed n 294 

Wage increase, n 1107 

(Abbreviations. "Illustrated, n Short news item.)' 

January-June, 1918] 



Motor buses: 

(See also Jitney buses) 

Auto trucks, Flanged wheels and de- 
mountable rubber tires could be used 
ior freight delivery [Witt], 1200; 
Wns»n p- a sniir>« needed at the front, 
comment, 1178 

Austin, lex.: 

Railway installs extension, 787 

Chicago Stage Co., granted operation 

privilege, 198 

Electric railways vs. motor trucks [Lin- 
tern], 926 

New York City, Application put over, n 


Private automobile competition. Comment, 


Report on automobile registration, n 154 

San Francisco installs trailic feeders, [Eck- 

art], *327; Extends service 984 
Serious menace to electric railway opera- 
tions, 1250 

— Springfield, 111.. Application denied, n 781. 

Winnipeg, Can,, Extension to railway, n 


Motors : 

Commutator brushes, Causes of streaking, 


Current and power cures [Squier], "1134 

Dipping and baking equipment to decrease 

troubles [Dobson], *1149 

Effect of various types on economical oper- 
ation [Squier], *50O 

Series motor for emergency constant speed 

work [Foote], *1197 

Service conditions determine type of motor 

[Squier], *748 

Six-motor multiple-unit trains for Mon- 
treal [MacLeod], *403; Comment, 

Speed-time curve determines character of 

equipment [Squier], *95b' 

Ventilated motors during a strenuous win- 
ter [Hellmund], *507 

Mount Carmel, Pa.: 

Sharaokin & Mount Carmel Transit Co.: 

Fare increase, n 62 

Rebates for excess fare ordered, n 882. 
Mount Vernon, 111.: 
— —City Railway Co.: 

Property sold for junk, n 105 
Municipal ownership: 

Charm has been lost with increased public 

knowledge of conditions. Comment, 

Conference of New York mayors, n 428 

East San Francisco Bay City's plans. 197 

Favored by New York mayors, n 538 

Lincoln, 111. finds it successful, 426 

London, Can., Negotiations, 631 

New York Merchants opposed, n 583: State 

creates committee to investigate. 628; 
Bills dead, n 722; Investigation. 

San Francisco, Cal., Considers further ope.-. 

ation of private lines, 383- Negotia- 
tions, 536, n 630 

Seattle, Wash., Operation at a loss, n 725 

Tacoma, Wash., Proposes. 471 ; Controversy, 

n 583; Defeated, n 722 

Toronto votes to take over railway, n 151 

-Washington report unfavorable, 777 

Windsor, Can., votes favorably, n 247 

Muskegon, Mich.: 

Muskegon Traction & Lighting Co.: 

Fare increase sought, n 1115 


Nahant & Lynn Street Ry. (see Lynn, Mass.) 

Nashua, N. H.: 

Nashua Street Ry.: 

Lease agreement rejected, n 387 

Nashville. Tenn.: 

Nashville Ry. & Lt. Co.: 

One-man car tried out, n 729 
Union activity restrained, n 929 

National Association of Ry. & Utility Commis- 
sioners : 

Purpose of association, 198 

National committee on public utilities: 

Pamphlet on higher rates, n 667 

Statement on public utility situation and 

appointment of regional state commit- 
tees. 619 

National Electric Light Association: 

Convention, War time questions, *1180; 

Comment. 1179 
National Foreign Trade Council: 

Arrangements for February meeting, n 56 

National Safety Council : 

Complaint safety poster, *80 

Guard rails for shop use. Pamphlet. *668 

Kansas City Rys. active in local council, 


Patriotic poster, '455 

Poster, "971 

New Albany Ind.: 

Louisville & Southern Indiana Tr. Co.: 

Accident fatal, n 254 
Fare increase sought n 546. n 638 ; 
Hearing, n 883 
Newark, N. J.: 

Public Service Corp.: 

Bus operation by railway, n 883 
Financial statement. 782. 
Immediate relief for utilities a prime 
national necessity [McCarter], 713 
"Trolley Weal" changed to quarterly, 
n 109 

Public Service Ry. : 

Accident, n 1255 

Fare increase sought. 478, 939: Case 
postponed, 543: President Mc- 
Carter explains need, 622; Hear- 
ings. 680, 990, 1071. 1112; Hear- 
ing postponed, n 882 

Fare reduction at Hoboken refused, 

Fire destroys cars and carhouse at 
Camden, n 474 

Newark N. J.: 

Public Service Ry.: I Continued I 

Liberty loan activities. '005 
Patriotism on the platform poster, 

Skip-stop instituted, n 681 

Staggered working hours tried at Cam- 
den, n 882 

Strike. 1107; Settled, 1158 

Traffic report, n 482 

Wage increase at Camden, n 1108, n 

Welded rail joints, '190 

Woman conductors employed, 1147 
New Bedford, Mass.: 
New Bedford & Onset Street Ry.: 

Fare increase granted, n 1115 
Union Street Ry.: 

Appeal against jitney competition, 

Twenty-ton sand car built in rail- 
way shops [Taber] *189 
New Brighton, N. Y.: 

Richmond Lt. & R. R. Co.: 

Air-operated doors and steps installed, 

Open car operation permitted, 298 
Ship builders operate cars to ship- 
yards, 1186 
New Brighton, Pa.: 

Beaver Valley Trac. Co.: 

Fare increase, n 109 
Package car service discontinued, n 

War data card for patrons. *186 
Newell. W. Va.: 
Newell Bridge & Ry. Co.: 

Fare increase, n 1032 
New England Electric Freight Association.: 

Organization and meeting. 175 

New England Street Railway Club: 

Annual banquet dominated by martial note, 


."Manufacturers' Night" annual meeting, 


New Haven, Conn.: 

Connecticut Co. : 

Coal, Effect of inferior quality upon 

operation [Wood], 573 
Compromise on wages accepted, n 1107 
Evolution of concrete poles [Harte], 

Freight ,rate classification [Curtis], 
323: Comment. 307 

Hartford. Fare brief filed, 588; Con- 
troversy settled, 620; Appealed by 
city, n 729. 830. n 992; Zone 
system rather than six-cent fare. 

Liberty loan activities. '604, *1059 

Overhead department economies 
[Harte], *494 

Poles, Proper wood for electric rail- 
way service with their respective 
values [Harte], *743 

Power-saving campaign [Arthur], 
♦412: 468; Produces results, 1152 

Safety code standards for transmission 
lines [Harte], 979 

Service increase ordered at Waterbury 
by commission. 296 

Steel supports for overhead con- 
struction, Virtues and limitations 
[Harte], *948 

Track spiral standardization [Dun- 
ham], 1017 
New Iberia, la.: 

Southwestern Tr. & Pr. Co.: 

Reduction in operation sought, n 992 
New Jersey : 

Bill passed to tax gross incomes, n 583 

Franchise rate limit removed by highest 

court. 1208 

Freight bill for electric railways signed 

by governor, n 482 
Notice of change of rate demanded by 

commission, 879 

Skip-stop adoption lies with company, n 


Tax bill on gross receipts passed, 677 

New Jersey & Pennsylvania Tr. Co. (see Tren- 
ton, N. J.) 

New Orleans, La.: 

Franchise report discussed. 202 

New Orleans Ry. & Lt. Co.: 

Community plan of operation likely. 

Rerouting conserves coal and elimi- 
nates congestion, 434, 1184 
Orleans, Kenner Electric Ry. : 

Foreclosure sale, n 250: Transferred 
to Orleans-Kenner Tr. Co., Inc., 
n 634 

Newport News, Va.: 

Newport News & Hampton Ry., Gas & 

Electric Co.: 
Aviation and shipbuilding accelerated 

by extensions of service. "1048 
New Publications, 254, 438, 832, 1034. 1169. 


Newton ville, Mass.: 

Middlesex & Boston Street Ry.: 

Fare rate schedule revised, n 638 
One-man car operation begun, 828 
Public represented on board of direc- 
tors, n 57 

New York Central R. R. : 

Bi-polar motor locomotives prove satisfac- 
tory [Katte], *564; Comment, 554 

Electric locomotive costs, n 1111 

Locomotives, Class-T design. 695 

Pneumatic tie tampers solve labor prob- 
lems, 1020 

New York City: 

Administration plans, n 56 

All-steel cars and Mayor Hylan, 674 

American Cities Co.: 

Financial statement. 1110 

American Pr. & Lt. Co.: 

Financial statement, 1161 

Bus line application put over, n 781 

New York City: (Continued) 

Cellini I CruMMtiiivii it it ' 

Foreclosure sale ordered, n 1027; Sold, 
n 1206 

Davlirh* savinir conference, n 583 

Dual Subway system: 

i3i'oauwa,j iiuc upeilvU '"'' 
Increase in mileage for 1917. 53 
Labor situation 537, n 1108, n 1158, 

n 1203 
New line opened, n 1024 
Priority orders for steel secured, n 151 
Rapid Transit deficits. 724 
Reiiejf proposed for contractors, n 
722; Bill signed by mayor, n 874 

Financial report of city lines, 293, 1026 

Electric Bond & Share Co.: 

Financial statement, n 1027 

Fare increase movement : 

Hearings, 437 

Lively discussion by mayor, railways 

and commissioners. 628 
Transfer charge refused. 1167 

Garfield order. Effect on railways, 183 

Hudson freight tunnel plans. 198 

Hudson & Manhattan R. R. : 

Fare boxes replace ticket choppers, 

Fare increase, 1115: Postponed, 1158 
Operated by government, n 383 
Steam lines may enter New York 

through Hudson River tunnels, n 


Women guards employed, n 158 

Hudson Tunnel bill signed, n 474 

Interborough Consolidated Corporation : 

Annual report. 248 

Interborough Rapid Transit Co.: 

Age limit for employees raised. 1158 
Ambulance donated to army, '535 
Elevated railway rebuilding under 

schedule traffic. *320 
Merchants' Association favors fare in- 
crease on subway line, n 992 
Publicity work sets public to think- 
ing. *217 

Squealing brakeshoes to be eliminated, 
n 984 

The Third Liberty Loan [Shonts], 

War activities of Major Belmont, 472 

War saving stamp advertising do- 
nated, n 1248 
Long Island R. R. : 

Financial statement, 1163 
Manhattan & Queens Tr. Corp. : 

Injunction against contract for future 
granted, n 1209 

Red Cross car, n 1033 

Thrift stamp car. *991 

Uniform of new design for women 
conductors, n 298 

Women conductors employed, n 158 
Municipal ownership bill again referred. 

199: Killed, n 430 
New York Rys.: 

Accident report, n 254 

Age limit for employees raised, 1158 

Converting cars to prepayment type, 

Court rules that commission has no 
power over depreciation rate, 1068 

Depreciation fund case decision, 199 

Employees appeal to public for fare 
increase. 1246 

Owl ear operation may be discon- 
tinued, n 1117 

Paving case won by railway, n 723 

Publicity sets public to thinking, *217 

War savings stamps sold. 784 

Women conductors. Labor bureau and 
federal investigation report, *1006 
New York. Westchester & Boston Ry.: 

Gutters on cars reduce labor and pro- 
tect passengers [Potter], *978 
North American Co. (The) : 

Selling service for a fair price [Put- 
nam], 851 

Passenger traffic report, 434 

Third Ave. Ry.: 

Axles welded with electric arc [Par- 
sons]. *1136 

Eliminating unnecessary lighting and 
heating in the carhouse [Mul- 
laney], 668 

Fare case dismissal requested by city, 
480: Increase hearing, 679 

Foot control mechanism facilitates 
operation. *977 

Reducing car lighting costs [John- 
son], *612 

Track spirals. Greater uniformity will 
conduce to economy [Rvder], 
*649; Comment, 645 
Union Railway Co. : 

Ordered to purchase more snow fight- 
ing equipment, n 109 
United Gas & Elec. Enging. Rys. Corp.: 

Power plant built with convict labor. 

Wage question before commission, 721 

West Side improvements: 

Recommendations of T. P. Shonts 150 
Report to legislature, 287 

Women employees, n 391 

New York Connecting R. R. : 

Electrical operation over Hell Gate Bridge 

Comment. 1081 

Overhead construction for electrification. 

•1043 Follows closely early develop- 
ment [ Murray 1, 1155 

New York Electric Railway Assn.: 

Annual meeting. 1232 

War Board work reviewed. 187 

New York. New Haven & Hartford R. R.: 

New 180-ton locomotive [Hill], »556; Com- 
ment. 554 

New York-New Jersey Joint Port Improvement 
Commission recommendations, n 474 

New York & North Shore Traction Co. (see 
Roslyn, N. Y.) 

(Abbreviations. "Illustrated, n Short news item.) 



[Vol 51 

R. : 



New York & Pennsylvania R. 

Property purchased for 

fieation, n 58 
New York Railroad Club: 

Annual "Electrical Night, " *556; Com- 
ment, 554; Addresses [Hill], *556; 
[Shepard], *559; [Armstrong-,] *561; 
[Kattel, *564 

New York State : 

Commission, Bill passed to consolidate First 

and Second Districts, 721 
Fare increase movement: 

Commission decision emphasizes neces- 
sity for local publicity work. Com- 
ment, 890 

Court decision. Blocks fare increases, 
696; Comment, 691: Makes situa- 
tion grave, 697; Blocks financial 
relief. 812 

Mayors' Conference has injured the 
public by preventing increases, 
Comment, 841 

Railways seek legislative enactment, 

Review of six fare cases, 636 
Rochester court decision renders com- 
missions without power, 811; 
Comment, 798 
Senate bill destructive of fare legisla- 
tion. Comment, 166 
Slow progress for relief, 590 
Status of higher fare [Conway], 
Transfer cases adjourned, 880 
Upstate decision causes trouble, 
ment, 947 

Fuel economy campaign begins, 42 

Legislature does little constructive work, 


Municipal jitney bus bill vetoed by Gover- 
nor, 1023 

Municipal ownership favored, n 538; Op- 
posed by merchants, n 583; Bills dead, 
n 722; Investigation, 1022 

Public service commission (see Public serv- 
ice and regulative commissions) 

Senate creates committee to investigate 

municipal ownership, 628 

Traffic rules for all cities made uniform, 


New York State Railways (see Rochester, N. 

Y., Syracuse, N. Y„ Utica. N Y.) 
Norfolk & Bristol Street By. (see Foxboro, 

Norfolk & Western Ry. : 

Electric locomotives have good record. 

North American Co. (see New York City) 
Northampton, Easton & Washington Tr. 

(see Easton, Pa.) 
Northampton, Mass.: 
Northampton Street Ry. : 

Fare increase sought, n 882, n 939 
North Carolina: 

Increased revenue sought by electric rail- 
ways. 296 

North Carolina Public Service Co. (see Greens- 
boro, N. C.) 

North Coast Pr. Co. (see Vancouver, Wash.) 

Northern Cambria St. Ry. (see Patton, Pa.) 

Northern Electric Ry. (see Chico. Cal.) 

Northern Massachusetts Street Ry. (see Athol, 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co. (see Akron. 

Northern Texas Tr. Co. (see Fort Worth, Tex.) 
Northern States Power Co. (see Chicago, 111.) 
North Kankakee Electric Light & Ry Co. (see 

Kankakee, 111.) 
Northwestern Traction Co. (see Brazil, N. C.) 
Norwich, Conn. : 
Shore Line Elec. Ry.: 

Test car investigates sources of waste, 

Wage increase sought, n 929 
Zone system in practice [Perkins], 



Oakland, Cal.: 

Municipal ownership urged by Mayor, n 151 

Oakland Antioch & Eastern Ry.: 

Reorganization to form San Francisco, 
Oakland & Sacramento Ry., 103 

San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Rys.: 

Fare increase sought. Hearing, 341 : 

Increase, 1208 
Franchise resettlement session resumed, 
n 1066 

"Key System News" popular, 1028 
Prevention of automobile accidents 

[Mills], 1195 
Skip-stop measures passed, n 546, 728 
Wage increase, n 1066 

Union terminal for Oakland mole planned, 


U. S. Shipping Board to construct new 

line, 1161 
Oakwood Street Ry. (see Dayton, O.) 
Ocean City, N. J.: 
Ocean City Electric R. R.: 

Fare increase granted, 881 
Ogden, Utah: 

Ogden, Logan & Idaho Ry.: 

Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 

Name changed to Utah-Idaho Central 
R. R., n 153 
Oedensburg, N. Y. : 
Ogdensburg Street Ry. Co.: 

Fare increase sought, 479 

Ohio : 

Franchise provisions ruled supreme by 

court, 1254 

■ Freight handling conference of interurban 

lines held at Columbus, 635 

Interurban railways suspend "limited" serv- 
ice to save 44; Present applica- 
tion for higher fare and freight 
rates, 1254 

Severe storm, 148 

Ohio Electric Ry. (see- Springfield, O.) 

Ohio Valley Electric Ry. (see Huntington, W. 

Oklahoma City, Okla.: 

Oklahoma Ry. : 

War needs of electric railways [Treat], 

Oklahoma Gas, Electric & Street Ry. Associa- 
tion : 

Annual convention, 1051 

Olean, N. Y.: 

Western N. Y. & Pa. Tr. Co.: 

Fare increase sought, n 1253, 1255 
Omaha, Neb. : 

■ Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Ry.: 

Fare increase sought, n 992, n 1032 
Wage increase, n 824 

One-man cars: 

■ Applying engineering and selling principles 

to electric railway transportation 
[Layng], »8 

Batavia, N. Y., n. 250 

• Cricitised by Amalgamated Association, n 


Edmonton, Can., *194 

Efficiency of reconstructed cars [Cooper], 


Favored by Captain Gonzenbach, 44 

Foot control mechanism facilitates opera- 
tion. *977 

Houston, Tex., n. 591, n 681 

Light-weight safety cars best for all con- 
cerned [Kaylor], 173 

Nashville, Tenn., n 729 

Newtonville, Mass., Operation begun, 828 

Pay-as-you-leave-car at Plymouth, Mass., 


Rome, Ga., Economical design [Wade], 


Seattle. Wash., 437, *576; Operation au- 
thorized, n 482 

Tampa, Fla., Operation begun, 154 

Vancouver. Wash., n 343 

Operating records and costs: 

Applying engineering and selling principles 

to electric railway transportation 
[Layng], *8 

Attention should be confined to essential 

transportation. Comment, 1123 

Checking devices for conservation (Economy 

Electric Devices Co.) 533 

Coasting at Chicago, 97 

Coasting records and instructions at New 

Haven, *412 

Conserve resources by abandoning unprofit- 
able lines. Comment, 601 

Effect of war conditions on cost and quality 

of public utility service, 75 

■ -Fares should not be obliged to pay non- 
transportation charges. Comment, 738 

Grand Rapids, Mich., Increases explained, 


Hand-to-mouth-purchasing policy poor 

economy. Comment, 99 

Increase mileage production per car, Com- 
ment, 1001 

• Intelligent economy the slogan for 1918, 

Comment, 491 

Motor equipment determined by service 

conditions [Squier], *748 

-Peak load. Advantages of spreading be- 
coming better known, Comment 554 

Progress in pulling down the rush hour 

peak is being made. Comment, 1178 

-Purchasing agents should be real factor 

in economy. Comment, 999 

Rush-hour service is not profitable, Com- 
ment. 1040 

— ■ — Train order register for interurban roads, 
(Standard Register Co.), "378 

— — Transportation engineers needed [Hoist], 

Unprecedented difficulties on railway prop- 
erties, Report of canvass, 231 
Organization chart of Fuel Administration, 134 
Orleans-Kenner Elec. Ry. (see New Orleans, 

Ossining, N. Y. : 

■ Hudson River & Eastern Tr. Co.: 

Fare increase granted, n 1116 

Ottawa. Can.: 

Ottawa Electric Ry.: 

Newspapers praise company's presi- 
dent, n 472 

Ottawa Traction Co.: 

Financial statement, 584 

Ottawa, 111.: 

Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Ry.: 

Fare increase sought, n 883 

Overhead charges (see Appraisals of railway 
property ) 

Overhead contact system: 

Aluminum catenary construction, 142 

Economies, Possibilities of [Harte], *492 

New York Connecting R.R., '1043 

Malleable overhead fittings [Turpin], 666 

Steel supports Virtues and limitations 

[Harte], '948 
Trolley ear length, Effect on wire-wear 

[Bolus], '975 

Pacific Claim Agents' Association: 

Annual convention, n 1024 ; Automobiles, 

'Inexperienced labor and accident top- 
ics, 1185 

Pacific Electric Ry. (see Los Angeles, Cal.) 
Pacific Gas & Electric Co. (see Sacramento. Cal.) 
Pacific Traction Co. (see Tacoma. Wash.) 
Paducah, Ky. : 

Paducah Traction Co.: 

Fare increase sought, n 729 ; Granted, 
n 938 

Paints and painting: 

Angle iron posts for car painters' plat- 
forms, *1197 
Pan-Handle Traction Co. (see Wheeling, W. Va.) 
1'assenger handling records : 

Short-haul rider contributes the profit, Com- 
ment, 691 

Queue loading in Detroit, 726 

Patton, Pa.: 

Northern Cambria Street Ry. : 

Fare increase sought, n 1168 
Foreclosure sale, n 634, n 933 

Northern Cambria Ry.: 

Organized to succeed the Northern 
Cambria Street Ry.: n 1110 

Pavement : 

— — Dasalt block in San Francisco, 98 

Concrete used between tracks at San Diego. 


Disintegration along rail-head prevented by 

new method, *1241 
Pavement plow as an economy factor 

[Cram], *519 
Peekskill, N. Y.: 

■ Peekskill Lighting & R. R. Co.: 

Fare increase, Rehearings asked by city, 
436; Postponed, 541; Increase, n 

Putnum & Westchester Tr. Co.: 

Fare increase, Rehearings asked by 
city, 436; Postponed, 541 

Pennsylvania, R. R.: 

Electrification, New Extensions, 672; Ex- 
tended to Chestnut Hill, '799; 
Comment, 795 

Pennsylvania Street Railway Association: 

Annual meeting, 1133 

Meeting, 150 

People's Railway (see Dayton, O.) 

Peoria. HI.: 

Illinois Traction System : 

Crossing accidents at Champaign, n 


Fares, Flat rate allowed, n 109; In- 
crease sought, 295; Hearing, 389; 
479; Need explained, 585; Case 
closed, 591 ; Increase granted. 
1029; Rates reviewed, 1072 

Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 

Holiday greeting, n 62 

Liberty loan activities, *606 

Private car for Illinois Governor, 860 

Publicity posters, '389 

Service changes, 1112 

Special rate cancellation requested, n 
Peoria Ry. : 

Wage increase sought, n 983 
Petaluma. Cal.: 

Petaluma & Santa Rosa Ry. : 

Annual report, 104 
Reorganization agreement operative 

Philadelphia, Pa.: 

American Rys. : 

Proposed uniform track spirals [Keen]. 

■ Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co.: 

Fare and wage increases coupled, 981 
Fare increase sought, 1031 
Navy yard traffic problems, 389 
Operating difficulties, 231 
Pneumatic door and step control, 765 
Power rate of electric company pro- 
tested. 101 
Seeks to have war taxes paid by un- 
derlying companies, n 1206 
Slack adjusters as a war-time economy, 

Strike. 1023 

Wage increase, n 874, 1106, n 1203 
Rapid transit lease controversy: 

Agreement shows foresight, 179 ; Com- 
ment, 166 

Approved by stockholders, 234 

Before public service commission, n 

Construction delay recommended, n 

Hearings, n 535, 673, n 874 
Lease objected to, n 722 
Measure passed, 55 
Signed, 102 

Report of department of city transit, "1196 

Union Traction Co.: 

Pittsburgh bond holders file bill in 
equity, 385 

Philadelphia & Western Ry. (see Upper Darby, 

Piedmont & Northern Ry. (see Charlotte, N. C.) 

Pittsburg, Kan.: 

Joplin & Pittsburg Ry.: 

Fare, Increase granted, n 546; Sought, 
935, n 1211 

Strike, n 384; Ended, n 583, 720 
Pittsburgh. Pa.: 

Fuel engineer appointed, n 984 

Pittsburgh, Harmony, Butler & New Castle 


Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 

Pittsburgh, Mars & Butler Ry.: 

Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 

Pittsburgh Rys.: 

City protests zone system, n 1116 
Emergency transportation committee 

appointed. 251 
Employees back fare increase petition, 
n 1108 

Fare increase sought, n 108; Increase. 
204; Results, *278: Revenue will 
be used in maintenance, 1254 

Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 

Interest payment for underlying com- 
panies arranged, 57 
Manufacturer furnishes power for peak 
load, 324 

Receiver, Application answered by re- 
quest for dismissal, 631 ; Ap- 
pointed, 825; Favors zone sys- 
tem, n 992, 1029 

Skip stop installed, 830 

Traffic changes recommended by com- 
mission, n 592 

(Abbreviations. *niustrated. n Short news item.) 

January -June, 1918] 



Pittsburgh, Pa. : 

Pittsburgh Rys.: (Continued) 

Valnntinn ^nrni-iipqip" -liosen, 582; 

Work started, n 088 

Wages. Xnuotio uti«... „ nt on fares, 

60; Agreement, 928 
Zone rate schedules, 1072; Objections 
heard 1 1 68 

Traffic investigation report, *848 

Traffic reeomuiisiKiatUmS ui u an sit com- 
mission. 148 

West Penn Rys. : 

Pare increase sought, n 831 
Power plant of great capacity, *264, 

West Penn Tr. Co.: 

Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 
Pittsfield, Mass.: 
Berkshire Street Ry.: 

Liberty Loan "tank," *857 
Plattsburgh, N. Y. : 
Plattsburgh Traction Co.: 

Financial statement, 1 067 
Pleasantville, N. J.: 
.A'lantic & Suburban Ry.: 

Fare increase sought, n 939 
Plymouth, Mass. : 

Brockton & Plymouth Street Ry.: 

Pay-as-you-leave one-man car, *241 

Plymouth & Sandwich Street Ry.: 

Operation suspended, n 827 

Poles : 

(See also Power distribution.) 

Concrete poles. Costs, construction and 

evolution [Harte], *1126 
Proper poles for electric railway service 

[Harte], *743 

Specifications for red cedar, 1152 

Port Arthur, Can . : 

Port Arthur Municipal Ry.: 

Statement of earnings shows net loss, 

Port Arthur, Tex. : 

Port Arthur Tr. Co.: 

Wage increase, n 984 
Portland, Me. : 

Cumberland County Pr. & Lt. Co.: 

Fare increase and zone system sought, 
339, 1074; Hearing, 479; Appli- 
cation for dismissal refused, n 
831 ; Increase suspended, n 1116 
Fuel saving, 183 
Liberty loan activities, '607 
Publicity methods for increased fares, 

Tariff suspended, n 546 
Portland, Ore.: 

City attorney wishes to change commission 

law, n 630 

Jitneys win out in election, 1065 

Portland Ry., Lt. & Pr. Co.: 

Accident prevention work [Boynton], 

Civic associations aid in abolishing 

non-operating charges, 823 
Commission ruling upheld by court, 


Employees' club appoints new of- 

cers, n 151 
Fare increase. Granted, 108, 184; Pro- 
tested by city, n 297; Action of 
commission praised. 337 ; In- 
crease appealed by city, 388, 437; 
Solution offered by franchise pro- 
posal, 477 ; Controversy threatens 
existence of commission, 479; Case 
closed, 543; Ruling of commis- 
sion upheld by court, 617; Ap, 
pealed by city, n 681, 728, n 831 
Financial statement, 1026 
Freight rate increase allowed, n 206 
Fuel conservation methods, 975 
Jitneys again become a problem, n 

Merit and demerit system revised, 809 
Revoke of franchise carried over, n 

Shop planning system, 869 
Wear on brake hangers taken up by 
spot welding, 1242 
Portsmouth, N. H.: 

Boston & Maine R. R. (Electric Branch) : 

Financial statement. 875 
1'ottsville, Pa. : 

Eastern Pennsylvania Rys.: 

Fare increase sought, n 938 
Operating difficulties, 231 
Wage increase, n 151 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y. : 

Poughkeepsie City & Wappingers Falls Elec. 


Fare increase, 1209 
Power (see also Purchased power; Sale of 

Power distribution : 

Insulation cutter for high-tension lines 

[Morse], *1101 
Montreal Tramways power rehabilitation, 

*72; Comment, 71, *449; Comment. 

Split conductor and aerial cable. A. I. E. E. 

meeting, *1229 
Steel supports. Virtues and limitations 

[Harte], »948 
Testing a line to see if it is alive [Mc- 

Kelway], 742 

Three-wire distribution [Harte], *495 

Vulcanized fibre. Electrical properties of 

[Eves], *238 
Power generation : 
(See also coal) 

Flash suppressor application, Comment, 891 

Government requisitions Niagara power, 


Hydroelectric development. Economies of 

[Townley], 177; Comment, 165 

Montreal Tramways power rehabilitation, 

•72; Comment, 71 

Power generation: (Continued) 

Power resources of the country, A. I. E. E. 

meeting, *1229 
Production of power in war times [Slade], 


Progress in power generation and trans- 
mission, A. I. E. E. meeting, *1229 

U. S. Chamber of Commerce asks that water 

power be developed, 627 

Waste of heat in fuel, Comment, 491 

Power stations and equipment: 

Circuit breakers, Importance of. Comment, 


Coal, How to increase the energy output 

[Smith], »953 

Cooling water for power plant purposes, 48 

Development in electrical apparatus dur- 
ing 1917, 47 

Electrical machinery progress and war- 
time problems are discussed at N. E. 
L. A. convention, *1181 

Feed water testing and treating [Smith], 


Manila reduces coal consumption by bonus 

plan, [Blaisdell] *308 
Montreal Tramways power rehabilitation, 

•72: Comment, 71. «1085 
Oil rehabilitation for steam turbines 

[Smith], *1131 
Personnel of railway power plant [Smith], 


Pressure-governor for gas and liquid sys- 
tems (General Electric Co.), '974 

Steam-ejector condenser air pump (C. H. 

Wheeler Mfg. Co.), '533 

Testing of water and other elements 

[Smith], *512 

Toledo plant construction progressing, 580 

Walnut Creek plant of Columbus Ry., Pr. 

& Lt. Co., '407 

Windsor power plant of West Penn Ry, 

•264, *314 

Power transmission: 

Steel supports. Virtues and limitations 

[Harte], «948 
Providence, R .1. : 

Providence, Warren & Bristol R. R. 

Freight rate increase, n 939 

Rhode Island Co.: 

Agreement on lay-offs reached, n 474 
Franchise relief conference, 873 
Freight business increases in period 

of eight years, *1003 
Largest company section of A. E. R. 

A. organized, 715 
Legislature orders commission not 

to change fares, 545 
"Looking Backward" souvenir, *82 
Liberty loan activities, '605 
Owl service reduction, n 158 
Pamphlet issued asking co-operation 

of automobile drivers, n 1168 
Power production in war times [Slade], 


Recommendations of special commis- 
mission defended, 591 

Six-cent fare recommended, 679; Re- 
fused in favor of zone system, 

State controlled utilities trust sug- 
gested by legislative committee, 

Wage increase, n 1024 

Who put the nick in the nickel, Car- 
toon, *411 

Zone fare system recommended for re- 
lief, 480, »570; Wins. 786. 830, 

Publicity : 

■ Advertising policy of British Columbia 

Elec. Ry. explained. 1113 

Advice request brings caustic response, 60 

■ Always best policy [Carraway], 280 

■ Brooklyn Rapid Transit publication, n 482 

Columbus. O., Increase fare movement, 


Commissions should be backed up by per- 
sistent publicity. Comment, 647 

Doherty properties consider publicity es- 
sential. 172 

Durham. N. C, Increased fare campaign, 


Fare increase cases should be thoroughly 

prepared before application [Geisse], 

First condition of peace. Comment, 69 

Fundamentals of successful transportation 

[Eddy], 91 

Illinois Traction Sys., *389 

Interboro Rapid Transit Co., '217 

Kansas City Ryrs. issues pamphlet on the 

problem of the street railway, *1228 

Modernizing an old fable [Dreier], 704 

More publicity needed [Hegeman], 1239 

Necessity for local publicity emphasized 

by New York decision. Comment. 890 
Need for increased fares must be explained. 


Portland, Me., Methods to secure increased 

fares, *456 

Proving itself in electric railway situation 

[Lee], 188 

Selling service for a fair price [Putnam], 


Shortcomings of railways should be dis- 
cussed, Comment, 165 

Public, Relations with: 

■ Appeal to shop early, 61 

Applying engineering and selling princi- 
ples to electric railway transporta- 
tion [Layng], *8 

Better public relations, 149 

"Clean-up week" co-operation. Comment, 


Complaints of poor service have potential 

value, Comment, 690 

Ft. Wayne, Ind., Bulletin on necessity of 

higher fares, 226 

Public, relations with: (Continued) 

Huntington, W. Va., Company praised by 

newspapers, 382 

-Monongahela Valley Tr. Co. adopts "service" 

slogan, 156 

Oklahoma commission co-operation [Mitch- 
ell], 1051 

Public control plan not municipal owner- 
ship, Comment, 1083 • 

Publicity futile without the proper organ- 
ization to back it up. [Dreier], 318 

Salt Lake company establishes publica- 
tion, »391 

San Diego Elec. Ry. issues monthly pam- 
phlet, n 62, 108 

Straightforward explanation not applica- 
tion for sympathy necessary [Mor- 
row], 1051 

Time to disarm criticism, Comment, 553 

Public service and regulative commissions: 

Back up the commissions by persistent pub- 
licity, Comment, 647 

Bill introduced to amend vestibule law. n 


California : 

Wartime problems discussed, 761 

Commissioner Santvoord's letter to Gov. 

Whitman, 287 

Commissioners confer on finances at Wash- 
ington, 475 

Commission made rates are paramount 

[Conway], 130 
Commissions working themselves out of a 

job, 1092 
Connecticut : 

Increase of service ordered at Water- 
bury, 296 

Fares, Need of increases should be faced 

squarely. Comment 446 

Fuel saving endorsed, 97 

Indiana : 

Blanket fare increase to interurbans, 

Change in procedure, n 148 

Freight rate hearing, 155 

Freight rates increased, 206, 271 

War attitude explained, 720 

New zone system authorized, *654 
■ Massachusetts: 

Approves zone system for Holyoke, 
•77; For Springfield, 663 

Boston Elevated Railway recommenda- 
tions, 272 

Decides through service case, 107 

Personnel changes. 1247 

Procedure explained, 149 

Reasons for railway crisis explained, 

Service-at-cost plan approved, 226 
Alews on railway problems, 101 

■ Massachusetts Legislature places Boston 

Elevated Ry. under public control, 
1057; Comment. 1040; Provides 
for public control of Bay State 
St. Ry. and other properties, 1093 

Missouri : 

Franchise rates can be changed, 1014 
Reports. 847 

Rules that it has jurisdiction over 

fares, 728 
Study of Kansas City conditions, 250 

Municipal counsel often deserve severe 

reprimand. Comment, 1001 

■ New Jeresy : 

Bill to increase membership, n 384; 
Increased, n 583 

■ New York: 

Appointments confirmed, n 430 
Bill passed to consolidate commis- 
sion, 721 

Commissioners confer on finances at 
Washington, 475 

Have they outlived their usefulness. 
Comment, 305 

Opposes use of turnstiles, n 883 

Rendered without power by court rul- 
ing, 811; Comment, 797 
New York, First district: 

Annual report. 334 

Gives companies little chance. Com- 
ment, 119 
Hearings, 150 

More men like Mr. Straus needed on 
commissions. Comment, 1125 

No power over depreciation rate, 1068 

Refuses increase to New York & North 
Shore Ry.. 125; Comment, 118 

Report, 526 

Transfer charge for New York City 

refused, 1167 

New York, Second District: 

Account conference with railway men 


Eleventh annual report, 1068 
Oklahoma : 

Praised by railway investor. 337 
■ Oregon : 

Fare increase granted at Portland, 184 

Fare increase ruling upheld by court, 

Portland fare case closed, 543 
Refuses^ to reopen iare increase , case, 

Ruling upheld by court, 587 

Advised by attorney-general that it has 
power to regulate rates, n 1108 

Docket crowded, n 1203 
■ Portland, Ore. wishes to change commission 

law, n 630 

Rate-making opinion of commissions dif- 
fer. Comment, 555 

Regulation of utilities. Will municipalities 

eventually control. 817 

Rules that soldiers must nay full fnre 

n 789 1 

Should receive greater recognition bv in- 
dustries, Comment 262 

(Abbreviations. *Illustrated. n Short news item.) 



[Vol. 51 

Public service and regulative commissions: 

Utah: „,„ 

Salt Lake fare decision. 340 
Washington : 

Will not permit employment of women 
in Seattle, 202 
Public service corporations : 

Financial situation improving-. .09 

Immediate relief a prime national necessity 

[MeCarter], 73 3 
Public Service Corporation (see Newark, N. J.) 
Public Service Railway (see Newark. N. J.) 
Public Utilities Co. (see Evansville, Ind.) 
Pueblo. Colo.: 

Arkansas Valley Ry.. Lt. & Pr. Co.: 

Gain in lighting and power busmess, n 


Puget Sound International Ry. & Pr. Co. (see 
Everett, Wash.) 

Puget Sound Tr. Lt. & Pr. Co. (see Seattle, 

Purchased power: 

(See also Sale of power) 

Dallas Ry. makes new arrangements, n 151 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co. protests in- 
crease in power rate. 101 

Putnam & Westchester Traction Co. (see Peeks- 
kill, N. Y.) 

Quebec, Can.: 

Quebec Ry.. Lt. & Pr. Co.: 

Fare increase sought, n 638 


Rail joints and bonds : 

A 140-lb. welding outfit (Electric Ry. Im- 
provement Co. ) , *580 

Arc welding, Economies of [Cram], *ol7 

Bonding equipment increased in usefulness. 


Convex versus concave bonding compres- 
sor screw terminals [McWelwayJ, o'. 7 

Grinding equipment [Cramj. *518 

Metal electrode welding [Treat]. 665 

Plates for welded joints (Atlantic Welding 

Co.), *532 . 

Vulcanized fibre. Electrical properties of 

[Eves], *238 A , 

Wear of rails. Early Experimental study, 

Brooklyn [Cram], *168; Comment. 

Welded rail joints, Newark, N. J. [Schrei- 

ber], *190 

Rails: _ 

Annual convention American Railway .en- 
gineering Association. 565 

British and American rail sections [Bland], 

*666 , „_„_ 

Cure for surface bends [Sullivan], *528 

Wearing of rails. Early experimental study. 

Brooklyn. N. Y., [Cram], »168; Com- 
ment, 167 

Raleigh, N. C: 

— — Carolina Pr. & Lt. Co.: 

Financial statement, n 1027 

Reading, Pa.: 

Reading Transit & Lt. Co.: 

Fare increase, 154; Hearing, 43o 
Strike, 1065 

Wage increase, n 1024, 1107 
Record Forms: , 

Train order register for interurban roads, 

(Standard Register Co.), *378 
Recruiting notices: , nA n 

Electric railway accountants needed, 1.^4/ 

Engineers and mechanics needed for avia- 
tion service, 247 

Engineers wanted by U. S.. n 56 

How to join army engineers, 581 

Naval opportunity for technical men, 983 

Ordnance department needs men °47 

Ordnance department opportunities, 778 

Signal corps needs electrical men, 630 

Trained men wanted at Washington, n 874 

Regeneration (see Brakes.) 
Regina, Can.: 

Regina Municipal Ry.: 

Operation loss, n 827 
Relays (see Switchboard equipment.) 
Repair shop equipment: 

Cutting gun operated by air saves time 

(Rivet Cutting Gun Co.). *979 - 

Drill for light work ( Ingersoll-Rand Co.), 


Drills and grinders. Portable electric, (Gil- 

fillan Bros., Smelting & Refining Co.), 

High-potential test set, *864 

Labor conditions control selection. Com- 
ment, 553 

Magnetic separator for screws and filings at 

Syracuse, *377; For Shop use, »772 

Motor dipping and baking equipment [Dob- 
son], *1149 

Paint gun. Economy of [Pettingerl. *464 

Portable electric grinder (Wisconsin Elec- 
tric Co.), *532 

Portable pipe vise (Gerolo Mfg. Co.). *330 

Series motors for emergency constant speed 

work [Foote], *1197 

Storage rack for wooden car-repair parts, 

Syracuse, 49 

Wheel grinder made from scrap material 

[Copley], *976 

Repair shop practice: 

Empire State shop notes. *93 

Grin^'ng wheels. QuP-k method at Dayton. 

O. [Merrick], '240 

Shop kinks not always real economy. Com- 
ment, 490 

Repair shops: , 

(See also Car houses and storage yards) 

Asphalt mastic makes good floor, 923 

Facilities for maintenance of special work 

[Cram], *1137 

Repair shops: (Continued) 

Guard rails for safety, *668 

Re-arrangement at Rochester, '530 

Shop reconstruction at Columbus O.. *97~ 

Statistics published by Census Bureau, 768 

Rhode Island: 

Municipal ownership of all railways agitat- 
ed, n 102 

Rhode Island Co. (see Providence. R I ) 
Richmond Light & Railroad Co. (see New Brigh- 
ton, N. Y.) 
Richmond, Va. : 

Richmond & Chesapeake Bay Ry.: 

Operation suspended, n 105 
Option secured on abandoned road, 

Richmond & Rappahannock River Ry.: 

Seven Pines line sold, n 106 

Virginia Ry. & Pr. Co.: 

Bonus to employees, n 538 
Franchise negotiations at Norfolk fail, 

Handling an extra hundred thousand 
workers, *1187; Comment, 1177 
Liberty loan activities, *604 
New franchise suggested for Norfolk, 

Rochester, N. Y. : 

Buffalo. Loekport & Rochester Ry.: 

Fare increase sought, n 391 
Interchangeable fares canceled, n 109 
Service order of commission, 637 
Wage increase, n 1203 

Citv will appeal fare case decision, n 343 

New York State Rys.: 

Car remodeling work. *773 
Danger signs. *240 

Dispatching trucks and work trains 

[CadleJ. »45 
Financial assistance sought from War 

Finance Corporation, n 987 
Fuel saving accomplished [Hamilton], 

270: Comment, 261 
Interchangeable fares canceled, n 109 
Liberty loan activities, *602 
Shop rearrangement, *530 
Strike. 981 

Ticket commutation book. *90 

Transfer issuing simplified by color 
scheme, *325 

Wage increase sought, n 874, n 983; 
Increase, n 1248 

Rochester. Syracuse & Eastern R. R. 

CA "K 'asnoEjits aas) 
Rockford, 111. : 
Rockford City Tr. Co.: 

Fare increase suspended, n 789 
Rockford & Interurban Ry.: 

Fare increase granted, n 158 
Rock Hill. S. C: 
Carolina Traction Co.: 

Operation suspended, n 153 
Rock Island, 111.: 
Rock Island Southern Ry.: 

Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 
Rockland. Me.: 

Rockland. South Thomaston & St. George 


Property ordered sold at public auc- 
tion, n 1110, n 1250 
Rockland Thomaston & Camden Street Ry.: 

Wage increase, n 1247 
Rome, Ga.: 

Rome Ry. & Lt. Co.: 

One-man cars of economical design 
[Wade], '769 

Rome. N. Y.: 

Rome Ry. : 

Accident from wind, n 474 
Roslyn, N. Y.: 

New York & North Shore Tr. Co.: 

Fare increase refused by First Dis- 
trict, 125: Comment 118 

Rutland. Vt.: 

Rutland Ry., Lt. & Pr. Co.: 

Partial abandonment of prorperty, 
n 986 

Survey of traffic for abandonment, 
n 1110 

Sacramento, Cal.: 

Pacific Gas & Electric Co.: 

Wage increase, n 1065 
Sacramento Valley Electric Ry. (see Dixon, Cal.) 
Safety first movement: 

Accident prevention work [Boynton], 1189 

Guard Rails. Pamphlet of National Safety 

Council. *668 
How a municipality teaches safety [Coffin], 


London Safety-First Council report, 1059 

Medal competitions. Comment 261 

Patriotic posters used at Akron, O.. 1090 

Prevention of automobile accidents 

[Moore], 1194: [Mills], 1195 
San Francisco, United Railroads pamphlet 

on automobile accidents, n 681 

Toledo. O. decreases accidents, 590 

Unpatriotism of recklessness featured at 

Akron, O. [Fenton], *234 
Saginaw, Mich.: 
Saginaw-Bay City Ry.: 

Fare increase sought, n 592 

Publicity campaign to increase fares, 
n 789 

St. Joseph Ry.. Lt.. Ht. & Pr. Co.: 

Fare increase sought, n 1074 
Wage increase. 721 

St. Joseph Valley Ry. (see Elkhart. Ind.) 

St. Louis. Mo.: 

Garfield order. Effect on railways, 183 

Interurban extensions and terminal urged. 

-Manufacturers' Ry.: 

Electrification plans adopted, n 428 

-St. Louis, Lakewood & Grant Park Ry. : 
Property sold for junk, 826 
Receiver appointed, n 105 

St. Louis. Mo.: (Continued) 

-United Rys : 

Conditions said to be local symptom 

of general disease. 1144 
Fare increase sought. 390. 544; Com- 
mission ruling. 477; Hearing, 785; 
Brief filed. 879: Increase, 988. 
1014; Insufficient. 1073: Appeal 
of city disallowed, n 1115; Re- 
sult of initiation, 1166; Appeal 
by city, 1253 
Financial reconstruction, 930 
Franchise, Controversy, 196; Approval. 
244 : Conference. 381 : Controversy, 
•468. 535. n 582. 590 
Fuel saving economies, 44 
Line truck for removing snow. *579 
Metal tickets for 6-eent fare, n 1032 
Ordinance, Expert will not be employed, 
n 62 ; Controversy, 675, 822 : 
Signed by mayor, n 824: Settle- 
ment and compromise. Comment, 

Publicity given to railway situation, 
n 538 

Receiver, Asked by stockholder. 103: 
Dismissal sought, n 294; Applica- 
tion denied, n 338, 386 

Referendum on franchise settlement 
asked, n 1024 

Strike, 291: Settled. 333 

Tax value fixed, n 987 

Third Liberty Loan boosting. *819 

Thrift stamp selling arrangement. Com- 
ment, 214 

Transformer repaired in record time, 

Valuation report. 783 

Wage, Demands presented, 429: In- 
crease sought, n 474; Conference, 
n 1024; Increase, 1106 

War Finance Corporation gives aid. 
1069: Assistance explained, 1109 

Women conductors employed, n 202 
St. Paul. Minn.: 

Motormen license bill rejected, n 722 

St. Paul Southern Electric Ry. : 

Receiver appointed, n 540 
St. Petersburg. Fla.: 
St. Petersburg & Gulf Ry.: 

Receiver appointed, n 986 
Salt Lake. Utah: 
Bamberger Electric R.R. : 

Fire damages substation and carhouse. 
n 1024 

Publication established, '391 

Snow plow equipment, *240 
Salt Lake & Utah R. R.: 

Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 

Ticket commutation book, '90 
Utah Lt. & Tr. Co.: 

Arbitration decision. 873 

Fare increase, n 158; Decision re- 
viewed, 340; Rehearing denied, 
n 391; Upheld by court. 1030 

Operation of one-man cars and charge 
for transfers sought, n 1117 

Wage discussion, n 824; Increase 1023 

Weekly publication begun, '589 
San Angelo, Texas: 

San Angelo Pr. & Street Ry. Co. sold to 

local light and power company, 
n 294 

San Diego, Cal.: 

San Diego Elec. Ry.: 

Accident fund dividend distributed, 
n 482 

Concrete pavement between tracks, 378 

Fare increase sought, n 1168 

Monthly pamphlet issued for patrons, 
n 62. 108 

Prevention of automobile accidents 
[Moore], 1194 

Skip stop inaugurated, n 1169 

Wage increase, 1065 
San Diego & Southeastern Ry. : 

Sale of property to San Diego & Ari- 
zona Ry. authorized, n 634 

Sanford, Me.: 

Atlantic Shore Ry.: 

Fare increase sought, n 1255 
San Francisco. Cal.: 

Joint operation suggested. 150 

Loop improvements increase service, 1202 

Municipal bus service extended, 984; 

Operation of private lines considered. 
383; Ownership plans of East 
San Francisco Bay Cities, 197; 
Railway traffic needs, 473 

Municipal Ry.: 

Auto bus traffic feeders, [Eckart], *327 
Sprinkler car for washing ballast in 

Twin Peaks Tunnel, *774 
Statement of earnings, n 387 
Twin Peaks Tunnel opened, n 151; 
Operation begun, n 383 

Southern Pacific Co.: 

Fare increase sought. Hearing. 341 
Government takes over electric divi- 
sion, 1021 

United Railroads: 

Auto, tower truck, [Foster], *281 
Auto tower versus horse-drawn tower 

[Foster], 143 
Basalt blocks make good headers, 98 
City sued for construction of com- 
peting lines, 1160 
Financial report, n 1070 
Municipal ownership negotiations. 536, 
n 630 

Pneumatic tie tamping cost, 974 

Safety pamphlet on automobile ac- 
cidents, n 681 

San Francisco municipal line sues for 
damages, n 781 

Tower car, Special features [Foster], 

Tower wagon with three platforms for 
pole painters [Foster], '815 

(Abbreviations. *Illustrated. n Short news item.) 

January -June, 1918] 



San Francisco, Cal. : 

United Railroads: (Continued) 

Uso of depreciation funds authorized 

by commission, 476 
Wages, Minimum guaranteed platform 
men, n 383; Increase, n 929 
San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Rys. (see Oak- 
land, Cal.) 
Sapulpa, Okla. : 

Sapulpa Electric Interurban Ry.: 

Abandonment protested by city, n 827 

Electrification progress, 652 

Schedules and timetables : 

Applying engineering- and selling prin- 
ciples to electric railway transporta- 
tion [LayngJ, *8 

Automatic acceleration. Effect on schedules 

[Squirer], *504 

Car delays at Toledo, Causes of, 147 

■ Detroit speed diagram, *107 

Headway recorder, Progress of (Nachod 

Signal Co.), *717 

Higher schedule speed aided by front- 
entrance, center-exit car, *120 

Interurban cars slow up city service, 405 

Reduced schedule speed at Detroit, Com- 
ment, 117 

Schedule speed must be increased to com- 
pete with automobile. Comment, 118 

Service restoration after interruptions, Com- 
ment. 446 

Turn-back service. Comment. 353 

Schenectady. N. Y.: 

Schenectady Ry. : 

Automatic signal installation. *1020 
Fare petition withdrawn, n 1073; In- 
crease sought, n 1211 
Strike, 1107; Settled, n 1201 

Scottsburg, Ind.: 

Indianapolis & Louisville Tr. Co.: 

Skip-stop in local interurban service, 
n 591 

Scranton, Pa.: 

• Lackawanna & Wyoming Valley R. R.: 

Wage increase sought, n 1066 
Fare increase sought, n 1253, 1255 

Scranton Ry.: 

Arbitration under way, 1107 

Citizen pleads for fare increase, n 546 

Fare increase sought, 342: Granted, 

n 437; Controversy, n 883 
Strike, n 1066 

Scranton & Binghamton R. R. : 

Receivers appointed, n 1110 
Wage increase sought, n 1066 

Seattle, Wash.: 

Donation bus bill vetoed, n 546 

Municipal, Car line operated at a loss, n 725; 

Ownership bond bill recommended, 198; 
Railway extension planned, 719; 
Fund provided, n 630 

One-man car operation authorized by city, 

n 482 

Puget Sound Tr. Lt. & Pr. Co.: 

Arbitrators' statement, 196 
Bridge suit won by city, 1923 
City anticipates fare increase move- 
ment, 434 
Claim department learns motorman's 

viewpoint, 822 
Commission ruling on car diversion 

not upheld by court, n 592 
Contempt case dismissed. 871 
Eight-hour day established. 983 
Fare increase sought, 251, 478 
Franchise relief proposal submitted by 

city, 1160 
Jay walker cartoon "157 
Jitneys restrained by court, n 1169 
Labor shortage, 155 
New round trip rates filed with com- 
mission, n 1169 
One-man cars in operation, 437; Bet- 
ter service with less equipment, 

Ordered to complete paving, n 1032 
Relief sought from franchise burden, 

Service curtailment protested, 61. 
Tax offer made to city, 292; Rejected 
n 387; Question before court, n 
678: Hearing, n 824, n 874 
Ticket and gross earnings litigation be- 
fore the court, 590 
Traffic problems explained, 879 
Value of courtesy [Hamilton], 1191 
Wage offer rejected, 872 
Waterway suit dismissed, n 630 
Women conductors, Employment not 
allowed by commission, 202 

Seattle Municipal Ry.: 

Extension bills approved, n 291 
Extension to Ballard completed, 245; 

Open, n 335 
Fares to be reduced, n 4.36 
Freight rate increase requested, n 1168 
Operation at a loss, n 337 
Safety siding saves nine lives. *1343 
Statement of earnings, n 387 

Seattle & Rainier Valley Ry. : 

Investigation toward relief, n 1032 
One-man car operation desired, n 298 
Relief from franchise burdens sought, 

n 1108 
Skip stops sought, n 938 

Seattle Renton & Southern Ry.: 

Receiver asked, n 201 

Traffic situation serious, 203 

Transportation service to shipyards im- 
proved, 638 

Selma. Ala.: 

■ Selma Street & Suburban Ry. : 

Foreclosure sale founds new company 

as Selma Traction Co., 677 
Sold under foreclosure, n 386 

Seneca Falls, N. Y.: 

Fare increase hearing, 990 

Service and tower wagons: 

Auto tower truck, San Francisco [Foster], 


Service and tower wagons: (Continued) 

Auto tower versus horse-drawn tower, 

United Railroads [Foster], 143 
Pole painters' tower wagon with three 

platforms [Foster], •815 

Power lifts on tower cars [Harte], *494 

—Tower car. Special features, San Francisco 

[Foster], *1129 
Shamokin & Mt. Carmel Transit Co. (see 

Mt. Carmel, Pa.) 
Shawnee, Okla.: 

Shawnee-Terminal Tr. Co.: 

Fare increase, n 158 
Sheboyan, Wis. : 

Eastern Wisconsin Electric Co.: 

Emergency rates granted, 343 
Fare increase granted, n 1117; Sought, 
n 1256 

Reduced rate tickets eliminated, n 729 
Shore Line Electric Ry. (see Norwich, Conn.) 
Signals : 

Automatic installation on Schenectady Ry., 


Fuse and torpedo holder for interurban 

cars, *1148 

■ High speed operation [Nachod], 136 

Telephone and telegraph system of New 

York Connecting R. R., • 1043 
Track impedance bonds for signal circuits 

(Union Switch & Signal Co.), «579 
Winking highway signal on Union Traction 

Co. of Indiana line, *1101 

Signs : 

Danger signs at Rochester, N. Y., *240 

Single-phase railways: 

Pennsylvania R. R. electrification extended 

to Chestnut Hill, *799; Comment. 795 

Reminiscences of early development [Mur- 
ray], 1155 

Sioux City, la.- 

Sioux City. Crystal Lake & Home Elec. Ry.: 

Abandonment permission sought, n 678 
Operation of line discontinued, n 1205 

Sioux City Service Co.: 

Wage increase, n 538 

Sioux Falls, S. D.; 

Sioux Falls Tr. System: 

Fare increase sought, n 1032 ; Granted 
by city election, 1113 

Sistersville. W. Va. : 

Union Traction Co.: 

Fare increase, n 992 

Skip-stop (see Stopping of cars) 

Snow-fighting line trucks at St. Louis, '579 

Snowplows (see Work and wrecking cars.) 

South Bend, Ind.: 

Chicago, South Bend & Northern Indiana 


Fare increase on interurban line 
sought, 1071 
South Covington & Cincinnati Street Ry. (see 

Covington, Ky. ) 
Southern New York Pr. & Ry. Corp. (see 

Cooperstown, N. Y.) 
Southern Pacific Co. (see San Francisco, Cal.) 
Southern Pennsylvania Tr. Co. (see Chester, Pa.) 
Southern Public Utilities Co. ( see Charlotte. 
N. C.) 

Southern Traction Co. (see Bowling Green, 

Southwestern Electrical & Gas Association: 
Annual convention. 813 

Southwestern Tr. & Pr. Co. (see New Iberia, 

Ibera, La.) 
Special Work : 

—Cost data on construction, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

[Bernard], *195 
Designed to give longer life [Whitlock] 


Developments at Brooklyn, N. Y. [Ber- 
nard], *863 

Difficult construction work at Washington, 

D. C. [Huntling], *1140 

Manganese crossings articulated for longer 

life (Barkwill Manganese Crossing 
Co.), •193 

Outside switch used in England. *1061 

Replacing special work at Denver, [Whit- 
lock], *375 

Shop facilities for maintenance. [Cram], 


Standardization of track spirals, Comnienf 


Track spiral standardization [Bernard], 

1017; [Dunham], 1017; Opportunity 
now to stimulate [McMath], 
1155: Simplicity is desirable 
[Weston], *1156 

Spokane, Wash.: 

Merger of local companies progressing, 875 

Spokane & Inland Empire R. R 

Fare increase schedule filed, 156 

Financial statement, 825 

Valuation, Report, n 301 ; Hearing, 
584, 985: Brief filed, n 1037 

Wage scale revised, n 731 
Spokane Traction Co. : 

Fare increase, 251 

P. A. Y. E. operation inaugurated, 
n 1032 

Uniform door and step operation 

adopted, n 1074 
Wage increase, 1347 

Washington Water Pr. Co.: 

Brake levers made in wheel press, 


Employment of women in railway 

work [AshtonJ, 1193 
Fare increase schedule filed. 156; 

Granted, 351 ; Increase sought, n 


Line car has air-operated tower, *51 
Valuation, Report, n 301 ; Hearing, 

584, 985; Brief filed, n 1037 
Wage increase, n 1303 
Springfield. 111.: 

■ Bus line application denied, n 781 

Springfield Consolidated Ry.- 

Tax case won, n 433 

Springfield, Mass.: 

Springfield Street Ry. : 

Car recommendations of commission, 

Sand storage for car service, *774 

Surface-bent rails, A cure for [Sulli- 
van], '528 

Wage increase, n 1212 

Zone system approved by commission, 
663, 882 
Spring-field, Mo.: 
■ Springfield Traction Co.: 

Fare increase sought, n 1356 

Wheel grinder made from scrap ma- 
terial [Copley], »976 
Springfield, Ohio: 
Ohio Electric Ry.: 

Air cut-off mechanism for existing 
equipment. *378 

Brake action insured on double truck 
cars, [Foote.] •282 

Car heaters. Circulating water in, 339 

Condensate, Automatic return from 
heating pipes to boiler [Foote], 

Fare increase sought, n 206, 252: 
Denied in Indiana, n "89 

Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 

Series motor used for emergency con- 
stant speed work [Foote], *1197 

Strike, n 1203 

Turning steel wheels, 145 

Wage increase for interurban men, n 
383, n 583 
Springfield. Vt. : 
Springfield Electric Ry.: 

Receiver appointed, n 1110 
Standard Gas & Electric Co. (see Chicago. 111. I 
Standardization : 

Lack increases cost of suplies [Harte], 


Track spirals. Greater uniformity will con 

duce to economy [Ryder]. *649- 
Comment, 645: Comment, 945: 
[Bernard), 1017; [Dunham]. 

Stark Electric R. R. (see Alliance, O.) 
Statistics : 

(See also Financial) 

Applying engineering and selling principles 

to electric railway transportation 
[Layng], *8 

Companies should give out their financial 

statements freely, Comment 739 

Electric railway car and mileage statistics, 


Encouragement and discouragement in 1917 

statistics. Comment, 70 

Financial wrecks of 1917, 39 

Freight handling possibilities of the elec- 
tric railways of the United States 
[Cole], *893 

Japan government railways, 724 

New electric rolling stock for 1917, 34 

Price levels for a century [Hagenah], 


Railway statistics of the United States 

New publication. 784 
Repair shop profits, 768 

Specialized research should supplement as- 
sociation committees. Comment 890 

Track rebuilt and new track placed in serv- 
ice in 1917. 36 

Sterling. Dixon & Eastern Ry. (see Dixon. 111.) 

Steubenville, East Liverpool & Beaver Valley 
Tr. Co. I see East Liverpool. O.) 

Steubenville & Wheeling Traction Co. (see 
Wheeling. W. Va.) 

Stockton, Cal.: 

Tidewater Southern Ry. : 

Operated by the Western Pacific R. R., 

Stockton Electric R. R.: 

Fare increase sought, n 1168 
Stokers (see Boilers and equipment.) 
Stone & Webster (see Boston, Mass.) 
Stopping of cars: 

Cincinnati abolishes double stop n 155 

Cleveland desires near-side stop, n 109 

Loading surface cars at 400 passengers 

per minute in Detroit [Cann], '88 
Skip stops : 

Baltimore, Md., 882. 1207 

Boston. Mass.. 1029 

Careful preparation necessary before 
introduction. Comment. 889 

Charleston. S. C. n 993 

Chicago, 111., n 1033 

Cincinnati, O.. Plans revised, n 789 

Dallas, Tex., n 546, n 993 

Dayton, O.. n 306 

Des Moines. Ia., n 591 

Estimated savings in consumption of 
fuel. 1102 

Essentials to success. Comment, 215 

Explanation of meaning. 786 

Fort Wayne, Ind., n 482 

Fuel administration issues skip-stop 
bulletin, 340 

Harrisburg, Pa., n 437 

Indianapolis, Ind.. n 546. n 789 

Kansas City, Mo.. Considered favor- 
ably, n 1117 

Louisville. Ky., n 1 255 

Massachusetts railways adopts for 
conservation, 988 

Nationwide adoption possible, 438 

Newark. N. J., n 681 

New Jersey, Adoption lies with com- 
pany, n 638 

Oakland, Cal., 738 

Offers opportunity to better service 
with existing equipment. Com- 
ment, 1081 

Pittsburgh, Pa., 830 

San Diego, Cal., n 1169 

Scottsburg, Ind.. n 591 

Should be adopted by every city to 
save coal, Comment, 1133 

(Abbreviations. *Illustrated. n Short news item.) 


Stopping of cars: 

Skip stops: (Continued) 

Small cars stave off jitney competi- 
tion, Comment. 1178 
Syracuse] N. Y., n 391 
Trenton. N. J., n 437 
Washington, D. C, Adds 15 per cent 
to service by institution, '849, 
830; [Beeler], 935 
Storage yards for cars (see carhouses and stor- 
age yards) 
Storage yards for materials: 

Asphalt plant used also for sand drying, 

Kansas City Rys. [Harvey], *46 
Strikes and Arbitrations: 

Atlantic City, N. J.. 1063; Settled, 1106 

Bay State Street Ry. agreement, 246 

Bonner Springs, Kan., n 873 . 

Boston Elevated Railway situation critical, 


Chattanooga, Tenn., n 33o 

Cleveland, O., Arbitration of wage demand, 


Dallas. Tex., Settled, n 722 

Dayton, O.. n 1203. n 1246 

Des Moines, la., n 630 

Detroit, Mich., Arbitration of wage request, 

823; Settlement basis, 928 
Dubuque. Ia., Arbitration of wage request, 

n 824 

East St. Louis, 111.. 1159. 1345 

Federal strike board appointed, 381 

Hamilton, Can., Wage increase recommended, 

n 874 

Kansas City, Kan.. 927 

Kansas City. Mo.. Settled. 674 

Kenosha, Wis.. Women employees, n 1066 

Leetonia. O.. n 1159 

Minneapolis, Minn. Arbitration report, 382; 

Strikers demand reinstatement, 430; 

Labor finding, n 538 

Monroe, La., 245 

Newark, N. J., 1107; Settled, 1158 

New York City, n 1158, n 1160; Settled. 

n 1203 

Philadelphia. Pa., 1023 • 

Pittsburg, Kan., n 384. n 583; Ended 720 

Pittsburgh, Pa., Agreement reached. 9,-8 

Reading, Pa„ 1065 

Rochester, N. Y., 981 . 

St. Louis, Mo., 291; Settled, 333; Union 

presents wage demands, 429 
Salt Lake, Utah, 873 

-Schenectady. N. Y., 1107: Settled, n 1201 

.Seranton, Pa., n 1066; Arbitration under 

way. 1107 

Springfield, O., n 1203 

Toledo, O., 197 

Union leaders should prevent sympathetic 

strikes. Comment, 689 

Waco. Tex., n 583, n 929 

Wheeling, W. Va., n 984 

Wilmington, Del., n 1107 

Wilmington, N. C, n 56 

Winnipeg, Can., n 1066, 1246 

Strong City. Kan.: 
Consolidated Street Ry.: 

Electricity replaces horse-car, n 247 
Stroudsburg, Pa.: 

Stroudsburg Passenger Ry.: 

Motorman makes a traveling record, n 592 
Substations and equipment : 

(See also Switchboard equipment) 

Automatic type: . . 

High time for more extensive installa- 
tion. Comment. 689 

Ohio Electric Ry., New type [Wensley], 

Savings effected by [Davis], *693 
Saving in material and labor [Lloyd], 

The automatic substation [Harte], 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, New elec- 
trification. 1198 
Design and operation for maximum effici- 
ency, Cleveland, O., *700 

Montreal Tramwavs power rehabilitation, 

•73- Comment, 71, *499; Comment, 

Operators, Suggestions for wartime employ- 
ment. Comment, 1124 

Remote control of heavy current switches, 


Switchboard equipment: 

Calibration of switchboard watt-hour meters 

[Smith], 716 
Combined disconnecting switch and fuse for 

outdoor use [General Electric Co.], 

Low tension dead front switch panel, *1241 

Switzerland : 

Electrification of Swiss Federal Railways, 

n 188 
Syracuse, N. Y.: 

Allen & Peck, Inc.: 

Reorganization, 1110 

Auburn & Syracuse Elec. R.R.: 

Interchangeable fares canceled, n 109 

Empire State R.R. Corp.: 

Angle iron posts for car painters' 

platform, *1197 
Fare increase denied, n 1255 
Interurban car axles, Experiences with 

[Metcalfe], *94 
Shop notes. *93 

New York State Rys.: 

Automatic substations. Savings effected 

by [Davis], *692 
Fare increase sought. Proceedings, 1072 
Inspectors, Instruction of, *379 
Magnetic separator for screws and fil- 
ings, *377; For shop use, *772 
Skip-stop extended, n 391 
Storage racks for wooden car-repair 

parts, 49 
Ticket commutation book, *90 
Traffic investigation report, 728 
Wage increase sought, n 847; Increase, 
n 1248 


Tacoma, Wash.: 

Free bus ordinance passed, n 298 

Jitney service resumed, n 638 

Municipal ownership proposal defeated, 

[Vol. 51 

Pacific Traction Co.: 

Investigation of service by city, n 1114 

■ Tacoma Municipal Ry. : 

Operating results, n 1070 

Tacoma Ry. & Pr. Co.: 

Co-operation from old and new em- 
ployees [Winsor], 1189 
Court decision denies application of 

company, 936 
Fare increase case to determine status 
of franchise, 629; Before the 
court, 727 
Franchise relief refused, 587 
Investigation of service by city, n 1114 
Municipal operation suggested, 471; 
Controversy, n 583 

Tampa, Fla. : 

Tampa Electric Co.: 

One-man cars placed in operation, 164 
Wage increase, n 1065 
Taunton, Mass.: 

Taunton & Pawtucket Street Ry. : 

Fare increase voluntarily paid to save 

road from junk heap. 199 
Part of property sold for junk may 

be saved, 876 
Patrons committee trying to prevent 
abandonment, 336 

Tennessee : 

Governor sees hopes of relief for public 

utilities. 1115 
State-wide appeal of utilities for rate in- 
creases, 1071 

■ Wartime utility conference with Governor, 

n 984 

Terminal Stations and Terminals: 

Akron, O., Interurban building, '465 

Freight handling electric railways of the 

United States [Cole], '893 

Interurban freight terminals [McMath], 816 

Loading and unloading stations to handle 

large fair crowds. Columbus. O., *846 

Rhode Island Co. freight terminal, '1003 

Tcrre Haute, Ind. : 

Jitney licensing measure upheld by Council, 

n 729 

Terre Haute. Indianapolis & Eastern Tr. Co. 

(see Indianapolis, Ind.) 
Tests of equipment: 

Testing organization of electric railways 

[Smith], '511 

Texas : 

Proper methods of taxation [Blachly], 1052 

Snowstorm interrupts traffic on electric rail- 
ways, n 198 
Texas Electric Ry. (see Dallas, Tex.) 
Third Avenue Railway (see New York City.) 
Third-rail contact system: 

Cloth tapes must be used with care, '377 

Tickets : 

Box-cutter for interurban lines. 111. Trac- 
tion System, *286 

Commutation book for interurban lines, *90 

■ Dallas, Texas uses metal tickets, n 298 

Metal tokens for St. Louis, n 1032 

Tidewater Power Co. (see Wilmington, N. C.) 
Tidewater Southern Ry. (see Stockton, Cal.) 

— ; — Annual convention of American Railway 

Engineering Association, 565 
■ — . — Mechanical ties. Advantages, (Dayton Mech- 
anical Tie Co.), *145 

Pneumatic tamping at San Francisco, 974 

Pneumatic tampers solve labor problem, 


Steel tie with advantages of wood (Stand- 
ard Steel Tie Co.), *532 
Titusville, Pa.: 

Titusville Traction Co.: 

Fare increase sought, 342 
Toledo, Bowling Green & Southern Tr. Co. (see 

Findlay, O.) 
Toledo. O.: 

Franchise proposals. 289 

Ordinance report ready for new mayor, 53; 

Plan described by New York newspaper, 
n 56; Plans, 582 

Toledo & Indiana R. R. : 

Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 

Toledo Rys. & Lt. Co.: 

Arbitration proceedings, 197 
Car delays. Cause of, 147 
City Council to take up wages, 873 
City wishes to abolish skip stops, n 729 
Fare and wage controversy, 1021 
Fare increase movement, 252; Increase, 

Financial investigation results, 777 
Labor investigator sent from Washing- 
ton, n 56 
Liberty Loan activities. *607 
Power plant construction progressing. 

Power station operated under flood, 
n 430 

Safety campaign decreases accidents, 

Wage increase investigation, n 674; 
Request moderated, 822: Contro- 
versy, n 929; Increase 982; Con- 
troversy, 1063 

Toledo & Western R. R. : 

Freight handling possibilities [Cole] 

Topeka. Kan.: 

Topeka Ry. : 

Line abondoned, n 57 
Wage increase, n 983 
Toronto, Can.: 

Municipal ownership voted, n 151 

Toronto Civic Ry. : 

Fare increase lost, 878 
(Abbreviations. 'Illustrated, n Short news item.) 

Toronto, Can.: (Continued) 

Toronto Ry.: 

Arbitration on employment of women, 
n 1203 

Basis of car order appeal, 1115 

Car shortage inquiry, 333 

Financial statement, 431; Outlook 

better, 724 
Fine imposed for non-compliance of 

service order, n 882 
Women trainmen objected to, 983 

Toronto & York Radial Ry.: 

Fire destroys carhouse and equip- 
ment, n 335 
Tower wagons (see Service and tower wagons) 
Track construction : 

Chicago Surface Lines great street widening 

plan, *609 

Electric shovels at Cincinnati, *534 

Elevated railway construction under sched- 
ule traffic, New York City,* 320 

Hand tools for way department, Selection 

and care of [Cram], '959 


Greater uniformity will conduce to 
economy [Ryder], *649: Comment, 

Limitations to standardization [Har- 
vey], 775 

Proposed uniform standard [Angerer], 

•868; [Keen], 869 
Standardization [Wilson], 926 
Track maintenance: 

(see also Storage yards for materials) 

-Annual convention American Railway Engi- 
neering Association, 565 
Built-up sections of track for diverting traf- 
fic [Whitloek], «770 
Labor-saving appliances. Respective impor- 
tance of [Larned] , [Harvey] , [Dunham] , 
[Steward], [Ripley], [West], 522; 
[Ford, Bacon & Davis], [Keen], 
[Hill], [Clark], 522 
Labor-saving methods in the way depart- 
ment [Cram], *517 
Pneumatic tie tamping cost at San Fran- 
cisco, 974 

Problems of the maintenance of way depart- 
ment [Cram], *357 

Specialties of labor a menace. Comment, 489 

Spring duties of the way department 

[Cram], *740 

Stresses hi railroad track. Report of A. R. 

E. A., Comment, 646 
Traffic Investigations : 

Applying engineering and selling principles 

to electric railway transportation 
[Layng], *8 

Boston, Mass., 313; Hearings before Com- 
mission, 660 

Buffalo, N. Y., 297, 341; Recommendations 

accepted. 203 

Dallas, Tex., 981 

Detroit, Mich., *420, 788 

Intercommunity League of the Southwest, 

War convention, 1114 
Montreal, Can., Moving cars through con- 
gested intersections [Gaboury], 233 

Organization effected by shipping board 

investigates transportation problems, 

Outside expert serves important purpose. 

Comment, 352 

Parked automobiles steal streets. Comment, 


Pay-as-you-pass car, How it was devel- 
oped [Witt], *30 
Philadelphia department of city transit re- 
port. 1196 

Pittsburgh, Recommendations of transit 

commissioner, 148; Report *842 

Shipyard transportation survey, 779 

Syracuse, N. Y., Report, 728 

Trenton, N. J„ Report by Peter Witt, 138 

Washington, D. C: 

Fifth section of Beeler report, *613 
First section of Beeler report, *223 
Report, Requested m digestible quan- 
tity. Comment. 214; Acceptable. 
Comment. 305, 342; Considered, 
542, 1030 
Second section of Beeler report, 312 
Staggered hour report completed, n 
638; Recommendations, *655; 
Comment, 646; Approved by gov- 
ernment, 787 
Suggestions followed, 390 
Third section of Beeler report, 405 
Traffic Stimulation : 

Preparing for changed conditions in inter- 
urban passenger traffic, Comment, 352 
Train Operating Practice: 

Brooklyn to operate two-car trains, 381 

Dispatching trucks and work trains 

[Cadle], *45 

Transfers i 

Color scheme to simplify issuing, *325 

More attention should be paid to transfer 

problems. Comment, 600 

Patriotic use for backs, 762 

Retaining a record of transfers (Macdonald 

Ticket & Ticket Box Co.), *50 
Inductive interference, Report of Califor- 
nia Commission,, 38 
Transmission Lines: 

Forces which must be considered in con- 
struction [Harte], *364 

Insulation cutter for high-tension lines 

[Morse], *1101 

Insulators. Re-use of, 495; Applying theory 

and practice to design, A. I. E. E. 
meeting *1230 

Safety code standards [Harte]. 979 

Stray power determinations [Ewing], *95; 

Comment, 69 
Trenton, Lakewood & Seacoast Ry. (see Lake- 
wood, N. J.) 

January-June, 1918] 



Trenton. N. J.: 

Differences between city and railway must 

be settled by commission, n 482 

-I Garfield order, Effect on railways, 182 

New Jersey & Pennsylvania Tr. Co.: 

Fare increase sought, n 437, 589 ■ 
Hearing-, 720, 789; Increase, 
n 1032 

Wage increase, n 783; Sought, n 1248 

Peter Witt report, 138 

Trenton & Mercer County Tr. Corpn.: 

Answer to city application filed, 388 
Car house being rebuilt, '471 
Chamber of Commerce urges fare in- 
crease, n 938 
Equipment found in poor condition by 

investigators, 935 
Fare increase refused, 481 ; Sought, 
988; Hearings, 1028, n 111(5, n 
1117, 1207 
"Going value" tax overruled, 631 
Indictments argued, n 430; Quashed, 

n 874; Appealed, n 1248 
Service hearing, n 592, n 1117; Con- 
cluded, 1168 
Skip-stops inaugurated, n 437 
Tax case appealed, n 102; Hearing, 
n 291 

Traffic recommendations adopted, n 

Transfer system revised, n 681 
Wage increase demanded, n 1108; 
Sought 1160; Increase, n 1248 
Tri-City Ry. (see Davenport, la.) 
Trolley poles and wheels (see Current collecting 

Trolley wire and equipment (see Overhead eon- 
tact systems) 
Troy, N. Y. : 

Troy & New England Ry. : 

Financial statement, 1067 

Trucks : 

Heavy trucks. Effect on economical opera- 
tion [Litchfield], '498 
— ■ — Radial trucks for power saving, *815 

Reduced-height truck for low level cars 

(Taylor Elec. Truck Co.) *51. 
Turbo generators and equipment : 

Large unit at Montreal, Can., *1085 

Windsor plant of West Penn. Rys., '314 

Tuscaloosa, Ala.: 

— - — Tuscaloosa Railway & Utilities Co. 

Fare increase sought, n 1169 
Twin City Rapid Transit Co. (see M'nneapolis. 



Union Electric Co. (see Dubuque, la.) 
Union Street Railway (see New Bedford, Mass.) 
Union Railway Co. (see New York City) 
Union Traction Co. (see Philadelphia. Pa.) 
Union Traction Co. (see Sistersville, W. Va.) 
Union Traction Co. of Indiana (see Anderson, 

United Engineering Society: 
Election of officers, 287 

Meeting and election to Engineering- Foun- 
dation Board, n 1159 
Uriited Gas & Elec. Engng. Corp. (see New 

York City) 
United Railroads (see San Francisco Cal.) 
United Railways (see St. Louis. Mo.) 
United Rys. & Electric Co. (see Baltimore, Md.) 
United States Bureau of Staadards: 

Digest of electrolysis bulletin, 621 

United States Chamber of Commerce: 

Annual convention. Business men can help 

win the war, 711: Utility relief en- 
dorsed, 763 

Asks Congress to develop water power. 627 

Delegates appointed by A. E. R. A.. 526 

Peak-flattening movement backed by bul- 
letin. 659 

Resolution concerning public utilities, 737 

United States Shipping Board: 

Emergency Fleet Corporation appoint- 
ments, 788; Housing- and service de- 
partments merged, 991 

Transportation service section organized. 


United Traction Co. (see Albany, N, Y.) 
University of California offers course on public 

utilities, 383 
Upper Darby, Pa. : 

Philadelphia & Western Ry. : 

Fare complaint withdrawn, n 681 
Urbana, 111.: 

— Kankakee & Urbana Tr. Co.: 

Wage increase, n 781 
Utah Light & Traction Co. (see Salt Lake, 

Utica, N. Y.: 

New York State Rys.: 

Wage increase sought, n 874; Increase, 
n 1248 

Ticket commutation book, *90 

Valuation (see Appraisal of railway property.) 

Vancouver, Can.: 

British Columbia Elec. Ry. : 

Advertising policy explained. 1113 

Employees magazine published, 778 

Financial statement, 584 

Jitney regulation left with city, 879 

Newspaper praise for operation, n 874 

Storm causes tie-up, *232 
Vancouver, Wash.: 
North Coast Pr. Co.: 

One-man cars satisfactory, n 343 

Electric railways seek relief, 879 


— — Electric railways seek relief, 879 
Virginia Railway & Power Co. (see Richmond. 

Visa'ia Electric R. R. (see Exeter, Cal.) 

Wages : 

Better salaries for technical men [Tech- 
nical Man], 666 

Bonus system : 

Dallas, Tex., n 983 

Manila, P. I., Reduces coal consump- 
tion, [Blaisdelll, *308 

Richmond, Va., n 538 

Cleveland decision liberal, 927 

Credit System on Chicago Motor Bus line, 


Increased revenue to offset higher wages 

[McCarter], 1227 

Albany, N. Y., 1107 

Allentown, Pa., n 929 

Alliance, O., n 1247 

Anderson, Ind., n 929 

Ashville, N. C, n 1247 

Atlanta, Ga„ n 722 

Attleboro, Mass., 1202 

Beaumont, Tex., n 984 

Birmingham, Ala., n 1108 

Birmingham, N. Y., n 983 

Blooming-ton, 111., n 1159 

Boston, Mass., Award accepted, n 630, 
n 1159 

Brantford. Can.; n 1108 

Cairo. 111., n 984 

Camden, N. J., n 1108 

Charlotte. N. C. n 1024, 1066 

Chickasha, Okla., n 722 

Columbus. Ga., n 929 

Dallas, Tex., n 383, n 428. n 675, 
n 983, n 1255 

Davenport, la., n 1203 

Des Moines, Ia„ n 430, n 1159 

Dubuque. Ia.. n 984 

Duluth, Minn., 722 

East Liverpool, O., n 1066 

Everett. Wash., n 873 

Fort Wayne. Ind., n 630 

Galveston, Tex., n 383. n 474, n 984 

Harrisburg, Pa., n 781 

Honolulu, H. I., n 824 

Houston, Texas., n 474, n 984 

Huntington, W. Va„ n 630 

Little Rock, Ark., n 1247 

Louisville, Ky., n 722 

Los Angeles, Cal., n 874, 1159 

Medford, Mass.. 1202 

Milwaukee, Wis., 982 

Minneapolis, Minn., n 1024 

Montreal, Can., n 1247 

Morristown, N. J., n 1107 

Newark. N. J., n 1160 

Oakland, Cal., n 1066 

Omaha, Neb., n 824 

Pittsburgh, Pa.. 60 

Philadelphia, Pa., n 874, 1106, n 1203 

Port Arthur, Tex., n 984 

Providence, R. I., n 1024 

Pottsville, Pa., n 151 

Reading, Pa., n 1024, 1107 

Rochester, N. Y., 981. n 1203, n 1248 

Roekford. 111., n 983 

Rockland, Me., n 1247 

Sacramento, Cal., n 1065 

St. Joseph, Mo., 721 

St. Louis. Mo., 1106 

Salt Lake, Utah, 1023 

San Diego. Cal.. 1065 

San Francisco. Cal., n 929 

Sioux City, la., n 538 

Spokane, Wash., n 721. 1247 

Springfield. Mass.. 1202 

Springfield. O., n 383. n 583 

Syracuse, N. Y., n 1248 

Tampa, Fla.. n 1065 

Toledo, O., 982 

Topeka, Kan., n 983 

Trenton. N. J., n 873. n 1248 

Urbana. 111., n 781 

Utica, N. Y„ n 1248 

Wheaton, 111., n 1108 

Wheeling, W. Va., n 384 

Wilkes-Barre, Pa., n 983 
Increases sought : 

Boston, Mass., 1158; Referred to new 
board of trustees, n 1203 

Buffalo, N. Y.. n 983 

Chicago. 111., 1022. 1066; Men appeal 
to Washington, n 1158 

Cleveland. O., 779, 821 

East St. Louis. 111., 1245 

Gary, Ind., 927 

Hamilton, Can., n 583 

Highwood. 111., n 1247 

New York City, 721 

Norwich. Conn., n 929 

Peoria. 111., n 983 

Philadelphia. Pa.. 981 

St. Louis, Mo., 429, n 474 

Salt Lake. Utah, n 824 

Scranton, Pa., n 1066 

Seattle, Wash., 872 

Toledo, O., Investigation. n 674; 
Results. 777; Request moderated, 
822; City Council to discuss, 873. 
929; Injunction controversy, 1063 

Trenton, N. J., n 1108, n 1160, n 1248 

War Labor Board discussion at Chi- 
cago important, Comment, 1124 

Waterloo, la., n 1247 

Wilmington, Del., n 929 

Winnipeg, Can., n 474 

Worcester, Mass., n 824; Offer rejected, 
Rates must be increased to pay higher wages. 

War Labor Board, 1223; Comment. 


Shopmen's wages not conducive to long; 

service, Comment, 947 

War Labor Board takes Detroit and Cleve- 
land wage situations under advise- 
ment, 1064 

Waiting Stations: 

Benches for interurban shelters and parks, 


Waiting stations: (Continued) 

Manhattan Elevated Ry. construction. New 

York City, '320 
Walla Walla, Wash.: 
Walla Walla Valley Ry. Co.: 

Fare increase sought, n 681 
Walworth. Wis.: 

Chicago, Harvard & Geneva Lake Ry.: 

Financial statement, n 932 

Ware, Mass.: 

Ware & Brookfield Street Ry.: 

Abandonment of operation, 336 
Auction sale of property, 678 
Property sold for junk, 827 

Warehouse Point, Conn.: 

Hartford & Springfield Street Ry.: 

Fare increase, 1028 

War Finance Corporation (see Financial). 

War Labor Board : 

Chicago meeting considers Detroit and 

Cleveland wages, 1064; Discussion 
brin gs out important points, Com- 
ment, 1124 

Distinct from Labor Policies Board. 1159 

Meeting at Chicago, n 1024 

Rules of procedure announced. 1022 

Report, 673 

Washing-ton hearing will consider many 

cases, 1201 : Rates and wages con- 
sidered. 1223; Comment, 1219 

Warsaw, Ind.: 

Winona Interurban Ry.: 

Fare increase sought, n 681 
Freight handling possibilities rCole], 

War-time conditions (see Electric railways). 
Washington. Baltimore & Annapolis Electric 

R.R. (see Baltimore. Md.) 
Washington, D. C: 

Beeler traffic report recommends staggered 

hours, '655: Comment, 646 

Capital Traction Co.: 

Axle failures. Reasons for [Dalgleish], 

Beeler traffic report acceptable. Com- 
ment. 305; Suggestions put in 
operation, 390 

Fuel economy recommendations, 267: 
Comment 261 

Liberty loan activities. *605 

Operating difficulties. 231 

Special work. Difficult construction 
[Hunting], •1140 
Government activities in utility problems, 


Government operation of local lines 

favored. 383 
Local companies appoint committees for 

close co-operation, 677 
Municipal ownership reported unfavorably, 


Rigid parking rules instituted, 1029 

Skip stops instituted. 830: Adds 15 per 

cent to service, *849; Approval, n 883 

Street car seats in 1868, 534 

Traffic investigation : 

Recommendations acceptable to both 

city and railways, 342 
Report, *223; Second edition, 312; 

Skip-stop data [Beeler], 925 

Staggered hours report completed, n 638; 

Approved by government, 787 

Transportation report of commission, 1030 

Washington Ry. & Elec. Co.: 

Fuel economy recommendation, 267; 

Comment. 261 
Liberty loan activities. '604 
Pneumatic door and step control, 765 
Student trainmen to be employed. 1113 
Traffic investigation report considered. 

Washington State: 

Electric railway valuation cut. 1250 

Washington Water Power Co. (see Spokane. 

Waterloo. Ia.: 

Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern Ry.: 

Freight handling possibilities [Cole], 

Wage increase, n 1247 
Waverly, N. Y.: 

Waverly, Sayre & Athens Tr. Co.: 

Fare increase granted, 342 n 1074 
Waynesboro, Pa.: 

Chambersburg. Greencastle & Waynesboro 

Street Ry.: 
Fare increase sought, n 546 
Waycross. Ga. : 

Waycross Street & Suburban Ry.: 

Property scrapped, n 105 
Welding. Special methods : 

Axles welded by electric arc. Third Avenue 

Ry. [Parsons], *1136 

Effect of arc on metal in and around elec- 
tric weld [Kenyon], 97 

Equipment kept in service, 810 

Government starts welding school, n 781 

Rail joints. Newark. N. J. [Sehreiber], *190 

Wear on brake hangers taken up by spot 

welding. 1242 

West Chester Street Ry. (see White Plains, N. Y.) 

Western, N. Y. & Pa. Tr. Co. (see Olean, N. Y.) 

West India Electric Co., Ltd. (see Jamaica) 

West Milton. O.: 

Dayton. Covington & Piqua Tr.-Co.: 

Fare increase, n 391 
West Penn. Rys. (see Pittsburgh, Pa.) 
West Penn. Traction Co. (see Pittsburgh, Pa.) 
West Virginia Traction & Electric Co. (see 

Wheeling. W. Va.) 
Wheaton. 111.: 

Aurora, Elgin & Chicago R. R.: 

Fare increase, 342; Sought, Partial re- 
lief granted, n 1165 
Freight handling possibilities [Cole]. 

Wage increase, n 1108 

(Abbreviations. *Illustrated. n Short news item.) 



[Vol. 51 

Wheeling:, W. Va.: 

Pan Handle Traction Co.: 

Arbitration of wage demand, n 984 

Steubenville & Wheeling- Tr. Co.: 

Arbitration of wage demand, n 984 

West Virginia Tr. & Elec. Co.: 

Arbitration of wage demand, n 984 
Fare increase gTanted, 1114 
Wheeling- Park will continue operation, 
n 538 

-Wheeling; Traction Co. : 

Arbitration of wag-e demand, n 984 
Fare increase sought, n 1256 
Fire destroys carhouse and equipment, 
n 287 

Property of Steubenville, Wellsburg- & 

Wierton Ry. leased, n 586 
Wagre increase, n 384 


Car hoists for changing- wheels, Montreal 

[MacLeod], *142 
Grinder made from scrap material [Copley], 


Grinding-. Quick method [Merrick]. *240 

Skidding: test on cast-steel wheels [Quinn], 


■ Turning steel wheels. Spring-field (O.) Ry., 


White Plains. K. Y. : 

Westchester Street R.R.: 

Fare increase granted, n 1115 
Wilkes-Barre & Hazleton Ry. (see Hazleton. Pa.) 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa.: 
— Wilkes-Barre Ry. : 

Wag-e increase, n 983 
Williamstown. Pa.: 
Lykens Valley Ry. : 

Fare increase sought, n 546 
Wilmington. Del.: 

Wilming-ton & Philadelphia Tr. Co.: 

Fare increase, n 1169 

Owl service discontinued, n 206 

Strike, n 1107 

Wag-e increase sought, n 929 

Wilming-ton, N. C: 

Tidewater Power Co.: 

Arbitration award, n 56 
Fare increase sought, n 1074 
Shipyard service helps win the war, 

Windows (see Seats and windows). 

Windsor. Can.: 

Municipal ownership plan carried, n 247: 

Sougrht by Board of Municipalities, 
n 983 
Winnipeg-. Can.: 

Jitneys completely abolished. 989 

Winnipeg- Electric Ry.: 

Bus line extension installed, n 681 

Strike, n 1066. 1246 

Wag-e increase soug-ht. n 474 

Winona Intcrurban Ry. (see Warsaw, Ind.) 

Wisconsin : 

Rules for employment of women, n 992 

Wisconsin Electrical Association: 

• Annual convention report, 624, 661; 

Officers elected, n 781 
Wisconsin Gas & Electric Co. (see Kenosha, 


Wisconsin Ry.. Lt. & Pr. Co. (see La Crosse, 

Women conductors : 

Adverse report in New York, n 939 

Baltimore, Md., n 1169 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit women meet the 

test, n 391: Employment a success 
[Williams] . 410: Must stand when 
riding- as passeng-ers, n 482 
Croydon. Eng\. 221 

Effect of employment on claim department 

[Ashton], 1193 
■ Electric railways " offer attractive occupa- 
tion for women. Comment. 119 

Employment as viewed from all angies, 466 

Employment is satisfactory. Comment, 1000 

■ Hudson & Manhattan R.R.. n 158 

Kansas City. Mo., n 206. *1147 

Kenosha. Wis., Operating- conditions and 

strike, *1147 
■ Labor bureau and federal investig-ation re- 
port on Brooklyn Rapid Transit and 
New York Railways, *1006 

Long- Island City, N. Y., Novel uniform, 

n 298 

Manhattan & Queens Tr. Co., n 158 

Newark. N. J., 1147 

New York City, n 391 

Protecting- legislation, 291 

Protested by unions at Brooklyn, N. Y., 


St. Louis. Mo., n 202 

Toronto Ry. employees object to their em- 
ployment, 983; Arbitration, n 1203 

Women conductors: (Continued) 

Wisconsin makes rules for employment, 

n 992 

Woodstock & Sycamore Tr. Co. (see Genoa, 111.) 

Worcester. Mass.: 

Worcester Consolidated Street Ry.: 

Fare increase soug-ht, n 1115 
New freight station, n 158 
Wagre increase soug-ht. n 824: Offer 
rejected, n 1065; Increase, n 1202 

Worcester & Warren Street Ry. (see Brook- 
field. Mass.) 

Work and wrecking: cars: 

Crane car built in Denver shops [Mc- 

Aloney]. *772 
Line car with air-operated tower, Spokane, 


Motor car with turntable attachment. '766 

Snow plow equipment: 

Chicago, Made from sprinklers and 

work cars. *2S5. *332 
Salt Lake, Utah. "240 

Sprinkler car for washing- ballast in tun- 
nel, *774 

Tower car. Special features. San Francisco 

[Foster], "1129 
Twentv-ton sand car built in railway shop. 

New Bedford [Taber], *189 


Yards (see Carhouses and storag-e yards; Stor- 
age yards for materials) 
Yazoo City, Miss.: 

Municipal line to continue operation, n 151 

York. Pa.: 
York Rys. : 

Fare increase sought, 1254 

Financial statement, 585 
Youngstown. O.: 

Mahoning & Shenango Ry. & Lt. Co.: 

Car situation explained by employees, 


Fare increase denied, 252; Sought, 
n 1032 

Liberty loan activities. *607 
Service ordered increased by city, n 254 
Ticket books for employees, n 761 
Youngstown & Ohio RiverR.R. (See Leetonia, O.) 


Zone system (see Fares) 

Foster, S. L. : (Continued) 

Pole painters' tower wagon with three 

platforms, *815 
Special features of San Francisco tower 

car, *1129 

Fowler, E. W. Liberty loan activities at Peoria, 
111., «506 


Gaboury, A. Moving cars through congested in- 
tersection, 233 

Gadsden, P. H. Electric freight handling neces- 
sary to the war, 889 

Federal government can raise utility rates 


Helping to win the war, 714 

Geisse, Harold L. Prepare your commission 

cases thoroughly, 698 
Gonzenbach. Ernest. Light cars favored, 44 
Goodyear, T. D. Meeting war burden in Croy 

don, 220 

Gould, L. E. Economy of checking devices for 
motormen, 1103 


Hagenah, William J. No sudden decline in price 
level, «970 

Hague F. T. New flash suppressor applied on 
the St. Paul. 858 . „„„ 

Hamilton, F. M. The value of courtesy, 1191 

Hamilton, James F. Liberty loan activities at 
Rochester, N. Y., *602 

Rochester lines save coal, 270 

Hammond. W. S. Heating does not account for 
all the winter increase, 577 

Hanna J. H. Liberty loan activities at Wash- 
ington, D. C. *605 

Harte, Charles R. Certain overhead department 
economies, *492 

Concrete poles are in the process of evolu- 
tion. '1126 

Getting the right wood poles for electric 

railway service, *743 
The forces which act upon a transmission 

line, *364 

Virtues and limitations of steel sup- 
ports in overhead construction, *948 

Harvey, A. E. Asphalt plant used also for sand 
drying, '46 

Limitations in track spiral standardization, 


Respective values of labor-saving appli- 
ances in track work. 52? 

Hegeman B. A. More publicity needed. 1239 

Hellmund. 'R. E. Ventilated motors during a 
strenuous winter, *507 

Hemming, R. N. Should larger axles be used 
on electric railway cars, 423 

Hill E R. New 180-ton locomotives for the 
New Haven R. R., *556 

Hill, F. H. Respective values of labor-saving 
appliances in track work, 522 

Hoist E W. Transportation engineers needed, 

Huntling, H. P. An unusually difficult special 
work job, '1140 


Johnson, Arthur R. Reducing car lighting costs 
from 36 cents to 8 cents per 1000 
car-miles, *612 


Angerer, V. Proposed uniform standard track 
spirals, *868 

Armstrong. A. H. 3000-volt gearless locomo- 
tive for the St. Paul, *561 

Arthur, William. Connecticut Company power- 
saving campaign, *412 

Tremendous demand for motormen's power- 
saving books. 667 

Ashton, Thomas G. Employment of women in 
railway work, 1193 


Beeler, John A. Further data on Washington 
skip stop. 925 

Bernard, M. Cost data on special work con- 
struction, "195 

How various types of special work layouts 

have been developed in Brooklyn, *863 

Limitations in track spiral standardization, 


Blachly, F. F. How should utilities be taxed, 

Blaisdell, B. H. Bonus plan reduces coal con- 
sumption at Manila, '308 

Bolus, G. H. Trolley ear length is a factor in 
wire- wear. *975 

Boynton, B. F. Accident prevention work, 1189 

Brackett. Q. A. Selecting lightning arrester 
types to suit requirements, *1145 

Brown, James W. Decreasing governor main- 
tenance, *93 

-Removing worn controller parts, *144 

Brush, M. C. Liberty loan activities at Boston, 
Mass.. *606 

Budd, Britton I. Liberty loan activities at Chi- 
cago, 111.. *606 

Busby, L. A. Liberty loan activities at Chi- 
cago, III., '602 


Cadle, C. L. Dispatching trucks and work 
trains, *45 

Campbell, John M. How one company cured 

"jitneyitis," 233 
Cann, W. E. Loading surface cars at 400 

passengers per minute in Detroit, 


Can-away, Leake. Publicity always the best 
policy, 280 

Clark, Charles H. Respective values of labor- 
saving appliances in track work. 522 

Coates, Frank R. Liberty loan activities at 
Toledo. O.. *607 

Coffin, H. P. How a municipality teaches 
safety. 1192 

Cole, A. B. Electric railways are in a position 
to haul more freight. *793 

Conway. Thomas. Jr. Commission made rates 
are paramount. 130 

The status of the higher fare, 1235 

Cooper, H. S. Are reconstructed safety , cars 
worth while, 1200 

Copley, C. H. Efficient wheel grinder made from 
scrap material. *976 

Cram, R. C. Early experimental study or rail 
wear. *168 

Keeping the track special work in repair, 



Cram R, C: (Continued) 

Labor-saving methods in the way depart- 
ment, *517 

Selecting and caring for hand tools used 

by way department, *959 
What the maintenance of way department 

does. *357 

What the way department finds it must do 

in the spring, *740 

Curtis, V. S. Progress toward simpler classifi- 
cation for electric railway freight, 323 


Dalgleish, R. H. Axles failures are not all due 
to defects in manufacture 380 

Davies. H. J. Liberty loan activities at Cleve- 
land. O., '606 

Davis, H. E. Savings effected by automatic 
substations, *692 

Dawson, Philip. R. W. Blackwell and the elec- 
tric railway industry, 867 

Dee. John. Reasons for axle failure. 280 

Dickson, E. J. Liberty loan activities at Buffa- 
lo. N. Y., *605 

Dobson, J. V. Dipping and baking railway mo- 
tors will decrease troubles *1149 

Doherty, Henry L. Present railwav situation 
will prove blessing, 222 

Dreier. Thomas. An old fable modernized, 704 

The asininity of trying to get blood out of 

a turnip, 318 

Dunham, W. R., Jr. Limitations in track 
spiral standardization, 1017 

Respective values of labor-saving appliances 

in track work, 522 


Eckart, N. A. Municipal auto bus traffic feed- 
ers at San Francisco. *327 

Eddy, H. C. Fundamentals of successful trans- 
portation, 91 

Eves, William 3rd. Electrical properties of vul- 
canized fibre, *238 

Ewing, D. D. Better co-operation between rail- 
ways and technical schools is desir- 
able, 423 

-Determing stray power of a transmission 

line, *95 


Fenton, E. Bert. Safety campaign with new 
note. «234 

Folwell, C. W. Scale impedes hot water cir- 
culation, 925 

Foote. F. J. Automatic return for condensate 
from heating pipes to boiler, *765 

Insuring action of brakes on double truck 

cars, *282 

Using a series motor for emergency con- 
stant speed work "1197 

Ford, A. H. Liberty loan activities at Port- 
land, Me.. '607 

Ford, Bacon & Davis. Respective values of 
labor-saving appliances in track work, 

Forse, W. H. Liberty loan activities at Ander- 
son. Ind., *603 

Foster, S. L. Auto tower truck with engine 
raised tower, *281 

Auto tower versus horse-drawn tower, 143 

(Abbreviations. "Illustrated, n Short news item.) 

January-June, 1918] 




Karow, Edward. Liberty loan activities at 

Minneapolis, Minn., *603 
Katte, E. B. New York Central well satisfied 

with its bipolar motor locomotives, 


Kaylor, W. G. Light- weight safety cars best 
for all concerned. 173 

Kealy, Philip J. Liberty loan activities at Kan- 
sas City, Mo., *6Q6 

Keen, C. G. Proposed uniform track spirals, 

Respective values of labor-saving- appliances 

in track work, 522 
Kenyon, O. A. Effect of arc on metal in and 

around electic weld, 97 


Lambert, M. B. Better ear maintenance an ur- 
gent necessity, *524 

Larned, J. M. Respective values of labor-saving 
appliances in track work, 522 

Layng, J. F. Applying engineering and sellling 
principles to electric railway trans- 
portation, *8 

Lee, Ivy. Publicity fermenting in the electric 
railway sittiation, 188 

Lintern, William. Electric railways vs. motor 
trucks, 926 

Litchfield, Norman Car axles, their design, 
manufacture and service, *235, *283. 

Car bodies must be designed for economy 

as well as strength, *754 

Classifying passenger ears for given condi- 
tions, *370 

How the underframe contributes to the 

durability of the car body, 1142 

Savings attainable with present-day car 

design, '496 

Steel ear body is well adapted to resist 

unusual stresses, *965 

Lloyd, Charles F. Why the automatic sub- 
station saves materials and labor, 


MacLeod, Keith. Six-motor multiple-unit trains 

for Montreal, *403 
Using ear hoists for charging car wheels, 


M., E. B. To zone or not to zone, 775 
McAloney W. H. Crane car built in Denver 

shops, *772 

Reclaiming warped resistance girds, '47 

MeCarter, Thomas N. Immediate relief is a 

prime national necessity, 713 
Increased revenue to offset higher wages, 


McKelway, G. H. Convex versus concave bond- 
ing compressor screw terminals, 527 

Testing a line to see if it is alive, 742 

McMath, Thomas B. The interburban freight 
terminal, 816 

There is a great opportunity now to stim- 
ulate standardization 1155 

McMeen, Samuel G. Liberty loan activities at 
Columbus, O., «606 

Merrick, J. F. Quick method of grinding 
wheels, '240 

Metcalfe, A. B. Experiences with interburban 
car axles. *93 

Mills, J. F. Prevention of automobile acci- 
dents, 1195 

Mitchell, A. L. Relation between public and 
utility, 1051 

Moore, W. H. Prevention of automobile ac- 
cidents, 1194 

Morrow, W. W. Instilling the public-relations 
ideas, 1051 

Morse, O. P. Cutting loose insulation from 
overhead lines, *11()1 

Mullaney. T. F. Eliminating unnecessary light- 
ing and heating in the carhouse. 008 

Murray, W. S. E. H. McHenry's contribution to 
single- phase development, 1155 


Nachod, Carl P. Signals operated at high 
speed, 136 


O'Toole, J. L. Liberty loan activities at New- 
ark, N. J„ *605 


Parsons, R. H. Reclaiming car axles by weld- 
ing, *1136 

Perkins, R. W. The zone system in practise, 

Pettinger, C. M. Paint gun conduces to econ- 
omy in the shop. *464 

Potter, A. E. Liberty loan activities at Prov- 
idence, R. I., '605 

Potter, R. R. Gutters on cars reduce labor of 
cleaning and protect passengers, *978 

Putnam, Frank. Selling service for a fair price, 

What the rail rate raise means, 1103 


Quinn, Howard W. Skidding test on cast-steel 
wheels, 1102 


Rice, E. W. Jr. Railroad electrification and 
conservation of national resources 

Ripley, J. P. Respective values of labor-sav- 
ing appliances in track work, 522 

Ryder, M. T. Greater uniformity in track 
spirals will conduce to economy, *649 


Schloss, L. B. Liberty loan activities at Wash- 
ington. D. C, *604 
Schreiber, Martin. Welded rail joints. 190 
Shepard, F. H. Further railroad electrification 
important, *4 

266-ton locomotive for the St. Paul, «559 

Shonts. T. P. The cause is holy; the effort 
timely, 602 

Slade, Walter C. Power production in war 
times. 567 

Smith, Hartley LeH. Calibration of switch- 
board watt-hour meters. 716 

Electric railway power plant and its per- 
sonnel, '361 

Getting more energy out of coal in the 

power plant, *953 

Keeping power plant oil in good condition, 


Testing and treating power plant feed wa- 
ter, *751 

The testing organization of electric rail- 
ways, *511 

Squier, C. W. Betterments available in car 
equipment, *500 

Considerations in the choice of car equip- 
ment, *354 

Current and power curves show results to 

be expected of motors, *1134 

Squier: (Continued) 

Proper analysis is fundamental in choosing 

railway motors, '956 

Service conditions determine car equipment 

characteristics, *748 

Stevens, R. P. Liberty loan activities at 
Youngstown, O., '007 

Stewart, H. M. Respective values of labor-sav- 
ing appliances in track work, 522 

Storer, N. W. New flash supressor applied on 
the St. Paul. 858 

Storrs. L. S. Company section, advocated, 136 

Liberty loan activities at New Haven, 

Conn.. *604 

Sullivan, H. K. A cure for surface-bent rails, 


Taber, George C. New twenty-ton sand car 

built in railway shop. 189 
Townley, Calvert. Economics of hydroelectric 

power development, 177 
Treat. Dean. Metal electrode welding. 655 
Treat, G. B. War needs of electric railways, 


Turpin, M. C. Malleable iron overhead fit- 
tings, 666 


Van Driesen. A. C. The work of the Account- 
ants' Association of the C. E. R. A., 


Wade, A. One-man ears of economical design, 

Wagner, R. T. Protecting car equipment ef- 
fectively against lightning. *758 

Wav, A. P. Insulated negative return feeder 
system satisfactory at Lynchburg, Va., 

Weatherwax, H. B., Higher fares essential. 1234 

Liberty loan activities at Albany, N. Y., 


Wefel, W. C. Reducing lighting maintenance 
costs. 978 

Wenslev, R. J. Automatic substation of new 

type on Ohio Electric, *707 
West, E. A. Respective values of labor-saving 

appliances in track work, 522 
Weston, George. Simplicity in track spiral 

standards is desirable, *1156 
Wheelwright. Thomas. Liberty loan activities 

at Richmond. Va., *604 
Whitloek. W. L. Built-up sections of track for 

diverting traffic, *770 

Replacing downtown special work, *375 

Special work designed to give longer life. 


Wilcoxon, C. N. ■ Radical readjustment neces- 
sary. 454 

Williams, T. S. Make the liberty loan your 
business. 603 

Women successful as conductors, 416 

Wilson, George L. Track spiral standardiza- 
tion, 926 

Wilson, J. A. Light interburban car for Mon- 
treal & Southern Counties Railway, 

Winsor. H. G. Old and new employees. 1189 
Witt. Peter. How the pay-as-you-pass ear was 

developed. *30 
Use auto trucks with flanged wheels and 

demountable rubber tires for freight 

delivery. 1200 
Wood, George E. Struggling with poor coal, 


Woods, G. M. Freight motive power equip- 
ment, •1055 

Wynne, F. E. Railroad electrification as a war 
measure. 81 


Abell, Horace A., 1075 
Ackerson, D. Hayward, 1118 
Ahrens, Howard E., 790 
Alexander, Harry W., 593 
Alexander, Joseph H., 682 
Andrews. J. W., 439 
Armistead, Lewis A., 833 
Arthur, F. W., 993 
Atherton, Henry F„ *344 
Atwood, W. B., 1213 
Austin, W. C. 393 
Aylesworth, M. H., 299 


Babcock, C. A., 548 
Babcock, Darton L., 1171 
Baeeher, Joseph S„ 160 
Bailey, W. T„ 483 
Baker, George, 299 
Baker, George E., 63 
Baker, Richard Ward, 731 
Baker, William, 594 
Ballantine, Arthur A., 393 
Ballentyne, C. G., 62 
Ballou, Roy, 255 
Barnhart, J. D., 299 
Bauer, John, 940 
Beaverbrook, Lord, 547 
Bellmer, William F„ 393 
Bennett, C. E., 346 
Bennett, W. H„ 682 
Bergen, George T„ 346 
Bird, W. M., 62 
Birkett, M. W.. 1257 
Bissell, William, 940 

Black, Charles N., 160 
Blackwell, R. W., 731 
Blaikie, G. H„ 730 
Blain, H. E., 730 
Boardman, Ralph, 439 
Boeken, Fred., *63 
Bonflls, Joseph E., Jr., 940 
Bowers, John M., 548 
Bowles, J. D„ 594 
Brazel. O, 940 
Brewster, Floyd L„ '593 
Brill, John F., 159 
Brooks, Henry N., 791 
Brown, F. L., 207 
Brown, Harry L„ 256, 392 
Brown, J. W., *884 
Brownell, Frederick G., 940 
Bruce, David, 344 
Brush, G. Sabin, 392 
Brush, M. C, *1170 
Buckland. Edward G., 1258 
Buffe. F. G., 730 
Bullock, Harry A., 1118 
Burke, Thomas P., 110, 159 
Burkholder, J. L„ 1118 
Burrowes, Edward T., 1034 
Bush, A. J., Jr., 255 
Butler, F. L., 993 
Byllesby, H. M., 640 

Campbell, L. L., 1171 
Campbell, W. L., 593 
Canfield, J. F„ 1034 
Carnahan, W. H., 1118 
Carpender, William, 439 
Carr, James O., 255 
Carson, A. G., 833 

Carson, W. A., *640 
Chase, N. L., 392 
Cheney, Walter L„ 790 
Cherry, T. C, 593 
Chestnut, P. C. 730 
Chubbuck, O. P., 299 
Clarke, Eugene C, 345 
Clarke, H. A.. 483 
Coates, Frank R., 593 
Coblentz, Emory L„ 207 
Coen, F. W., *483 
Coffin, Charles A„ 1034 
Colby, A. C. 639 
Couger. K. B„ 1213 
Connell, James A., 299 
Connette, Thomas W., 207 
Cosgrove, H. J.. 547 
Coulthard. C. C„ 1213 
Cowgill, H. A., 207 
Cowles. Luzerne S., 255 
Cox, C. E„ 730 
Cox, Charles E.. 833 
Cov. Edward. 110 
Crandall, Roy, 299 
Culkins. W. C, 110 
Cummings, John J., 940 
Cummings, Walter J., 1034 
Cunningham, A. L., 'Ill 
Curtis, C. C. 255 
Curtis, Frank, 346 


Daniels, Winthrop M., 682 
Daries, J. C, 207 
Davidson, W. C, 207 
Davies, A. J., 993 
Davis, E. J., 207 
Davis, W. L., 682 

Davis. William Howard, 207 

Davis. William R., 440 

Day, T. J., *344 

Deal. E. C. 640 

De France, M. E., 439 

De Haseth. G. A., 255 

Dement, William F.. 1213 

Dempsey. John J., 207 

de Trenaltes, Fernand, 300 

Detrick, Charles R.. 833 

Dillon, W. F.. 393 

Doerr, Charles T., 1171 

Dolezal, George, 639 

Donges, Ralph W. E.. 993 

Douse. Walter C, 110 

Dow. S. T., 547 

Duffy. C. Nesbitt. 594. 833 

Duffy, Gilbert, 593 


Earle, William, 207 
Earley, J. L.. 1258 
Elder. W. H., 1075 
Elliott. E. C, 1213 
Elward, Joseph F., 682 
Emery. Rufus Franklin, 834 
Emmett, William Temple, 300 
Evans, Archie, 1075 
Evans, W. H.. 790 

Faber, E. C. *256, 483 
Fabian, V. F., 392 
Fahrney, C. E., *1118 
Falconer. D. P., 683 
Favor, James, 344 

(Abbreviations. "Illustrated, n Short news item.) 



[Vol. 51 

Fennell, D. L., 1257 
Fennell, Thomas P., 299 
Fernald, George' A., 344 
Field, J. Lawrence, 1258 
Fifer, C. J., 730 
Finger, Charles J., 1075 
Fisher A. M„ 1258 
Fisken, J. B.. 1257 
Fitzgerald, Edward, 299 
Fletcher, F. E., 547 
Flickinger, W. J„ *255 
Foley, M. E„ 682 
Folk, Joseph W„ 299 
Frank, M. H„ 1118 
Fratessa, Paul C, 439 
Freelund, J. C 547 
Freeman, Charles, 1171 
Puller, H. W„ 439 
Funk, John Thomas, 731 
Funk, Neal, 682 

Gaboury, Arthur, 483 
Gallagher, Bernard, 834 
Gerhardt, P. W„ 682 
Gilehrest, O. J., *111 
Glidden, P. T„ 1258 
Goble, William H., 63 
Goodsell, C. B„ '111 
Gould, J. W., 547 
Graston, M. E„ 1034 
Grauten, S. H„ 1075 
Gray, Ainslee A., 833 
Green, George Alan, 833 
Greenland, Sam W., 683 
Greenleaf, E, P., 1118 
crreisser, V. H., 1257 
Grey, Norman, 547 
Griffith, Pay, 1034 
Griffith, Franklin T„ 299 
Grooms, B. L., 940 
Gross, Isaac W„ 1171 
Gulliver, Albert E. 1075 
Gwynn, P. J„ 547 



Hadden, Robert A., Ill 
Haggenmiller, A. C, 1257 
Hain, P. D„ 159 
Hall, C. A„ 1213 
Hamilton, J. F„ *345 
Hanley, V. J., 940 
Hannaford, Foster, 62, *111 
Haquette, E. P., 483 
Harcus, D. B„ 159 
Hargis, George P., 484 
Harkness, Le Roy T„ 940 
Harmon, James, 299 
Harris, Lloyd, 547 
Harris, Walter, 833 
Harvey, C. R„ 593 
Harvey, Julian H., *483 
Harvie, W. J., 593 
Hatch, G. W„ 440 
Hatch, P. M„ 255 
Hawthorne, V. R„ 1075 
Hayden, C. F„ 547 
Hayes, John H„ 344 
Hearn, H. B„ 639 
Hemming, R. N„ *682 
Henderson, D. P., 1257 
Hester, J. E„ 993 
Heyworth, James 0., 255 
Hicks, Arthur B„ 1172 
Hile, Charles Harvey, 1172 
Hill, Charles B., 392 
Hillman, John A., 110 
Hinman, P. L., 1171 
Hires, B. Frank, 207 
Hodell, Henry H., 393 
Hoffer, Henry, 1213 
Holliday, William J., 440 
House, G. O., 884, *940 
Howard, H. C, 682 
Hoyt, Allen G„ 207 
Hoyt, Harry, 1118 
Hubbell, C. H„ 256 
Hubbell, Charles Bulkley, 62 
Hudson, C. B., 392 
Hudson, Frank P., 159 
Hudson, George, 940 
Hulett. Frank W„ 1214 
Hulme, J., 207 
Humbert, S. R., 833 
Humphrey, Alex P., Jr., Ill 

Tnsull, Samuel, 345 

Jackson, Dugald C, 940 
Jackson W. B„ 594 
Jaeger, Howard E., 62 
James, C. N., 593 
James, S. M„ 1214 
James, W. I., 160 
Jefts, C. A., 159 
Jennings, Richard L., 300 
Johnson, Alba B,, 1075 
Johnson, H. E„ 1171 
Johnson, J. Frank, 682 
Johnson, Robert Tillman, 299 
Jones, R. Frank, 593 
Jordan, Alfred C, *392 


Kaerschner, H. C, 110 
Kealy, Philip J„ 160 
Kearny, P. J„ 159 
Keesler, Rollo. 833 
Keever C. S. 439 
Kelly, R. E„ 62 
Kennedy E. R„ 593 
Kennedy, W. R., 344 
Kieser, James F., 439 
Killeen, Henry W., 439 
King, Clarence P., *639 
Kittredge, Gorge Alvah, 111 
Kountze, Luther, 834 
Kracke, F. J. H„ 62 
Kuhns, George, 207 

Lauter, H. G„ *730 
Lawless, J. E., 682 
Lawrence, H. G„ 547 
Leidenger, Peter, 111 
Lightstone, Alexander, 207 
Linn, A. M., 392 
Litchfield, Norman, *547 
Longfellow, N. R., 110 
Losey, George H„ 299 
Lowe, J. R., 694 
Lowrie, J. W„ 392 
Ludwig, A. M„ 439 
Lyon, W. R„ 392 
Lyons, H. H., 1213 


McAloney, W. H., 207 
McCarthy, Thomas E., 547 
McClung, Emmt, 547 
McComb, George R., 1171 
McCray, L. H„ 647 
McDonel, James D., 346 
MoGee, Arthur, 833 
McKinley, W. L., 392 
McKinney, J. P. 392 
McMahon, C. R., 1171 
Macbeth, Norman, 392 
MacCalla. C. S., *884 
Mahoney, J. J., 344 
Mann, L. G„ 1171 
Marcum, J. O., 1034 
Marlowe, R. M., 547 
Meade, Richard W„ 730 
Meier, Edward C, 1075 
Merriam, George, 392 
Merrill B. M., 1257 
Merrill, E. A., 62 
Metcalfe, A. B. 
Meyer, B. H„ 62 
Miers, M„ 1034 
Miller, Alfred R„ 1171 
Miller, C. W. D„ 1172 
Miller, J. G„ 790 
Milliean, G. R„ *640 
Milliken, E. L„ 255 
Mills: George A., 63 
Mills, W. M„ 392 
Mims, L. C, 159 
Minard, W. O., 63 
Moore. J. C, 1213 
Morris, L. V., 299 
Morrissey, P. T., 1034 
Morton, J. P., 207 
Mousseau, Prank M., 63 
Mullaney, Thomas F., 110, *160 
Munton, C. J., 255 
Murphine, Thomas F., 730 
Murphy, H. S.. 833 
Murphy, J. S., 299 
Musgrave, Wilham, 159 

Neal, W. V., 207 
Neary, Edward J., 207 
Nevans, H. A., 344 
Newton, H. S., 344, »393 
Nielson, T. C, 593 
Norton, Porter, 393 


O'Callaghan, Edmond, 255 
Oellig, H. H., 1257 
Ong, J. R., 594 
Owens, J. F., 940 

Parker, Fred S., 790 
Parker, W. J., 392 
Parsons, D. E„ *1257 
Parsons, Murray, 344 
Parsons, R. H., 547 
Paterman, E. E., 392 
Patterson, A., 344 
Patterson, Stuart H., 63 
Paul, Lesley C, 731 
Perkins, Robert W„ *639 
Perrin, M. J„ 111 
Persons, Niles, 110 
Pettit, L. A„ Jr., 393 
Pfenning, E. C, 833 
Philips, P. T„ 392 
Piper, A. K 833 
Post, George A., 833 
Potts, Milton G„ 344 
Powell, George D., 833 
Power, W. P., 345 
Prather, H. Clark, 484 
Preger, Arthur, 682 
Price, Theodore H.. 1258 
Price, William T., 884 
Priest, William, 593 


Rauch, T. D„ 1034 
Reardon, P. L., 639 
Reid, Harry, 547 
Reigel, Harry H., 682 
Remelius, Charles, 62 
Rew, Morse W., 833 
Rexford, Chester P., 1075 
Reynolds, A. E., *345 
Reynolds, Ray W., 344 
Rice, E. W„ Jr., 344 
Richardson, G. A., ^55 
Richmond, O. J., 547 
Rickert, Van DuBen, 62 
Ritchie, John A., ,730 
Robinson, Thomas T., 160 
Rockwell, J. C, 730 
Roemer, John H., 884 
Rose, Percy Allen, 1034 
Rounsavell, W. B.. 1257 
Royce, Allan H„ 993 
Ruhling, T. C, *790 
Ruhlman, John H„ 346 
Ryan, John M., 1075 

Savage, J. R., 299 
Schaeffer, George B., 790 
Schlant, Edward, 207 
Schmidt, Emil G.,. 299 
Schmidt, George W.. 993 
Schoneld, W. B., 440 
Scott, Robert F., Jr., 594 
Seibert, William, 62 
Seitz, Edwin P., 834 
Session, Charles H., 833 
Sever, George F., 730 
Sewall, H. B., 159 
Shapiro, D. H„ 1171 
Shaw, S. G., 392 
Shinkle, V. G.. 1257 
Shonts, Theodore P., 593 
Simms, Richard D., 256 
Simons, Edmund G., 833 
Sisson, E. B., 594 
Skouden, M„ 682 
Slater, Harry M., 344 
Small, T. L., 593 
Smallman, Thomas H., 940 
Smith, A. F„ 299 
Smith, Chester, 547 
Smith, E. B., 1075 
Smith, E. J., 483 
Smith, E. T., 547 
Smith, Fred M., 344 
Smith, John Hayes, 110 

Smith, O. A., 160, *344 
Smith, N. W., 345 
Smith, R. Home, 884 
Smith, Samuel E.. 160 
Soren Townsend, H., 884 
Southard, W. P., 683 
Speidel, Joseph, 940 
Spofford R. W., 730 
Spring, Dana L., 255 
Squier, C. W., 790 
Staats. Henry N., 110 
Stanley, J. J., 1213 
Steel, A. F. S„ 1257 
Steiner, S. J., 593 
Stevenson, L. M., 344 
Stewart, J. B., Jr., *63 
Stine, Henry M., 160 
Stockman, W. C, 993 
Stone, John C, 344 
Strack, George W., Jr., 299 
Strain, G. A., 439 
Straus, Oscar S., 593, 1171 
Sturzinger, O. R., 160 
Sullivan, Thomas P., 640 
Sutherland, Leslie, *1213 
Swanson, Erie, 392 
Swartz, A., 392 
Swartz, Carrie A., 110 
Sweeney, Alfred, 940 
Swift, Harley L„ 392 
Swisher, W. C„ '299 

Tassie, R. W., 299 
Taylor, A. M., *683 
Taylor, Clyde, 159 
Tegtmeier, August K„ 439 
Thames, J. J., Jr., 593 
Thelen, Max, 159, 1258 
Thirlwall, J. C, 790 
Thomas, E. H., 682 
Thompson, Robert, Jr., 439 
Thornton, Henry Worth, 1075 
Thorsson, Nils M., 1171 
Throop, A. T., 547 
Titus, W. B„ 299 
Tomkins, Robert S., 594 
Treat, G. B., 344 
Tripp, George R., 160 
Tripp, Guy E., *159, 207 
Tupton, M. A., 1118 
Twomey, W. C, 682 


Uhden, C. F., 1257 


Van Bruns, P. H.. *1257 

Van Diense, A. T.. 1258 

Van Hooven, Carl H., 110, *593 

Van Santvoord, Seymour, 299 

Vokes H. F., 299 

von Seimens, Arnold, 940 

Voshall, R. D., 344 

Voth, W. B., 731 


Waggener, B. P., 940 
Walborn, I. G., 993 
Wales, Bert H., 255 
Wallace, William D„ 790 
Walmer, Charles E., 159 
Ward, P. D., 1075 
Ward, I. L., »345 
Warner, Arthur W„ 1213 
Warwick, C. E., 1118 
Wason, Charles W„ 791 
Waters, S. E.. 1257 
Waters, W. T„ 62 
Webb, G. A., 62 
Wells, Lee J., 682 
Welsh, J. W., *731 
Weston, W. L., 255 
Waters. S. E.. 1257 
Weston, Weldon F„ 299 
Whelan, John Brown, 790 
White, G. S., 593 
White. Y. M.. 1257 
Whitney, Walter D„ *790 
Wight, Charles L., 834 
Williams, F. H„ 1118, 1213 
Williamson, John W„ 1034 
Withington, Sidney, 169 
Woehler, A. G., 207 
Wood, J. W., 593 
Woolley, Roy B„ 593 
Wright, Augustine W., 393 
Wright, Sydney L„ 299 
Wright, W. H., *439 


Young. H. C„ 1118 





Consolidation of Street Railway Journal and 
Electric Railway Review 





Norris L. E. Stibbe 



Bruster L. C I'nui 



Brown H. S. Kumv'ton 



McMnrray N. A Bowers 
S. B. Williams 

Volume 51 

New York, Saturday, January 5, 1918 

Number 1 

Some Changes in the 

Make-Up of the "Journal 

READERS of this paper will n< 
changes in typographical appearance in this issue, 
notably in the type used in the captions of articles and 
in the three-column arrange- 
ment in the news depart- 
ment. The fundamental pur- 
pose of the former is to 
utilize the best in the printer's 
art to "play up" the important 
facts so that they will appeal 
to the readers with a force 
proportionate to their import. 
Another purpose is to bring 
in the element of novelty. 
Just as it is refreshing to 
shift the furniture and pic- 
tures in a room, so in a peri- 
odical an occasional change in 
type face or headings makes 
a pleasing impression. Three 
columns have been adopted as 
standard in the news pages, 
instead of two, partly because 
we believe the narrower col- 
umn will be more easily read, 
with the size of type used, and 
partly because of the greater 
variety of caption sizes 
thereby made possible. An- 
other change is in the title of 
the "Equipment and Mainte- 
nance" department, to be 
known hereafter as "Construc- 
tion, Maintenance and Equip- 
ment." This department be- 
gins its fifth year with this 
volume. Since the war began 
it has proved useful in segre- 
gating short articles of a prac- 
tical character. The new name 
suggests what has actually 
come to be the scope of the 
department. The plan is grad- 
ually to enlarge it under the 
new name to provide full op- 
portunity for the discussion of all live topics of the 
shop, the track, the line, the power house, etc. Such an 
opportunity is especially needed now that the war has 
caused a temporary cessation of the Engineering Asso- 
ciation committee work and meetings. 

Will the Government Be Able 
to Give Us More Coal ? 

A Review and a Prophecy 

WITH the turn of the year comes 
the time for self-analysis. Our 
successes will take care of them- 
selves. Our mistakes will persist in calling 
for correction. 

Our industry — and by that we include the 
financiers, the managements, the Associa- 
tion and the "Electric Railway Journal" — 
has made mistakes. And the greatest of 
these mistakes has been the failure to carry 
out as an industry that policy of full, free 
and frank publicity which the Association, 
on the recommendation of its committee on 
public relations, formally adopted in 1914. 
Had that policy been put in operation, the 
railways of this second generation would 
not be suffering so alarmingly because of 
the sins of the fathers. 

The electric railways have done a great 
work for this country; and there is still 
great work for them to do. No greater 
catastrophe, short of food, fuel and water 
shortage, can come to the modern com- 
munity than to have its electric railway 
facilities crippled dr wiped out. What have 
we done as an industry to bring this fact 
home to the people? 

Like Elijah of old we have been living 
too long in the cave of pessimism, of fear, 
of inertia. We have failed to accept the 
mandate of the Lord to "Go forth and stand 
upon the mount" to see the world. 

And now the time has come when this 
pessimism, this fear, this inertia must go. 
We must leave the cave and go out on the 
mountain in the light and before the people. 

Let us first look into ourselves to see 
what we can do to give good service. Then 
come frankly forward and tell the people 
and their regulatory officials what they 
should do to help, and if the giving of good 
service really is accompanied by full, free 
and frank telling of our problems and bur- 
dens, the great fair-minded people of this 
country will give the electric railways the 
right to charge whatever fare is necessary 
to keep the railways going, growing, pros- 
perous concerns. 

notice a number of r\T <J ra dical and immediate change in the coal-supply 
IN situation is to be expected under the new manage- 
ment of the steam railroads of the country tor reasons 

entirely beyond the control 
of government, however ef- 
ficient. Efforts in the 
line of economy should not, 
therefore, be relaxed ; in fact, 
they should be pushed to the 
limit. An excellent start has 
been made in enhsting the co- 
operation of employees, which 
will be urgently needed even if 
the federal authorities are as 
successful in improving dis- 
tribution as we all hope they 
may be. The stubborn fact is 
that there is not enough coal 
to go around. From the re- 
ports of the Bureau of Mines 
and the Geological Survey it is 
clear that while the coal-mine 
output has been greatly aug- 
mented, the demands are 
more than proportionately in- 
creased, while the quality is 
quite inferior. The Railroads' 
War Board, now defunct, 
which formed a voluntary 
committee to accomp'ish the 
same purpose as that underly- 
ing the government's move, 
claimed that the coal short- 
age is largely due to poor dis- 
tribution. That is, coal is 
purchased at unnecessarily re- 
mote points, invol/ing more 
ton-mileage than is justified 
by present conditions This 
situation can be re edied, at 
least in part, under the new 
management. Nevertheless, it 
must be remembe" of l that the 
government possess°s no 
magic wand by which coal can 
be mined wjthout labor, transported withon f -r>rs, or 
moved long distances in infinitesimal time Hence 
while some hope for relief may be justified the urest 
relief is that to be secured through econonT" Tf * 25,000 
tons of coal annually can be saved by th-> electric rail- 



Vol. 51, No. 1 

ways in Washington, D. C, as the Electric Railway 
War Board's conservation committee says can be done, 
then the possible total for the country is something 
worth while. 

Help, Don't Hinder, 

the Electric Railways 

IF THERE ever was a time when all of us — railways, 
public and regulators — should pull together, it is now. 
We are in a period of high prices and scarcity of labor 
brought on by the war, and electric railway operating 
expenses have been mounting by leaps and bounds. At 
the same time the needs of the country for good trans- 
portation are greater than ever before. At a period when 
every productive agency in the country is working at full 
pressure, it is most important that the urban and inter- 
urban transportation systems of the nation, which are 
an integral part of its industrial life, should maintain 
their efficiency at its maximum point. No community has 
the right at this time to oppose any plan which will al- 
low the railways to give better service to the public or 
will make the demands of the railways upon fuel and 
labor less. 

The nation has awakened to the necessity of obtaining 
maximum efficiency from the steam railroads. It must 
be equally ready to remove the hindrances to good ser- 
vice by the electric railways. Of what good is it to trans- 
port raw materials to a city factory if thousands of 
workers cannot enjoy the best possible facilities in 
going to and from their work that the local railway can 
give them? A higher fare is necessary to meet the in- 
creased expenses of operation, but there are other ob- 
stacles which exist as well to efficient electric railway op- 
eration. Some of them arise from antique municipal or- 
dinances or popular prejudices, such as objections to the 
skip stop and to changes in routing, others from the op- 
position of the labor element to improvements which 
might tend to reduce the man-power required per car, 
and still others from financial inability to purchase mod- 
ern equipment. Now is the time to get these hindrances 
removed. There are several reasons why this is so. 

Two years ago the jitney was looming up as a serious 
competitor of the electric railway. The jitney was large- 
ly the production of unemployment and flourished for a 
while, but with the present period of high wages, laboi 
scarcity and work for all who wish it, the jitney has 
largely disappeared. But it may come back to the injury 
of both the railways and the communities which they 
serve unless the companies improve this interval to make 
their properties capable of giving such good service that 
no one will want to patronize the jitney, if it is here. 

A second reason why the present is a most appro- 
priate time for analytically studying scientific opera- 
tion is that municipal bodies and the public as a whole 
are taking a fairer and more considerate view of rail- 
way matters than formerly. This may be because they 
are coming to realize the present arduous conditions 
under which electric railways operate. The discontinu- 
ance of several electric railways and the sale of their 
equipment as scrap have shown that electric roads can- 
not continue operation indefinitely at a loss. Greater 
publicity also has helped the people at large to under- 
stand somewhat better the problems of the railways and 
the dependence of the public on good transportation. 

Finally, the recent action of several commissions in- 
dicates a growing willingness on their part to grant a 

rate of fare which will enable the companies to earn a 
fair return on the money invested in the property in 
public use. If the railways in general have this return, 
they will be able to do some rehabilitation on a scien- 
tific basis. At present and for the past few years about 
all that most companies could hope to do was to escape 
the call of the sheriff and the junk man. To earn in- 
terest on the investment in the property was beyond 
them and old equipment had to be used because no other 
could be bought. 

All these improvements could not be made at once, 
even if the railways had the funds to spend on the new 
equipment, trackage, etc., necessary. The state of the 
industrial market would prevent that. But at least each 
company should know its objective. It is to help the 
railways to do this that Mr. Layng has written the 
article on economical operation which constitutes the 
feature of our reading pages this week. This article is 
based on a study extending over years of electric 
railway properties in all parts of the country. Many, if 
not most of the principles mentioned are not new, but 
they are mentioned in a new way and data are given 
to substantiate them. With an awakened sense of re- 
sponsibility in this country to the necessity of good 
transportation, we hope that this coming year will bring 
better times to the electric railways of the country and 
a broader understanding of their burdens. 

Should the article by Mr. Layng on the fundamental 
principles of electric railway operation help in this 
direction, the aims of the author and the publisher will 
be attained. 

Making Both Ends Meet 
Has Been a Real Job 

THE high-cost-of-living problem during the past year 
has been a tough one for electric railway managers 
to handle. The financial stability of the industry — 
that characteristic upon which investors have placed so 
much confidence — -has decreased to such an extent that 
many a company has had marked difficulty in making 
its net meet its fixed charges. Many railways have 
found the burden unbearable, and their end has been 
bankruptcy and foreclosure, as shown in the extended 
lists published on another page. Still others have been 
forced farther into suspension of service or actual dis- 

Why have utilities offering so essential a service fal- 
len into such a sorry plight that even the hope of suc- 
cessful operation under readjusted conditions after fore- 
closure has in some cases failed? To look at the in- 
dustry from a financial point of view, the revenue-pro- 
ducing power, which stood up so well in the face of the 
jitney onslaught, is in the main unimpaired, and the 
revenues during 1917 have shown a fair rate of growth. 
But the cost of operation has increased faster. The ris- 
ing costs of materials and supplies, together with heavy 
increases in wages and taxes, have caused a dangerous 
stringency in income available for a return on the in- 

Complete data are not yet available for the whole 
calendar year, but those already collated bear out this 
point. For the first half of 1917, as compared to a 
similar period in the year previous, electric railways 
with 8388 miles of line gained 3.14 per cent in operat- 
ing revenues but suffered an increase of 7.67 per cent 
in operating expenses and a loss of 4.70 in net revenues. 


January 5, 1918 

The operating ratio rose from 63.40 in 1916 to 66.18 
in 1917. The showing was perhaps a little better for 
the first nine months of 1917, when the increase of 5.87 
per cent in operating revenues for only 7450 miles of 
line was so far offset by the 11.02 per cent rise in oper- 
ating expenses that the net fell off 2.17 per cent, the op- 
erating ratio rising from 60.96 per cent to 63.93 per 
cent. Perhaps, with the increasingly ameliorating in- 
fluence of fare increases, cantonment and other war 
travel and the wider development of freight and ex- 
press facilities, the operating gross during the last 
quarter will show an even more substantial advance. 
It is very unlikely, however, that the net for the year 
will fail to reflect to a marked degree the burdensome 
influence of increasing costs of operation. 

The railways have endeavored to meet the situation 
in 1917 by the institution of more economical methods, 
to cut down costs, and by applications for higher fares 
to increase revenues. In both cases traditions have 
been handicaps, but, on the one hand, the opposition 
of unprogressive managers and, on the other, the dis- 
trust of rate-making bodies, have become appreciably 
lessened. In regard to fare increases (we speak of the 
other matter in detail elsewhere), the year has been 
encouraging. Recent years had been so full of attempts 
to cut rate schedules in every conceivable way that the 
work of seeking general relief seemed to many almost a 
herculean task, but it has not been so difficult. About 
fifty fare increases have already been granted, and the 
full returns for the year's campaign have not yet been 
received. The commissions have as a rule met the 
situation with painstaking fairness, with a clear-cut 
recognition of their paramount rate-making powers un- 
der legislative sanction and with a frank acceptance of 
their share of the responsibility for preserving electric 
railway service. And the public, when it has been 
greeted with the best possible service and honest pub- 
licity, has not fought legitimate rate increases. We 
wonder whether the industry ought really to be proud 
of the fact that only its diminishing coffers finally drove 
it to an active public-relations campaign! To some men 
nothing succeeds like success; at any rate, we hope the 
value of intelligent public-relations work will now be 
denied by none. 

Many more fare increases are needed, of course, but 
even when these are obtained it is not certain that the 
electric railway industry will have all the financial re- 
lief needed. It must have some direct relief from in- 
flated costs, but this will probably come to some extent 
through government price control. Moreover, with 
more than $126,817,000 of securities maturing in 1918 
(and issues below $200,000 are not included), and with 
improved service being demanded for car patrons, the 
industry needs new capital. It can hardly afford to 
compete with the government, however, either in bor- 
rowing money or in buying new facilities. The war, in 
short, dominates the whole situation, and the course 
for the next few months or perhaps years must be 
planned with this in mind. What does the industry 
need for its preservation and for the successful prosecu- 
tion of the war? and how are these requirements to be 
most economically met ? — these are the vital questions of 
the new year. They can be satisfactorily answered. 
The past year has shown how constructive co-operation 
and foresight on the part of railways, commissions and 
the public bring beneficial results in such work. 

The War Should Stimulate 

Steam Railroad Electrification 

WHEN a few days ago the government took over 
the steam railroads with the stroke of a pen, 
things that before were remote possibilities came imme- 
diately within the range of almost immediate practica- 
bility. It requires neither a prophet nor the son of 
a prophet to predict that if the government continues 
to control the railroads for a few years extensive elec- 
trification must form part of the program. This fol- 
lows because, if electrified, many roads could be oper- 
ated with far less coal, and sections near water power 
would require no coal at all. The experience through 
which we are now going, with manufactories and utili- 
ties handicapped and with a large part of the popula- 
tion suffering or fearful of approaching suffering, has 
made the words "save coal" an expression to conjure 
with. And of equal significance is the phrase "save 
labor." This experience will have great weight with 
Congress and with individuals and committees control- 
ling public expenditure. Feasible electrification plans 
will command a ready hearing, even if they involve 
large capital expenditure, if only ability to save fuel 
and labor be demonstrated. Under government opera- 
tion these plans could be carried out promptly, as war 
measures, leaving the affected roads in much better con- 
dition when returned to their owners after the war. 

While railroad conditions abroad are not altogether 
comparable with those in this country it is true that 
the Swedish, Italian, Swiss and French governments 
have gone into electrification of the federal railways 
on a comprehensive scale. The Savona-Ceva electrifica- 
tion, described in last week's issue of this paper, is an 
example of what was going on in Europe until the war 
called a halt. Even little Belgium is considering ex- 
tensive electrification when the Huns have been forced 
to evacuate her territory and pay her at least in part 
for the ruin wrought. A London dispatch, dated Dec. 
27, states that the Coal Economy Committee of Great 
Britain has proposed, and the Minister of Reconstruc- 
tion has announced, a plan for an extensive electrifica- 
tion, including, of course, the railroads. An annual 
coal saving of a half billion dollars is expected. 

The case for electrification is stated clearly by Frank 
H. Shepard in the first article in the body of the Journal 
this week. Everything that he says can be demon- 
strated in railroad practice in this country today. If 
the Government wants to go ahead the manufacturers 
can, with Government backing, "deliver the goods." 
What they can do is being demonstrated in the Milwau- 
kee electrification extension to be practically completed 
this year. The places to begin are those where heavy 
freight traffic must be carried over mountain ranges, 
at which points in general water power is available. Next 
or simultaneously come congested sections of line which 
throttle traffic. This will probably be enough for war- 
time. Fortunately we have enough successfully elec- 
trified railroad mileage to prevent any fear of operating 
failure from entering into consideration. Of course, 
electric locomotive design is not yet standardized but 
for that matter neither is that of steam locomotives. 
With competition eliminated for the time railroad men 
and electrical engineers might well combine forces at 
this juncture to show the Government what could and 
should be done to increase the over all efficiency of our 
railroads by judicious electrification. 



Vol. 51, No. 1 

Further Railroad Electrification Important 

Electrical Equipment Presents a Most Effective 
Way of Increasing Transportation Capacity — 
Considerations Why This Is Now a Timely Subject 


Director of Heavy Traction, Westingkouse Electric & 
Manufacturing Company 

IN NO other period of our history has the necessity 
of adequate means of transportation been more evi- 
dent. We are now at war, and one of our most im- 
portant duties is to transport a vast amount of goods 
over long distances. Even under ideal conditions this 
would be a herculean task, but unfortunately for the 
last five years or more the railroads have been obliged, 
mainly because of adverse legislation, to follow a halt- 
ing program of development and this condition is prov- 
ing a most serious handicap to the prosecution of the 
war. Had there been in Public Opinion, which after 
all governs our legislation, a better comprehension of 
the requirements of our steam railroads, the present 
burden on the nation and on each individual would 
be materially less. But at least we are now fully alive 
to our lack of foresight, and we should be prompt to 
correct this ominous situation. 

The need for increased transportation facilities has 
long been apparent to those well informed in such mat- 
ters. Experience has shown that the traffic on our 
railroads about doubles every twelve years and that an 
annual capital expenditure of $1,000,000,000, at normal 

price levels, is needed to keep pace with this expan- 
sion. Since, for the last few years so much less than 
this has been invested, the sum now necessary to bring 
our railroads up to the point where they will be ade- 
quate to the needs of the nation is literally enormous. 
No such capital being now available, normal methods 
can no longer be followed, and therefore in the pres- 
ent emergency any and every means to utilize our 
existing railroad plant to its fullest efficiency should 
be carefully considered. 

The Railroad War Board, despite legislative handi- 
cap, has already made phenomenal progress toward 
unifying the railroads' facilities, and if these handi- 
caps were removed, it could practically eliminate all 
duplication of service by the common use of terminals, 
tracks, and equipment and by a thorough revision of 
traffic routing. 

When all this is accomplished, however, a further 
improvement in the transportation situation can be 
secured by means of electrification. 

Electrification can help the railroads and the na- 
tion in three ways: 



The headwater, descending with ter- 
rific lorce through the pipe A, revolves 
ihe turbine wheel B. which is attached 
lo a vertical shaft C. at the upper end 
■ol which is a massive armature D. the 
revolving of which generates the alter- 
more generators, the combined strength 
of which produce the 100.000-volt 

The moto in the center is driven 
and operates the dyivmos, or generators. OO 
from alternating h direct, direct etrrrent bej 



January 5, 1918 



1 — By increasing the capacity of existing track and 
terminal facilities. 

2 — By decreasing the consumption of fuel, and 

3 — By conserving the labor necessary for operation 
and maintenance. 

Increasing Track Capacity 

Any method by which the capacity of our steam 
railroads can be increased would be of paramount im- 
portance at this time. Electricity can accomplish this 
by permitting the use of locomotives of larger power, 
higher speed and greater mobility than is possible 
with steam operation. The largest type of electric 
freight locomotive built by the Pennsylvania Railroad 
is capable of developing 7000 hp. for brief intervals 
and 4000 hp. continuously, regardless of weather and 
other conditions that reduce the capacity of a steam 
locomotive. This is nearly the limit in power for a 
single road locomotive with the drawbar strength of 
the freight equipment now in general use. With all- 
steel equipment, heavier trains can be run, and under 
special conditions it is entirely practicable to oper- 
ate trains requiring an input of 20,000 hp., including 
both road locomotive and helper. Such a concentra- 
tion of power as this will obviously expand enormously 
the traffic possibilities of existing track facilities and 
will make additional tracks unnecessary. 

The efficiency of electric operation in the most ex- 
acting service has already been demonstrated. On the 
Norfolk & Western Railroad, electric locomotives have 
replaced high-powered steam locomotives of the most 
efficient type, and have eliminated all congestion on 
the grades and, it is estimated, have doubled the ca- 
pacity of this system at an expense that is consider- 
ably less than the cost of a corresponding increase 
in the number of tracks. In this instance, the power 
input for single trains is about 11,000 hp. for starting 
and 8000 hp. for continuous operation. 

Furthermore, the electric locomotive is ready to 
start at any time, needs no fuel or water supply, can 
run in either direction, accelerates very rapidly, and 
has great overload capacity. All of these features sim- 
plify and expedite yard movements and train dispatch- 

ing and thus increase the capacity of existing termi- 
nals for traffic movement. 

The Conservation of Fuel 

The aggregate power generated in our steam loco- 
motive boilers is about 50,000,000 hp., and to produce 
this one-quarter of all the coal mined in the United 
States is consumed. By a somewhat curious coinci- 
dence this total horsepower is just about equal to the 
amount of water power that is going to waste in this 
country. Hence, it is apparent that if our hydroelec- 
tric power was used for railroad operation, 150,000,000 
tons of coal would be saved annually, and the cars and 
crews needed to haul this coal would be released for 
other purposes. Actually the case is far stronger than 
this, for owing to the fact that the load factor of the 
individual locomotive is less than 25 per cent, power 
stations having a combined capacity of 12,000,000 hp. 
would suffice to operate our entire system of railroads, 
thus still leaving 35,000,000 hp. of water power avail- 
able for other purposes. 

For geographical reasons it is of course impossible 
to generate all railroad power hydraulically, and 
steam stations must in any event be relied upon to 
supply part of it. But 1 lb. of coal will produce as 
much power at the locomotive in a modern electric 
power plant and transmission system as 2 lb. or more 
under a locomotive boiler. Hence when this economy is 
combined with the reduction in the total capacity re- 
quired, due to the low load factor of the locomotive, it 
is evident that enormous savings in fuel are possible 
even when steam stations are used. Irrespective of 
considerations of economy, our right to deplete our fuel 
resources in the face of this vast waste of water power 
is decidedly questionable. 

How Electricity Saves Man Power 

The third important result secured through the elec- 
trification of the railroads is the conservation of 
labor. This is accomplished in several ways. 

In the first place, by effecting a great saving in 
coal consumption, electrification releases an army of 
mine and railroad workers for other purposes. Re- 



Vol. 61, Wo. 1 

rnndpnsed Profile of Electrification Over Mountain 
Snees^h"»s°- Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway 

Further Railroad Electrification Important 

Electrical Equipment Presents a Most Effective 
Way of Increasing Transportation Capacity — 
Considerations Why This Is Now a Tiniely Subject 


Director of Heavy Traction, Wcstinghouse Electric & 
Manufacturing Company 

IN NO other period of our history has the necessity 
of adequate means of transportation been more evi- 
dent. We are now at war, and one of our most im- 
portant duties is to transport a vast amount of goods 
over long distances. Even under ideal conditions this 
would be a herculean task, but unfortunately for the 
last five years or more the railroads have been obliged, 
mainly because of adverse legislation, to follow a halt- 
ing program of development and this condition is prov- 
ing a most serious handicap to the prosecution of the 
war. Had there been in Public Opinion, which after 
all governs our legislation, a better comprehension of 
the requirements of our steam railroads, the present 
burden on the nation and on each individual would 
be materially less. But at least we are now fully alive 
to our lack of foresight, and we should be prompt to 
correct this ominous situation. 

The need for increased transportation facilities has 
long been apparent to those well informed in such mat- 
ters. Experience has shown that the traffic on our 
railroads about doubles every twelve years and that an 
annual capital expenditure of $1,000,000,000, at normal 

price levels, is needed to keep pace with this expan- 
sion. Since, for the last few years so much less than 
this has been invested, the sum now necessary to bring 
our railroads up to the point where they will be ade- 
quate to the needs of the nation is literally enormous. 
No such capital being now available, normal methods 
can no longer be followed, and therefore in the pres- 
ent emergency any and every means to utilize our 
existing railroad plant to its fullest efficiency should 
be carefully considered. 

The Railroad War Board, despite legislative handi- 
cap, has already made phenomenal progress toward 
unifying the railroads' facilities, and if these handi- 
caps were removed, it could practically eliminate all 
duplication of service by the common use of terminals, 
tracks, and equipment and by a thorough revision of 
traffic routing. 

When all this is accomplished, however, a further 
improvement in the transportation situation can be 
secured by means of electrification. 

Electrification can help the railroads and the na- 
tion in three ways: 


January 5, 1918 electric rail 

1 — By increasing the capacity of existing track and 
terminal facilities. 

2 — By decreasing the consumption of fuel, and 

3 — By conserving the labor necessary for operation 
and maintenance. 

Increasing Track Capacity 
Any method by which the capacity of our steam 
railroads can be increased would be of paramount im- 
portance at this time. Electricity can accomplish this 
by permitting the use of locomotives of larger power, 
higher speed and greater mobility than is possible 
with steam operation. The largest type of electric 
freight locomotive built by the Pennsylvania Railroad 
is capable of developing 7000 hp. for brief intervals 
and 4000 hp. continuously, regardless of weather and 
other conditions that reduce the capacity of a steam" 
locomotive. This is nearly the limit in power for a 
single road locomotive with the drawbar strength of 
the freight equipment now in general use. With all- 
steel equipment, heavier trains can be run, and under 
special conditions it is entirely practicable to oper- 
ate trains requiring an input of 20,000 hp., including 
both road locomotive and helper. Such a concentra- 
tion of power as this will obviously expand enormously 
the traffic possibilities of existing track facilities and 
will make additional tracks unnecessary. 

The efficiency of electric operation in the most ex- 
acting service has already been demonstrated. On the 
Norfolk & Western Railroad, electric locomotives have 
replaced high-powered steam locomotives of the most 
efficient type, and have eliminated all congestion on 
the grades and, it is estimated, have doubled the ca- 
pacity of this system at an expense that is consider- 
ably less than the cost of a corresponding increase 
in the number of tracks. In this instance, the power 
input for single trains is about 11,000 hp. for starting 
and 8000 hp. for continuous operation. 

Furthermore, the electric locomotive is ready to 
start at any time, needs no fuel or water supply, can 
run in either direction, accelerates very rapidly, and 
has great overload capacity. AH of these features sim- 
plify and expedite yard movements and train dispatch- 


ing and thus increase the capacity of existing termi- 
nals for traffic movement. 

The Conservation of Fuel 
The aggregate power generated in our steam loco- 
motive boilers is about 50,000,000 hp., and to produce 
this one-quarter of all the coal mined in the United 
States is consumed. By a somewhat curious coinci- 
dence this total horsepower is just about equal to the 
amount of water power that is going to waste in this 
country. Hence, it is apparent that if our hydroelec- 
tric power was used for railroad operation, 150,000,000 
tons of coal would be saved annually, and the cars and 
crews needed to haul this coal would be released for 
other purposes. Actually the case is far stronger than 
this, for owing to the fact that the load factor of the 
individual locomotive is less than 25 per cent, power 
stations having a combined capacity of 12,000,000 hp. 
would suffice to operate our entire system of railroads, 
thus still leaving 35,000,000 hp. of water power avail- 
able for other purposes. 

For geographical reasons it is of course impossible 
to generate all railroad power hydraulically, and 
steam stations must in any event be relied upon to 
supply part of it. But 1 lb. of coal will produce as 
much power at the locomotive in a modern electric 
power plant and transmission system as 2 lb. or more 
under a locomotive boiler. Hence when this economy is 
combined with the reduction in the total capacity re- 
quired, due to the low load factor of the locomotive, it 
is evident that enormous savings in fuel are possible 
even when steam stations are used. Irrespective of 
considerations of economy, our right to deplete our fuel 
resources in the face of this vast waste of water power 
is decidedly questionable. 

How Electricity Saves Man Power 
The third important result secured through the elec- 
trification of the railroads is the conservation of 
labor. This is accomplished in several ways. 

In the first place, by effecting a great saving in 
coal consumption, electrification releases an army of 
mine and railroad workers for other purposes. Re- 




Vol. 51, No. 1 

lief of this kind would be especially beneficial at this 
time, as well as of great economic importance after 
the war. 

Secondly, since the use of electricity increases the 
amount of power that can be concentrated in a single 
locomotive and permits the operation of longer trains 
at higher speeds, a given number of men can handle 
a much greater volume of traffic on an electrified road 
than they can on a steam road. 

Again, electric locomotives require much less labor 
for maintenance than steam locomotives. On the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad the electric 
locomotives run 500 miles before receiving terminal 
attention, whereas steam locomotives are ordinarily 
taken to the roundhouse after runs of 100 miles. On 
the Norfolk & Western, twelve electric locomotives 

A number of factors are directing constructive think- 
ing in many quarters toward electrification at the 
present time, and of these the following are most im- 
portant : 

1. The present scarcity of labor, which will undoubt- 
edly continue after the war. 

2. The scarcity and high cost of fuel. While pres- 
ent prices are not likely to obtain in the future, it is 
the general belief that they will never drop to their 
former level. 

3. The inevitable growth of traffic in the United 
States which will necessitate increased traffic capacity. 
Electrification in many cases provides the cheapest 
means of increasing capacity, especially in settled 
communities and in mountain sections where increas- 
ing the width of the right-of-way for additional tracks 





have replaced thirty-four Mallet steam locomotives, so 
that between the greater capacity of the electrics and 
their greater time in service, the reduction in the 
amount of labor necessary to operate and maintain 
them is most marked. Moreover, because of the sim- 
ple construction of electric locomotives, even major 
repairs, such as the replacement of a motor, can be 
accomplished in a few hours, in striking contrast to 
the length of time required for important repairs to 
steam locomotives. 

Finally, because electric locomotives are inde- 
pendent of fires, steam pressure, fuel and water, elec- 
tric operation secures an economy of yard and terminal 

would be either enormously expensive or practically 

4. The increasing capacity and efficiency of hydro- 
electric and steam generating plants, which are con- 
stantly tending to augment the relative economy of the 
electric locomotive as compared with the steam loco- 

5. The increase in the size of transmission systems 
throughout the country not only makes electric power 
more readily available to the railroads but increases 
the facility and ease with which the fluctuating rail- 
road loads can be carried. 

6. The improvements in trolley design and construc- 
tion, which are constantly reducing costs per track- 

January 5, 1918 



mile. Because of the number of track-miles involved, 
this reduction of the cost of overhead construction will 
have an important influence on railroad electrification. 

7. Improvements in the standards for freight car 
equipment which will permit trains of greater ton- 
nage to be hauled in the future. The power capacity 
of electric locomotives being practically unlimited, 
these heavier trains can be hauled electrically over 
existing grades, but to handle them with steam would 
require most extensive grade revisions. 

8. Greater regularity and reliability of operation. 
One of the important results of every electrification 
has been improvement in service. The New York 
Terminal locomotives of the Pennsylvania Railroad 
have, for example, a record over a term of years of 
100,000 locomotive-miles for each case of detention. 
Such accomplishment in maintenance of schedules 
directly increases capacity. 

The Immediate Outlook 

With the unification of the direction of the railroads 
by the action of the President it is expected that capi- 
tal expenditures during the war will be governed by 

broad consideration of traffic necessities, conservation 
of fuel and conservation of man power. In those situa- 
tions where traffic congestion is most acute relief will 
be available in some cases through the utilization of 
existing electric generating stations, so that the con- 
struction involved would be limited to that of loco- 
motives, substations and trolley installation, and would 
therefore involve a minimum diversion of effort. 

The means by which this can be accomplished re- 
mains to be developed. If the improvements are for the 
benefit of the nation and the property concerned, the 
financial means will be forthcoming. 

A hopeful view of the situation is that full oppor- 
tunity for the continuance of individual incentive and 
ability will prevail, so that the splendid achievement, so 
characteristic of past American railroad history, will 
obtain in the future. The further upbuilding and im- 
provement of the transportation facilities for the coun- 
try should unquestionably be the dominating part of our 
activity after the war, so that certain electrification, 
desirable but deferred, should now be planned for, to 
form part of the nation's immediate constructive pro- 
gram as soon as opportunity affords. 




Vol. 51, No. 1 

Applying Engineering and Selling Principles 
to Electric Railway Transportation 


Railway and Traction Engineering Department 
General Electric Company 

A Discussion of the Present Situation and Its Connection with the Conser- 
vation of the Nation's Resources; of the Electric Railway's Need for 
Statistical and Analytical Data; of the Economies Possible with Better 
Equipment and Scientific Running in Co-operation with Regulatory Bodies, 
and of Improved Relations with the Men 

The Situation To-Day 

The Need for Conservation of the National Resources 
in FueJ and Labor Intimately Connected with the 
Electric Railway's Problem of Meeting Automobile 
Competition and Higher Costs of Operation 

THE electric railways are faced by something 
actually worse than the question of the price 
of their necessities — they are likely soon to 
to be told by the government that they must 
give an accounting for the efficient employ- 
ment of every kilowatt hour of energy, of every ounce 
of material, and of every hour of labor that they use, 
no matter what prices they pay for them. The ques- 
tion of fuel is in the foreground now, but as the war 
advances this "show me" attitude may be carried over 
to many other items. 

Many of the betterments possible on electric railways, 
like longer spacing between stops, the rerouting of 
cars, the application of anti-blockading ordinances are 
not up to the railways but are dependent upon the good 
will and intelligence of the public and its representa- 
tives. Such relief would not only go far along the road 
of patriotism, but prove a permanent benefit to elec- 
tric railways and to the communities which they serve. 
Other betterments, such as. improved cars, in many 
cases, have been beyond the means of the properties 
which have been forced to use the cars they had be- 
cause they could not afford to purchase the latest 
models. The suggestions made in this article should 
therefore be understood as applying only to those con- 
ditions in which their introduction is practicable. 

At the very beginning of any 
campaign to improve electric rail- 
way conditions we must take into 
account the highly wasteful com- 
petition of the automobile. It is 
possible that the need for conserv- 

10,000 000 



ing gasoline may lead to the prohibition of the automo- 
bile for pleasure riding. This, however, would be only 
a war-time measure. Then the automobile would re- 
sume its present attacks on the stability of the electric 
railway industry unless it could be met by thorough- 
going changes in present methods of operation. 

That this competition is serious is known to most 
managers through individual experience. Yet how 

many of us realize its scope throughout the nation at 
large? Perhaps the following figures, furnished on 
Nov. 28, 1917, by the Automobile Chamber of Com- 
merce, may prove not only enlightening, but startling. 

Of 4,243,139 self-propelled vehicles in the United 
States in use up to July, 1917, 3,843,139 were pleasure 
cars and 400,000 are auto-trucks. 

During 1916 the United States produced 1,617,708 
passenger automobiles and 90,000 trucks; and during 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1917, 1,693,994 passen- 
ger cars and 112,200 trucks. In addition to these fig- 
ures, the Automobile Chamber of Commerce in New 
York offers such staggering data as the following: 

Wholesale value of motor-driven vehicles produced last fiscal 

year $917,470,938 

Capital invested in automobile and motor truck plants $736,000,000 

Body parts and accessories, capital $1,000,000,000 

Capital invested by automobile and truck dealers, garages 

and supply houses $920,000,000 

Employees of automobile and truck companies 280,000 

Employees of manufacturers of accessories and body parts. . 650,000 

Employees of dealers, garages and supply houses 368,000 

The pleasure cars alone call for an expenditure of 
$200 a year each, making the stupendous total of $768,- 
627,800, which actually exceeds the present annual re- 
ceipts of electric railways by more than $150,000,000! 
But the end is not yet, for even if 500,000 automobiles 
were scrapped during 1917, the net addition to the 
ranks would be 1,500,000. Since automobile manufac- 
turers place the saturation limit of the United States 
at 10,000,000 machines, continuation of present elec- 
tric railway practices would make automobile compe- 
tition three times as severe as to-day! 

It would be folly to hope that this development will 
be seriously checked either by temporary war condi- 
tions or by the exhaustion of gasoline. 

In offering the following ideas for the betterment of 
existing electric railway practices, for the two-fold pur- 
pose of conservation of our national resources and the 
maintenance of electric railway service for the public, 
we would not have the reader infer that even if all of 
these ideas were to prove as good in performance as in 
prophecy, the need for more revenue from transporta- 
tion would vanish. There are roads to-day, for ex- 
ample, which would still require more revenue if they 
got their energy for nothing. 

Of all the departments, that of conducting trans- 
portation offers the greatest possibilities in the way 

January 5, 1918 



of economies and larger receipts, largely because 
in the past electric railway companies have had 
less of a free hand in this department than in any other. 
Should new apparatus promise a saving of a consider- 
able percentage in the power station, the cost of the 
new equipment is balanced against this proposed sav- 
ing, and if a definite advantage is to be gained, the 
company will order the equipment. In the transporta- 
tion department, however, where a new system of rout- 
ing, longer spacing between stops or other improve- 
ments promise an equal saving, quick action is not so 
possible. The authorities, represented by the commis- 
sions or municipal authorities, have to be consulted. 
Moreover, the public is usually very conservative as re- 
gards changes in transportation methods, and the la- 
bor element is also very jealous of what it considers 
its prerogatives. 

Nevertheless, in the study for 
economy, the transportation de- 
partment deserves vastly more at- 
tention than the engineering de- 
partment, partly because its ex- 
penses represent such a large part 
of the total expenditures for operation and partly be- 
cause its methods being less susceptible to mathematical 
laws than engineering practice, there has been less uni- 
formity in them. In spite of this fact, railway com- 
panies are standardizing more and more on transporta- 
tion methods in their effort toward economical opera- 
tion in order to make the present campaign for higher 
fares 100 per cent perfect. 



where track should be put down and where track should 
be pulled up. 

Second — Graphs of growth of employment establish- 
ments and wage earners. Fig. 3 shows that these two 
elements in city growth are by no means parallel. A 
slight increase in shops against a big increase in men 
discloses a greater likelihood of congestion than if the 
shops also had increased in the same ratio. Factory 
capacity is usually increased vertically or by annexes; 
but factory number is usually increased by new con- 
struction in another district. Some railways, in the 
absence of these graphs, have overlooked developments 
like these; -or, contrariwise, have continued excess serv- 
ice to a rundown factory district. 

Third — Graphs which indicate the financial progress 
of the community, such as value of products, capitaliza- 
tion, cost of material and wages (Fig. 4) and the bank 
clearings (Fig. 5). Bank deposits should also be 
plotted. Such graphs as these will speak in mighty 
convincing tones alike to the banker, the board of direc- 
tors, the management and the community. 

Keep Graphic Records of Railway 

How the Expenditures of Each Department Can Be 
Checked Against Preceding Years and Their 
Corresponding Gross Earnings 

IF IT IS important to chart community statistics, it 
is vital to chart company statistics. Some men are 
mathematical wizards who can see a picture in the 
mind's eye; but most of us, including the board of 
directors, need direct, concrete charts. 

To know how the general finances are tending, most 
managers keep graphs of the gross earnings, operating 
expenses, interest charges, net earnings, taxes and the 
remainder necessary for paying the interest on stocks, 
bonds, mortgages and reserve funds. They are usually 
made on what is commonly known as a twelve-months' 
ending curve, namely, each point on the graph repre- 
sents the business of the preceding lunar year, like 
January to December, February to January, inclusive, 
etc. When we plot the graph on this basis, the influ- 
ence of fluctuations is decreased so that it is easier to 
form a direct idea of general tendencies in either the 
increase or decrease of the different items. This is 
illustrated by Fig. 6. 

Other important studies are the preparation of 
graphs to show the gross receipts, increase in popula- 
tion and car-miles. On the same chart are plotted re- 
ceipts per capita, car-miles per capita, etc., as in Fig. 7. 

To find if the expenditure of the 
various departments varies in the 
same ratio as the gross income of 
the company, graphs are pre- 
pared of the gross receipts, total 
operating expenses and car-miles, 
as in Fig. 8. It is good practice to show the gross and 
operating expenses in total dollars, while plotting di- 
rectly underneath it the receipts, operating expenses, 
cost of conducting transportation, power, maintenance 
of way and structure, maintenance of equipment and 
general and miscellaneous expenses in cents per car 
similar graphs should be made by districts, to determine mile. With the car-mile basis, the manager can see at 

The Railway Manager Has the 
Biggest Job in Town 

Therefore His Problem Is to Secure the Principal 
Community Statistics. Some Sample Graphs Are 
Presented, Chiefly from Chamber of Commerce 

IN NOVEMBER, 1917, during the coal stringency 
the railways of Kansas City received preference to 
private consumers in fuel allocations while, in De- 
cember, the Cleveland Railway received preference over 
lighting- — an eloquent tribute to the primacy of the 
electric railway. 

But now let us go to a more spe- 
cific matter in illustrating the old 
saying "Knowledge is Power," 
namely : 

Since the railway manager has 
the biggest job in community de- 
velopment, he ought to know more about the past, pres- 
ent and future of the town than anyone else. Otherwise 
how can he shape the policy of his company to conform 
to changed conditions or prove to the investor that his 
town is coming instead of going? 

In a growing community a railway manager can get 
a great deal of helpful information from the following : 
First — Graphs of the increase in population accord- 
ing to the shortest intervals available. Figs. 1 and 2 
present such graphs for two American cities, both being 
reproduced to show how the ratios of increase may 
differ. Nor should we stop here. If at all possible, 



Comparisons of 





Vol. 51, No. 1 

o 180 
jE 160 
c 140 
c 120 
o 100 
$ 60 
5 60 
a 20 




1 1 1 

§ 180 



jC 160 












O CM ^- O O O O<00 N 'd-kO tn ON ^ cO O 

<7> a~> <7> OOO OO — ~ — _ _ C-i (\j CM CNJ (\J rO 

75 180 
Q 160 
V 140 
o SO 
= 60 
Z 40 







"I 1 

J 500 
a 350 

£ 200 
- 100 
T. 50 











f 30 

v. c 
C S 
0) J 

I I5 + C 


5.o 500 








tya^aic^oooooooooo — ■ 

OJ hO ^- LT> r- 

0000000 — — • 


£4 4^800 
.2 X £ 

£ 3 Q.3%600 
52 2, £400 

r AO Mil FQ-^T*. 








1R f 

< FIG. 10 

>* <y t +- „ 

191& 1917 


o 8 

£ 5 


5 3b30 

-/W C4£> Wif 

-7J37^i KW-HOURS 


z> o oj <u cl 

, 3 u <u ib Q. 

1915 1916 1917 

000000 - — 

FIG. 3 





I 26 

, 24 
l 18 

u 8 
«J 6 





1 1 

0000000 — — — — 

Fig. 1 — Growth in Population, Town A 
Fig. 2 — Growth in Population, Town B. from Top Down, 

Combined, City and Suburbs 
F'ig. 3 — Relation Between Growth in Numbers of Wage 

Earners and Establishments 
Fig. i — Relative Increases in Value of Products, Capitaliza- 
tion, Cost of Material and Wages, Town A 
Fig. 5 — Record of Bank Clearings, Town A 

Fig. 6 — Company Records, Town B. Suburbs Included. 
Fig. 7 — Company Records, Per Capita Data, Town B, 
Suburbs Included 
Fig. 8 — Total Departmental Data, Town B, Suburbs Included 
Fig. 9 — Gross Receipts and Operating Expenses Per Car- 
mile, Town B Alone 
Fig. 10 — Car-miles and Energy for One Year by Months 
Fig. 11 — Car-miles and Energy for Two Years by Months 

January 5, 1918 



once if departmental expenses are increasing or de- 
creasing in proportion to the railway's gross earnings. 
An opportunity to compare relative total operating ex- 
penses and receipts on a cents per car-mile basis is 
presented in Fig. 9. 

It is suggested that these graphs be made on charts 
of wall-map size, not only for easier reference, but for 
use in discussions with employees, the public and regu- 
latory bodies. 

Of course, in making comparisons of total and depart- 
mental expenditures we should be sure that apparent 
savings in way or equipment maintenance, power or 
transportation expenses are really savings. They may 
be merely transfer charges, as when a saving in power 
possibly is transferred to the cost of transportation. 
Therefore, each saving must be considered in the light 
of what effect it will have on other costs. 

The importance of departmental studies like Fig. 8 
is emphasized by comparisons with the statistics of the 
United States Census Bureau. Its 1912 report shows 
that of the gross income of all the electric railways of 
the United States, the 58.18 per cent operating ratio 
was divided as follows : 

Maintenance of way and structures 8.17 per cent 

Maintenance of equipment 7.06 per cent 

Transportation 24.42 per cent 

Power 9.00 per cent 

General expense 9.53 per ecu l 

Total ~. 58.18 per cent 

We all know that the recent exceptional increases in 
the price of labor and material will raise this per- 
centage. Thus the figure for transportation expenses 
is nearer 35 and 40 per cent than 24.42 per cent. 

It would seem advisable also to include the depreci- 
ation, contingency funds, taxes and terminal charges in 
the operating ratio to obtain a true idea of what it really 
costs to conduct electric railway business. 

What Lines Are Making or Losing 

Costs and Earnings of Individual Lines Should Be 
Known to Give Service with Satisfaction to 
the Public and Profit to the Railway 

THE same method of analyzing accounts applied to 
the system as a whole should be extended to the 
individual lines. Not to have such data is to be in 
the position of a manufacturer who has a surplus or 
deficit (more often a deficit), yet cannot place the re- 
sponsibility for the result. 

It is absolutely vital to know the earning value of 
each line by itself ; and not the least important reason is 
the ability which it lends to a manager to prove his case 
when he is asked to make an unreasonable increase in 

He knows, for example, that an extra stop slows 
down schedules and costs money but he must prove this 
to the satisfaction of the complainants in figures, for his 
say-so is no better than that of any other man. 

Figs. 10 and 11 contrast the average car-mile earn- 
ings, car-hours and car-mileage of a certain city with 
those of its best-paying line. Going still further, Fig. 12, 
we get a contrast of all the lines individually (on another 
system) revealing the perceptible disproportion between 
car-miles and earnings per mile. The operating ex- 

of Accounts 

penses of a line may seem to be reasonable when 
measured on a car-mile basis but be found unduly high 
when measured on a car-hour basis. For this reason, 
if a railway has the information figured on a basis of 
both car-miles and car-hours, it comes pretty close to 
knowing what parts of the system are bringing in the 
net income, where service should be added and where it 
should be taken off. 

By further segregation of the 
standard classification of accounts, 
the cost of operation of individual 
lines can be obtained. Thus where 
several lines operate over one track, 
the expense of maintenance and op- 
eration can be distributed in proportion to the car-mile- 
age of the individual lines. 

More refined methods of determining both costs 
and possible economies and improvements will be found 
in the traffic studies presented later. These studies will 
take up schedule speeds, stops, length of stops, voltage, 
car weights, grades, number of passengers carried in 
different zones, etc. By giving such points due consid- 
eration, we can find directly the cost of giving addition- 
al or decreased service. To have exact facts, of course, 
will put an entirely different face on arguments con- 
cerning public policy, and make it quite impossible to 
ask impracticable things from the railway. 

When the service of the individual lines is analyzed, 
it is well to consider the cost or appraisal value of each 
of the lines which we are comparing. Frequently, a large 
amount of money necessarily has to be invested to con- 
struct over a bridge or some costly fill — items which are 
not taken into consideration when operating costs only 
are borne in mind. 

Car Turn-back Statistics, the Proof of 
Unnecessary Service, Are of 
Immediate Value 

A Periodical Traffic Analysis of Each Line, Made 
with the Aid of the Conductors, Will Eliminate 
Waste Mileage by Indicating Desirable Turn-back 

STILL another subject of profitable study for the 
average road is a careful analysis of the turnback 
situation. Indeed, a company whose needs do not 
require the compilation of any extended system of 
graphs will yet find it worth while to take up the sub- 
ject of passenger loading for turn-back points and the 
requirements of car capacity. The savings possible 
in this direction, when they are tabulated and put be 
fore the local authorities, will often help a company in 
receiving permission to extend its system of turn-backs. 
The greatest gain possible from turn-back cars is to 
apply them, in whole or in part, for more frequent ser- 
vice on the heavily traveled portion of the line or to 
take care of increased business without buying new 

To determine the turn-back points for any particular 
line, it is necessary to analyze the passenger loads on 
all cars at all hours of the day. It is just as wrong to 
run too much mileage as too little mileage; in one case 
the hardship suffered by the company is reflected in its 
finances; in the other, the hardship borne by the public 



Vol. 51, No. 1 

is reflected both in the decreased earnings and in the 
increased dissatisfaction. Only an actual survey will 
bring out these facts, as register turn-ins are useless 
for records of travel over different parts of one line. 

All operators know that the heaviest passenger loads 
usually are found in the congested portions of the city. 
This load tapers off gradually as the car advances to- 
ward the outer terminals or drops sharply at certain 
crossings, like transfer points. A few lines may have 
one or more traffic centers, but this general fact holds. 

Despite general knowledge of 
the "turn-back" principle, "turn- 
back" service is not used as ex- 
tensively as it should be. In some 
cases no attempt has been made to 
work it out; in others the public 

of Turn-back 
Is Sound 

Check by 

has become prejudiced against the system either be- 
cause the car marker signs were not easily legible or 
because the question of whether the car should go on 
or turn back has been left to the will of the individual 
car crew instead of being placed in the hands of in- 
spectors or of a central dispatcher. 

A gratifying feature about the turn-back traffic sur- 
vey is that except possibly in the largest cities, a com- 
pany can very easily get, at very little extra expense, all 
of the information necessary for it to determine turn- 
backs pretty closely, from its own staff of conductors 
and inspectors who have already an intimate acquaint- 
ance with the cars and their routes. 

Quite recently a traffic survey was conducted of all* 
the lines in a city of 150,000 population. It was not 
necessary to call in any outside help. Eight regular 
employees transcribed all the information from the con- 
ductors' cards and made the graphs within six days 
from the time we began. Similar surveys have been 
made in cities up to 300,000 population. 

With other systems of checking 
it is necessary to have so many 
men that usually only one line can 
be surveyed at a time. With the 
conductor's card system it is pos- 
sible and usually advisable to make 
all observations on all lines at one time. A simulta- 
neous one-day survey avoids errors due to the varia- 
tions in gross receipts even on successive week days. 
It is not uncommon to find variations of 25 to 33 r /$ 
per cent on individual and groups of lines ; so the pick- 
ing out of "typical" days with traffic survey systems 
other than this is extremely difficult, if not impossible. 

It is not asserted that the system recommended is 
as complete as those of our largest engineering or- 
ganizations, but it is good enough and sufficiently 
comprehensive so that a survey which will enable the 
local manager to give the best service with the least 
waste of mileage may be obtained. Aside from this, 
periodical checking of traffic for changes in turn- 
backs are necessary in any event. 

To get these data, the superintendent or manager 
instructs the conductors to count the number of pas- 
sengers at each point selected, as shown in the instruc- 
tions on page 28. 

Each conductor also receives a printed card, Fig. 13, 
for writing down his figures. This card carries the 
name of the possible "turn-back" streets, the line on 
which the data are taken, the date, car number, con- 
ductor's number, conductor's name, run number and 
trip number. It is necessary to have all these data 


Helpful to 
the Men 

To turn back or not to turn back should not be left to the varying 
judgment of platform men. 

to be certain that all cards have been turned in by 
the conductors and that all the facts needed for the 
graphs are at hand. Such a card should be about the 
size of a regular trip card, so that the conductor can 
fold and place it in his pocket. 

When orders for the count are 
issued, the conductors should be 
informed that it has absolutely 
nothing to do with register read- 
ings; that the management simply 
wants to secure the most even dis- 
tribution of passenger loads in all cars at all times, 
from which it naturally follows that the work of the 
conductors will also be more evenly distributed when 
the necessary changes are made. 

It is realized that at certain times of the day the con- 
ductor will not have the time to make accurate notations 
just at the point where the count should be taken, so he 
should be requested to bear this in mind and do the best 
he can. 

Ordinarily it is best to take this traffic count for two 
or three days, using but one day's figures for the analy- 
sis. As the men need a little time to understand ex- 
actly what is wanted it is best to discard the first day's 
count. When this count reaches the office, the delin- 
quents are reinstructed, and usually the second and 
third days' cards are found in good shape. 

Experience shows that the conductor's counts are as 
accurate as those taken by paid outsiders. The difficulty 
with outside workers is that the observer must have 
some training, while an experienced conductor can tell 
instantly and instinctively how many passengers are in 
his car without one-by-one counting. 

Within the downtown section or in heavy traffic dis- 
tricts, the count should be taken about every 1200 or 
1500 ft., and in the outer sections about every 2000 or 
3000 ft. On a line 5 miles long the data on ten or twelve 
checking points will show at a glance the extent of over- 
loading or underloading of the cars, and consequently 
the changes desirable in the number and capacity of 
cars routed to each point. The form on pages 28 and 29 
shows the distribution of data as tabulated from the 
cards turned in by the conductors. 

Uncle Sam appreciates the need for electric railways. They are 
in the first ranks in the allotment of coal. 

January 5, 1918 



Determining the Size of Car 

From the Turn-back Records It Is Possible to Get 
Maximum, Minimum and Average Car Loadings 
Hour by Hour and to Check Them Against Seating 

THE data from the turn-back studies may be used 
for chief aid in determining another important 
matter: The best size of car. 
To do this we must develop loading graphs which will 
show at each checking point the maximum and mini- 
mum number of passengers on all cars at hourly inter- 
vals throughout the day, the two classes of loading 
graph being contrasted with the straight line which 
represents the seating capacity and with the derived 
graph of average loading. It is this "average loading" 
which should determine the size of the car best suited 
for the line. 

For instance, an examination of the upper graphs 
in Fig. 14 shows that the car should be a little larger 
to care for the worst condition or that more of the 
present type should be operated. By making similar 
studies for say a dozen points (as indicated in Figs. 
15 and 16) we can decide definitely what is the best 
car for the line as a whole, while for the congested 
sections we can arrange shorter headways through 
turn-backs or trippers. 

Again, we may look at the question in another way: 
Will the combined effects of increased rates of accelera- 
tion and braking, shorter length of stops, fewer stops 
per mile, etc., be of sufficient importance to give a 
shorter headway with the same number and size of 
cars now in use? We must not ignore the probability 
that shorter headways will bring more gross revenue. 

Such studies as these should be considered in connec- 
tion with the analysis of line travel by zones as detailed 
in the following paragraphs. 

Both in securing general data on 
a line and the making of schedules 
it is best to divide the line into 
zones. In the downtown districts 
the travel is congested and stops 
frequent, so the running time must 
necessarily be relatively slow. As we leave the center 
of the city, stops are less frequent and vehicle and pe- 
destrian interference greatly reduced; therefore the 
schedule speed is much higher. When we also consider 
the possible turn-back points, we are ready to lay out 
the following data: 

1 — Distance 

by Zones 








of Stop 



A.M. rush 

P.M. rush 



3 — Curves and grade condition 

4 — Special traffic conditions 

When we have these data (see Fig. 17) plus the 
schedule possibility of each car, we know if we are 
getting all out of our equipment that is advisable, mak- 

ing due allowance against a schedule that is "too tight" 
to keep the men ambitious to hold the cars to time. 
The stops given in Fig. 17 are equivalent stops, and in- 
clude slowdowns. 

At any rate, we are now armed with definite informa- 
tion and can take up intelligently such problems as 
municipal traffic rules to secure the street car a right- 
of-way that will increase the schedule speeds so that it 
will not be necessary for the crew to take chances in 
meeting tight schedules. 

Or to take a less obvious condition : Exact knowledge 
of the voltage in each of the zones will show if the 
bonding is right or if there is enough feeder in the 

Table I — Schedule Speed Efficiency as Affected by Voltage 








Stops per 




























10 75 





9. 1 






Calculated on basis of tangent level track and without leeway. 

section observed. For example, Fig. 18 shows how 
radically the schedule speed or mileage output of a car 
is affected over a range of 400 to 600 volts. What this 
low voltage means can therefore be calculated directly 
in dollars and cents so that it is easy to determine 
whether it will pay to buy better bonds, use automatic 
substations, install more feeder copper or to take any 
other measures that will improve the quality of service 
while lowering the cost of service. 

From Fig. 18, just mentioned, Table I has been pre- 
pared to show the schedule possibilities with a 20-ton 
car at 400, 500 and 600 volts. 

* * # 

A Statistical and Schedule Depart- 
ment of Value 

Statistical and Schedule Functions Should Naturally 
Be Placed Under a Transportation Engineer — 
The Service Fundamentals 

WHAT has already been said about the essential 
records required by an electric railway indi- 
cates the need for a statistical department. 
Preferably this bureau should be combined with the 
schedule department because most of its work bears 
so directly upon transportation problems. 

The work should be guided by an experienced trans- 
portation engineer who would have the tact to co-oper- 
ate with all of the other departments and who would 
also have the ability to analyze every function of opera- 
tion. To make a success of this department, it is also 
necessary to have its findings presented to the chief 
executive in such a way as to make its studies of prac- 
tical instead of theoretical value. 

This would be the department to prepare all the 
graphs mentioned in the different portions of this 
study. The chief executive of a railway may lack the 
time for details, but it is his duty thoroughly to review 
all of the phases of the work of this department, to 
keep in touch with the transportation engineer and to 



Vol. 51, No. 1 

v 700 
f 650 
f -g350 
l 30 c 300 
O 25 g 250 
k 203200 
I0 1 " 100 
S 5 50 

£ o o 


l_ _ 

— Cents per 
Car Mile 

— Car Mile 



FIG. 12 

Conductor Badge No. - .. Date 
Car No. - Run No. Time On TimeOff. 



Trip No. 

Terminal A 



Terminal B 














FIG. 13 

A M P M. 

4 5 6 7 6 9 10 II 12 1 2 3 4 5 67 8 9 10 II 12 1 

5 6 7 8 9 10 1112 1 2 34 5 6 78 910 II 12 1 2 

in 30 
L 20 


« 70 

A.M. P. M . 

456789 10 II 12 I 23456789 JO If 12 I 
56789 10 II 12 123456 7 8 9 10 II 12 I 2 

AM. P. M 

567891011 12I23456789I0III2I2 



m 30 











1 5 9 1088 8 8 9 10 910 1511 11 11 9 
Number of Cars 

) 8 6 31 






1 5 91088 86 1010 9 10 1311 II II 1088 5 3 1 
Number of Cars 




4999888 109 10 10 12 1? 12128 8 86 4 1 
Number of Cars 


cu tij 0) 

Number of Cars 

FIG. 14 

3 99 9 8 8 7 II 9 1010 II 12 1212 9 ( 
Number of Cars 

FIG. 16 

6 4 I 

Line . 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

[< Zone N?l >!<-Zone N?2->|<-Zone N?3 >|<-Zone N?4->| 
IN? I N?2 IN?3 N?4 

Observe rs 


Distance Schedule Speed 

Running Time Stops per Mile 

Total Stops Remarks on Curve and 

Average Length of Stop Grade Conditions 

Remarks, Special Traffic Conditions 

x 26 

a; 24 

"> 16 
_oj 14 

=> 12 

"S 10 
j= 8 
° <b 
W 4 



Geared to Maximum Speed of 

25 M PH on 600 Volts 
Rate of Accelerating and Braking 

Coasting 20% Time Power on 
Duration of Stop, 5 Seconds 

— £t 




friction Power on ZOIbperTon 
Coastinq25 •• » » 
Average Trolley Voltage, 
400, 500 8- 600 Volts 





1 1 1 1 II 1 1 1 1 

FIG. 17 



£ 90 
u 60 

n" ™ 
a 60: 
. 50 - 

S 50 

V 10 

34 34 
32 32 
30 30 
^26^ 28 
3 26- 1 26 
r 24^24 
22% 22 
£20:5 20 
Q-I8 X 18 
I6t' 16 
S I4i2 14 

3 4 



6 7 



1 1 I 1 

Gear 74Teeth 
Pinion 1} » 
Reduction 5.7 
D/am of 
Wheels 26" 








Geared for Maximum Speeds of 

15, 20, 25,&50r1PH 
Accelerating, 1501b. per Ton 
Braking, 150 » » » 
Coasting, 20 %Power-on Period 


srop x[ 


[_ J 


r n 





r n 


I stop 




in 14 
v 12 

3 10 
15 « 

<u o 

in 4 

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 

Schedule Speed for 20-ton Car 
Geared for Max Speed of25MPH 
Rate of Accel and Braking litl PH PS 

Frtri-inn Pnwor rtn ?f)lh npr Thn 



Coasting 25 » » » 



57qS? — 


1 1 1 

m 50 



3 4 
Sf ops 

5 6 7 
per Mile 


Curve A, average Loading and 
Unloading Time Rear 



Entrancefront Exit, 
PA YE Car, with folding 
Steps and it "Wheels, 
?t? "Entrance and Exit 


>e B, average Loading and 
adina Time of Peter Witt 


Car; front Entrance, Center 

Exit with 25" Wheels 

55" Entrance and Exit. 
Doors net Interlocked wrttiControl 

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 
P a s s e n qers 


Fig. 19- 

Fig. 12 — Gross Earnings Per Car-mile 
Fig. 13 — Blank Form for Traffic Count 
Fig. 14 — Determining Car Loading 
Fig. 15 — Determining Car Loading 
Fig. 16 — Determining Car Loading 
Fig. 17 — Layout for Traffic Study by Zones 
Fig. 18— Schedule Speed Curves for 20-ton Car 

Characteristic Curves GE-25S Motor, 
13:7 + 

Gear Ratio 

Fig. 20 — Schedule Speed and Energy Curves for 20-ton Car 
Fig. 21 — Influence of Length of Stop on Schedule Speed 

Fig. 22 — Loading Time Curves for Two Types of Car 
pi g 23 — Comparison of Skip Stop (Left) and Stagger Stop 

January 5, 1918 



transmit to him such directions as are necessary to de- 
velop the usefulness of the statistical and schedule 

A truly scientific schedule department will solve many 
problems that cannot well be handled directly by the 
operating department. For example, there is the prob- 
lem of determining whether it is desirable to have four 
different running speeds a day; and if so, what are the 
most economical figures, the question of balancing plat- 
form cost against power voltage, and others. 

Or if it is a problem of removing an obstacle not 
within the control of the railway, such as vehicular and 
automobile congestion, better results will be obtained 
by publishing charts of surveys and detail reports of 
the delays so caused to the riding public than any 
amount of recrimination without evidence. If park- 
ing and safety zone -ordinances are wanted, let this de- 
partment prove the necessity for them. 

In the past it has been too often the practice to lay 
out schedules on what might be termed the "cut and 
try" method. By this is meant that a trial car is oper- 
ated over the line, usually under the supervision of 
some competent man, and the running time so made 
generally determines the future schedule. 

On the other hand, every individual type of car has 
a certain schedule possibility which is almost entirely 
determined by the free running speed of the equipment, 
the arrangement of passenger interchange and fare 
collection facilities. The free running speed of each 
car being known and the other conditions outlined in 
the present study being reviewed, schedules can be 
calculated, based on what each type of car is actually 
capable of performing. Schedules prepared on such a 
basis should prove more satisfactory than those es- 
tablished by guess, although they should, of course, be 
carefully checked by actual trial as formerly. 

To facilitate the making up of schedules on this 
basis, two graphs, Figs. 25 and 26, will be discussed 
later in this study; one for a 20-ton car and one for 
a 7%-ton car. These graphs give the schedule speeds 
which are possible with an equipment geared for any 
free running speed within certain limits. It is appre- 
ciated that the voltage will change the free running 
speed. The average voltage can be obtained by ob- 
servation and due allowance made in the free running 
speed. With but a very small commercial error, free 
running speeds of all cars decrease in proportion to 
the voltage, as outlined later. 

We may now proceed to a study of the service funda- 
mentals of Safety, Comfort, Speed, Stops, Weight and 

Higher voltage means higher schedule speed. 

The First Service Fundamental 
Is Safety 

Faster Schedules Are Not Incompatible with Greater 
Safety as the Maximum Running Time May 
Be Even Lower Than Before 

ALL of our modern education has been along the 
lines of safety, not only with regard to the pas- 
senger and pedestrian but also to the railway em- 
ployee. Since this subject is a well-nigh universal 
topic we need not discuss it in detail. 

Nevertheless it is well to point out that in our dis- 
cussion of car speeds, for example, we do not advo- 
cate any practices that could possibly impair safety; 
but we firmly believe that higher schedule speed and 
greater safety are compatible in many cases. The air 
brake, for instance, not only cuts down accidents but 
raises schedule speed through its reduction of the 
braking interval. Again, the saving of time due to low 
steps, pneumatic door and step control, etc., also pro- 
duces higher schedule speeds without raising and, even 
by lowering, the maximum running speed. This paradox 
is due to the fact that in frequent-stop service higher 
rates of acceleration and retardation are more im- 
portant for schedule speed than a maximum running 
speed which is unattainable on the greater part of 
the run. 

The Second Service Fundamental 
Is Comfort 

Modern Heating, Lighting, Ventilation, Smooth Accel- 
eration and Correct Seating Are All 
Factors in Comfort 

THE comfort of the passenger is second only to his 
safety. Bare lamp lighting, non-regulated heat- 
ing and monitor-sash entrances for drafts are 
giving way to the non-glaring fixture, the thermostat 
and the mechanical ventilator. What is most satisfac- 
tory, too, is that modernizing all of these features saves 
money in lamp renewals, energy consumption and car 
construction even if it should fail to add one extra fare 
to the revenues of the railway. 

Still another factor in car comfort as well as acci- 
dent prevention is that of smooth acceleration. It is 
not the rate of acceleration that makes for discomfort 
as much as it is the layout of resistor steps and the 
ignorance of the motorman. If the steps are correctly 
reset, half of the car troubles are over ; and if automatic 
acceleration is adopted, all of these troubles are over. 

The Third Service Fundamental 
Is Speed 

How to Determine the Free Running Speed of a Car; 
Relation to Gear Ratio; Effect on Schedule Speed 
of Number and Time of Stops and of Rates of Ac- 
celeration and Braking 

NE of the most important things is to know the 
schedule possibility of every car which the com- 
pany owns. 

This is directly affected by the free running speed of 
the car, namely, the speed which a car will ultimately 
attain if the controller is at full "on" position and the 
car is running on tangent level track. 



Vol. 51, No. 1 

This speed can be raised or lowered by changing the 
gear ratio. This change affects directly the amount of 
energy used and so has certain practical limitations 
set by the horse-power capacity of the equipment. It 
is always safe to lower the free running speed of the 
car, assuming this to be advisable, but when the speed 
is raised it is well to consult the equipment manufac- 
turer and give him all the operating conditions before 
making a change. 

We will assume that we desire to find the full run- 
ning speed of a car weighing 34,000 lb. complete with all 
equipment ready to roll. We will also assume the car 
has 6000 lb. of passengers, which gives a total load 
of 40,000 lb. We will also assume that this car is 
equipped with four 25-hp. motors having 74-tooth gear, 
13-tooth pinion and 24-in. wheels, and that the average 
potential is 500 volts. 

To determine the free running speed we first must 
take the complete weight (including the live load) and 
get the weight in tons per motor. Since the car weighs 
40,000 lb., or 20 tons, and there are four motors, we 
have 5 tons per motor. 

The resistance to the keeping of the car in motion is 
expressed in pounds torque or drawbar pull. It is 
generally accepted that for city cars this resistance 
amounts to 20 lb. per ton. This figure includes the 
rolling friction, windage and force necessary to keep 
the rotating parts in motion. 

Since the car has a weight of 5 tons per motor, this 
total resistance per motor is 100 lb. By referring to 
the characteristic curve of the motor shown in Fig. 19 
we first find 100 lb. on the torque curve, and then by 
reading up to the speed curve we find the car speed at 
500 volts is 24 m.p.h. and at 600 volts 29 m.p.h. , 

It will be noted that the speed is increased in almost 
direct proportion to the increase or decrease in voltage. 
Theoretically there is some difference, but for practical 
purposes this difference can be neglected on the light 
motor loads which are obtained with free running 

One of the basic factors in the 
railway business is the number of 
stops the car has to make. This 
factor directly affects the line ca- 
pacity, numbers of cars for a given 
service, car-hours, power, main- 
tenance of equipment, size of motors, etc. How many 
operators know the number of stops that are made 
on their different lines? How many of them are try- 
ing to reduce the number of stops to a minimum? This 
is one of the largest fields for saving that can be made 
in car operation to-day. 

To know how many stops a car makes per mile is 
not an abstract engineering question of no vital im- 
portance to the operation of the property. Of course, 
a certain number of cars have to be on a line, but it is 
possible merely by a change in stops to make fewer 
cars give the same number of seat-miles. If there are 
but four cars on a line, the displacement of one car 
would demand a 25 per cent improvement in operation, 
which would hardly be attainable if the line is within 
striking distance of proper operation; but if there are 
six cars on the line, it is often possible either to give 
more service with the same number of cars or to give 
the same service with less cars by a better arrangement 


Schedule Speed 

of stops and shorter length of stops. Of course, the 
same percentage of saving would apply to lines with a 
larger number of cars. 

If the service is such that there are nine stops per 
mile with an average length of stops of five seconds 
each, the values would be as given in Table II. 


-Relation of Free Running Speed to Power Cost, Nine Stops 
per Mile 





per C ar-Mile 
at the Car 

Power Cost for 
40,000 Lb. Car- 
Miles, \yi Cents 
per Kilowatt-Hour 
at the Car 






















Stops Also 



Cars in city service run 30,000 
to 50,000 miles per annum. There- 
fore, 40,000 car-miles per annum 
is a fair average. To get an idea 
of what number of stops per mile 
means on a car geared for 25 
m. p. h., free running speed, we can study Table III" 
with considerable profit: 

Table III — Relation Cf Number Of Stops To Schedule Speed and 
Platform Wages 


of Stop, 



Platform Wages 
at 60 Cents 
per Hour 




.. . 

















Table III especially emphasizes the advantage of 
eliminating stops. It also brings out the effect on 
schedule speed of an increased number of stops and the 
consequent reduction in speed. The savings of the car- 
hours and power, the most definite figures which we 
have, are but part of the savings influenced by raising 
schedule speeds. For instance, if a car operates at an 
increased schedule speed, the carrying capacity and 
service of the line are increased in proportion thereto;, 
or the surplus cars are available for use elsewhere. 

A further analysis of these figures brings out some 
very interesting facts. Assuming that a car is geared 
for 25 m. p. h. free running speed and is in a service 
with five stops per mile, the car would then be capable 
of making a schedule speed of 13.1 m.p.h. If the stops 
are increased to seven per mile, this figure would be 
decreased to 11.4 m.p.h. If the stops are increased to 
nine per mile, the schedule speed will be further de- 
creased to 9.9 m.p.h. 

It will be noted that there is 10 per cent leeway in 
the item for platform wages. This 10 per cent will be 
carried through on all items where wages are specified 
hereafter. The reason for this is that the schedules 
which are specified in every place in this discussion are 
theoretical schedules. To make them practical it is 
necessary to add 10 per cent for interruptions in traffic, 
grades, curves and necessary layovers at the end of the 

January 5, 1918 



Shorter Stops 
Mean Lower 

The length of stop can also be de- 
creased if passengers are urged 
both by posters and by word of 
mouth to board and leave the car as 
expeditiously as possible, while the 
conductor should be urged to be 
prompt in giving signals to the motorman through push- 
buttons or otherwise. The value of decreasing the 
length of stop is strongly brought out by the following 
Table IV and Fig. 21 : 

Table IV — Effect of Length of Stop on Schedule Speed 







per Mile 

of Stop 



























































The car on which these figures are based is geared 
for 25 m.p.h. free running speed. Further, to analyze 
just what this table means, it might be well to consider 
a car with fifty passengers. Of course, the entire fifty 
passengers would not get on the car at the outer ter- 
minal of the line, but would be taken on at different 
points along the route. However, it is fair to assume 
that out of the fifty passengers twenty-five would be the 
equivalent number which would be carried over the 
entire distance. 

We will assume that we can reduce the average length 
of stop from nine seconds to five seconds, saving four 
seconds per stop. We will also assume the following 
schedule conditions: 

Sixty minutes running time 

9 m.p.h schedule speed 

Eight and five-tenths stops per mile 

It will then be understood that we will have a total of 
seventy-six stops, and since the time which is saved is 
four seconds each we shall save 304 seconds or approxi- 
mately five minutes for the entire run. Since there is 
an average of twenty-five people and the total time 
saved on the run is five minutes, the total time saved for 
all of the passengers will be five times twenty-five or 
125 minutes. 

It may seem to some that this is figuring down to 
a rather small point— merely the saving of five minutes 
on a single run, but as we follow along the argument 
we can readily appreciate what five minutes means to 
the entire community. 

Saving the 
Time, Too 

When you have signs like this or its equivalent, the position of the 
entrance on the car is a minor matter. 

Previously we took the average 
mileage of city cars at approxi- 
mately 40,000 car-miles per annum. 
For the sake of argument, we will 
assume that this car is in a service 
which averages eight stops per 
mile. We will also assume that we reduce the length of 
stop four seconds. This would give a total saving for 
the year of 1,280,000 seconds or 355y 2 hours. When 
we consider that the average passenger load of the car 
would be approximately twenty-five, it is realized that 
the accumulated time saved for these passengers repre- 
sents 8887 V2 hours. 

These arguments illustrate directly the value of a 
small thing in car transportation. By looking at Table 
IV — which shows the difference between making nine 
ten-second stops per mile with seven five-second stops 
per mile — we see that to operate 40,000 car-miles a car 
must necessarily be in service 4519 car-hours. This 
will give a total number of 112,975 accumulated pas- 
senger car-hours, while with seven stops per mile and 
five-second stops, the accumulated passenger-hours 
would be 87,700. The difference between these two 
values would be 25,275 passenger-hours. This would be 
the accumulated time saved by the passengers on each 
car. If the system operates 200 to 300 cars or more, 
one can easily realize how this saving for the commu- 
nity is a valuable public service aside from any saving 
to the railway. 

To reduce the length of stop to a 
minimum, it is advisable to mark 
all car stops plainly so that both 
the passengers and train crew will 
know exactly where the car doors 
will open. A misunderstanding 
means the loss of one or two seconds per stop while the 
passengers are walking up to the car entrance. It is 
these seconds per stop that in the aggregate are so 
valuable to the community and to the railway. 

If a city car averages 40,000 miles annually and 
makes six stops per mile, it will make 240,000 stops an- 
nually. The average length of stop in city service is 
seven seconds. If we arrange markings at corners so 
that passengers will know the exact point at which the 
car entrance will stop and if both train crews and pas- 
sengers exercise care in the amount of time the car is 
stopped, we could shorten the average length of stop to 
five seconds, which is equivalent to a saving of two sec- 
onds per stop. For a single car this means a saving in 
car time of 480,000 seconds annually, or more than 
133 1/3 hours. 

If the average number of passengers on a car is 
twenty-five, the annual saving for the passengers in 
each car would be 3333 hours, or, assuming that the 
average active portion of the day of each person is six- 
teen hours, this figure would then be equivalent to 
208 1/3 days. If figured on a ten-hour day, this 
amounts to 333 1/3 days for the passengers on a car. 

We have just seen how important 
decreased stopping time is to both 
the public and to the railway. The 
next step is to see how they can co- 
operate to get the benefit of a 
smaller number of stops. 
When railway officials contemplate inaugurating such 
service, the number of possible stops and existing stops, 


Stop Signs 

Weeks to 
the Year! 



Vol. 51, No. 1 

including the distances between them, should be tabu- 
lated and analyzed. The distance between the new, pos- 
sible stops should approximate 600 ft. 

The first question that will arise will be not the gain 
of 10 to 12 per cent in schedule speed, but what will the 
change do for the individual rider? What does five 
minutes saved per half trip mean to him? Now this 
amounts to ten minutes a day, and if we allow 300 work- 
ing days, the total will be 3000 minutes or 50 hours 
or GVi business days of eight hours each — practically a 
fifty-third week to the year. 

As it is not unreasonable to assume that the time of 
the average car rider is worth 20 cents an hour, the 
fifty hours saved by cutting the number of stops would 
have a commercial value of $10 per annum, the equiva- 
lent of 200 five-cent rides! In other words, the time 
saved for the passenger may be greater in value than 
the receipts per annum per capita! On the basis of 
30,000,000 car-miles per annum, one railway is saving 
$200,000 a year. 

As with any other innovation, the public and the reg- 
ulatory officials should be fully apprised of the rail- 
way's plans and purposes, for the success of the fewer- 
stop service will depend largely upon how it is intro- 
duced. To begin with, it is generally recognized that 
this service should be operated only in the outer dis- 
trict beyond the normal walking zone, and that in the 
downtown section and at transfer points the cars should 
make all stops. The near-side stop should be made 
standard, as this is a great time saver. 

Further, the new plan should be introduced in the 
spring or summer months so that the riders will have 
learned to appreciate its advantages in the saving of 
time and the increasing of comfort in riding before the 
few days of severe snowy weather show them the 
change in its one unfavorable light. The matter should 
be thoroughly explained beforehand to the public also, 
so that the people will understand that they are to be 
the beneficiaries as well as the railway companies. 

One way of operating fewer-stop 
service is to stop on alternate cor- 
ners ; the other is to have outbound 
cars stop at one series of corners 
while inbound cars stop at the other 
series of corners. The latter 
method, or "stagger" stop, illustrated in Fig. 23, has 
the advantage of equalizing the walking done by all 
passengers, since the passenger who walks an extra 
block in the morning does not have to do so at night — ■ 
and vice versa. The stagger stop has been successfully 
introduced at Cleveland, Detroit, Buffalo, Kansas City 
and Toledo, and is now being tried at Baltimore, Dallas, 
Cincinnati and Columbus. 

To show that the stagger stop plus walking is quicker 
for the patron than haphazard stopping, Fig. 24 has 
been prepared. This shows the time required to walk 
distances up to 1000 ft. Of course, the distance be- 
tween stops does not have to be traversed by every indi- 
vidual car user. The greatest distance which he will 
have to walk will be one-half of the distance between 
the possible car stops. 

It is to be expected that when some stops are elimi- 
nated, a few people will appear before regulatory bodies 
to contend that it is a personal inconvenience for them 
to walk an additional square. Not only do such com- 
plainants fail to consider the benefit to the community 

or Stagger 
Skip Stop 

Save Time in 



in general, but they also fail to appreciate their per- 
sonal gain and convenience. As for the storekeeper 
who wants every car to stop in front of his emporium, 
the rule of the greatest good to the greatest number 
should be rigidly applied. 

It may be interesting to add that in European cities, 
the spacing between stops ranges from 250 meters (820 
ft.) up* and that the stop signs are placed regardless 
of crossings — a practice which is safer and more equit- 
able than the use of corners. 

One of the most important 
studies, especially on city railways, 
is the proper design of car en- 
trances and exits. These studies 
should be made in conjunction with 
different systems of fare collection. 
To be sure, the height of step, width of entrance and 
means of signaling from the conductor to the motor- 
man are features which have long been studied. Never- 
theless, the variations in the designs of cars purchased 
by different railways plainly show that the underlying 
principles of correct design have not yet been properly 
outlined and universally accepted. 

To make the conductor reach up or out to some re- 
mote point to pull a bell rope instead of pushing a but- 
ton on a fare box pedestal seems a trifle; but for the 
combined stops on a run it surely involves the loss of 
enough fractions of a second to be exceedingly impor- 
tant. Very profitably could we enter into studies such 
as those outlined in Frank B. Gilbreth's book on "Mo- 
tion Study." The number of useless motions that are 
made by the passenger and also by the conductor should 
receive careful study. Until this study is made and 
followed to a conclusion, we shall never have a car 
which is properly arranged. 

In all probability, the ultimate city car will be so ar- 
ranged that the natural inclination of the passenger 
will be to follow a series of movements that will result 
in reducing the length of stops to a minimum. Every 
railway should study each type of car which it is now 
operating to ascertain the number of passengers which 
can be loaded and unloaded within a given time. These 
graphs of passenger interchange will plainly show the 
time effect of the different heights of steps, different 
widths of entrances and different methods of fare col- 
lection. If investigations of this kind are carried out 
we can rest assured that a number of operating com- 

*See Blake & 
page 84. 

Jackson's "Electric Railway Transportation, 

Table V — Effect of Two Rates of Acceleration and Braking and Different 
Number of Stops on Power Costs and Platform Wages While Main- 
taining the Same Schedule Speed 

Stops per Mile 

Acceleration and 
Braking Rate 

Schedule Speed 

per Car-Mile 

for 40,000 Car-mile 

Platfprm Wages per 
Hour Plus 
10 per Cent 

Power Cost at 
l}4 Cents per 
Kilowatt-Hour at 
the Car, 40,000 

Total Cost 

Per Cent 








































































January 5, 1918 



Brake Quickly 

parries would either dispose of some present equipment 
or change the entrance, exit and step arrangements 
to such advantage that a very handsome interest would 
be returned on the expenditure. 

The great importance of the system of fare collection 
on loading time is shown in Fig. 22, which brings out 
the greater passenger-interchange speed of the pay-as- 
you-pass car over a prepayment car in exactly the same 
service. Thus the pay-as-you-pass car interchanged 
sixty on or off passengers in forty-three seconds, while 
the other car required sixty-eight seconds, or twenty- 
five seconds more! 

For a long time we have realized 
that by accelerating and braking at 
relatively rapid rates we could 
make faster schedule speeds. To 
what extent this would affect the 
schedule speed has not, in so far as 
the writer knows, been previously worked out. The 
Twin City Rapid Transit Company has for years 
been accelerating its cars at a rate of 2 m.p.h.p.s. and 
also braking at rates which were as fast as was consist- 
ent with good practice. Within the last few years the 
Chicago Surface Lines have done likewise. 

To show definitely what can be secured from sched- 
ules with different rates of acceleration and braking, 
three sets of graphs have been made up. Fig. 25 shows 
a 40,000-lb. car complete with load and geared for a free 
running speed of 25 m.p.h., assuming a definite length 
of stop of five seconds. The calculations are made on 
the basis of accelerating and braking at 1, 1%, 2 and 
2V 2 m.p.h.p.s. With an equipment on cars of this weight 
the best rate of acceleration which we have been able 
to obtain commercially is 2 m.p.h.p.s. However, since 
the future may give us an equipment and car construc- 
tion which will enable us to accelerate at 2% m.p.h.p.s. 
we have included this figure. 

On the automatic safety car, Fig. 26, data have been 
prepared for a car which will weigh complete with live 
load 1\ o tons or 15,000 lb. The rates of acceleration 
and braking specified for this car are iy 2 , 2 and 2y 2 
m.p.h.p.s. This car is also geared for 25 m.p.h. free 
running speed, and we are assuming that the stops are 
of the same length as for the larger car, that is five sec- 
onds. On these two graphs we have taken the example 
of a car accelerating and braking at different rates and 
have taken full advantage of all the schedule possibili- 
ties of the equipment when accelerating and braking at 
1V2 m.p.h.p.s. It will be noticed that the power in- 
creases with the more rapid rate of acceleration, but 
that we secure a greater schedule speed. 

Another condition which we can consider is that illus- 
trated in Fig. 27. This graph shows the maximum 
speed which can be obtained by accelerating and brak- 
ing at IV2 m.p.h.p.s. The power when this acceleration 
is in use is shown in the upper graph. 

We all know that by accelerating and braking at 2 
m.p.h.p.s. rather than iy 2 m.p.h.p.s. there is a consid- 
erable saving in energy consumption, providing the 
same schedule is maintained in both cases. This fact 
is brought out by Figs. 28 and 29, which show the power 
saving which can be made by accelerating and braking 
at different rates, while maintaining the same schedule. 
These two graphs are made for cars operating in runs 
of 1000 ft. each. 

Fig. 27 shows the saving which can be made in energy 

by operating a maximum schedule with V/-> m.p.h.p.s. 
acceleration and braking; and also the energy which will 
be used providing this acceleration and braking are 
changed to 2 m.p.h.p.s. With this latter condition we 
will still maintain the maximum schedule possible with 
the lower rate of acceleration and braking. 

In order that we may analyze 
more thoroughly just what differ- 
ent rates of acceleration and brak- 
ing mean, Table V has been pre- 
pared from Fig. 27, showing the 
effect of accelerating at IV2 and 2 
m.p.h.p.s. for 40,000 car-miles. In this table we have 
merely considered the cost of power and platform wages. 
It will be noticed that we have taken three stops per 
mile with 2 m.p.h.p.s. accelerating and braking as a 
basis of comparison, using this figure as 100 per cent. 
By accelerating and braking at 1% m.p.h.p.s. with three 
stops per mile we notice that the percentage expense 
for energy and wages alone has increased to 106 per 
cent. With seven stops per mile this is increased from 
138 to 148 per cent and with nine stops per mile from 
155 to 170 per cent. 

In Fig. 25 we considered the 40,000-lb. car in service 
of three, five, seven and nine stops per mile and used 
rates of acceleration and braking of 1, 1V 2 , 2 and 2 x /2 
m.p.h.p.s. We also took three stops per mile with 2 1 / 2 
m.p.h.p.s. acceleration and braking as 100 per cent. It 
will be noticed from Table VI that with three stops per 
mile the total cost of platform wages and power has 

Table VI — Effect of Three Rates of Acceleration and Braking and Differ- 
ent Number of Stops on Power Costs, Platform Wages and Schedule 
Speeds, 40,000-Lb. Car 

Stops per Mile 

Acceleration and 
Braking Rate 

Schedule Speed 

per Car-Mile 

for 40,000 Car-Mile 

Platform Wages 
60 Cents per Hour 
plus 10 per Cent 

Power Cost at 
1>4 Cents 

at the Car, 
40,000 Car-Mile 

Total Cost 























































































































12. S 

































3. 10 


















advanced with 2, iy> and 1 m.p.h.p.s. from 100 up to 
102, 103 and 108 per cent respectively. With seven 
stops per mile the percentage is increased from 139 up 
to 155 per cent, and with nine stops per mile from 155 
up to 174 per cent. 

In like manner Table VII shows what can be done 
with a lightweight safety car at three different 
rates of acceleration and braking and four different 
numbers of stops. 

The annual cost is estimated to be $832.44, or 62 
per cent, more at 2% m.p.h.p.s. and three stops per 
mile than at l x /2 m.p.h.p.s. and nine stops per mile. 


b_ 600 


Time to walk differentdistances 
when walking at q speed 5 

feet per second which is 
approx3.4 miles per hour 


20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 

300 30 
Q) 260 Q: .26 
-24 s . 24 
.200 * 20 

Assumed: 1000-ft Run , Constant Schedule 
20 lb. per Ton Friction 
%M.PH. PS. Acceleration 
10.65 M.PH Schedule 
Seven Seconds Stop 

Geared to Maximum Speed of 25 M.PH. 
Rate of Accelerating and Braking MM. Ph. 
Duration of Stop 5 Seconds. Friction Ponvr cn 
20 lb. per Ton. Coasting 25 lb. per Ton 



26 ts 
24 t 
20 £ 
16 ' 
4 i 

30 40 
Ti m e in 

3 4 5 
Stops per 

FIG. 34 


1000-ft. Run 

201b. per Ton Flat Friction 
Acceleration and Braking 


iu.oon.rn schedule 


\ 2«e 


V§— w — 



. Ci 













2 3 4 5 
Stops per 

FIG. 26 

T5 22 


« 14 

u 8 
V) 6 

Geared to Maximum Speed of 25 M.PH. 
Rate of 'Accelrh and Braking l^,2M.PHPS 
Duration of Stops 5 Seconds 
Friction Power-on, 20 lb per Ton 
Coasting, 25 » » " 

£4-~ I L L 


2 3 4 5b 
Stops per 

FIG. 27 



220 £ 
200 _ 


140 a> 
120 a 
I00 x 

60 5 




o 12 
<D 10 

10 * 

of Accelerating and Braking litt.PH.PS 
on 36-ton Carl 3 / 4 MPH.PS on ZS-ton Car 
2M.PH.P5.on^20-ton Car 








friction Power-on, 20 It? 

per Ton 
Coasting, 25 lb. per Ton 
6 Stops per Mile 

i i i i i i i i i 


10 . 20 30 40 50 60 
Time in Seconds 
I 2 3 4 5 6 7 a 9 10 II 12 
Time of" Stop in Seconds 




240 £ 

220 c 

200 £ 

180 & 

160 | 


120 I 

100 o 
80 l 


60 c. 
40 5 

20 8. 


10 15 20 
Ti m e i 

25 30 35 40 
in Seconds 

FIG. 31 

\Assumed-liM.Ph 'PS Braking 

/r,-,>j.,>.„ ?>r)/A 

Friction, 201b per Ton 
Seven Seconds StopJOOOft. Run 
10.65 HI PH Schedule 

1 24 
a; 22 
r .20 
«! 12 
■C 10 
£ 8 
<ii 6 

/?(7/e of Accelerating and Brak/ng, 
fiM.PH.P5. on 36-tonCar, IfyMPHfiS. on 
26-ton Car 2 M PH. PH. on 20-tonCar 
Coasting, 20 % Time, Power-on 
Friction ; 201b. Power-on, 25 lb. Coasting 
Duration of Stop 5 Seconds 


Stops per 

FIG. 32 

6 1 

g> +: += s <i C tj it it 2- j! 
1916 1917 

FIG. 36 

10 20 30 40 50 
Time in Seconds 

FIG 28 

140 g 


120 £ 

60 °-|2 

40 J! 




2 2.8 
L 2.2 
C M 
^ 1.6 
1 1.4 




> > 

1916 1917 

Geared to Maximum Speed of 25 M.PH. 

Rate of Accelerating and Braking %&2-gM PH.PS, 

friction Power on 25 lb. per Ton 

Coasting 30 » » *> 6 Stops per Mile 

1 1 J 
















1 1 

2200 V 
1600 - 
1400 a 
1200 c 
1000 ° 


800 5 

15 20 
Time i 

25 30 35 

40 45 


Fig. 24 — Relation of Walking Distance and Time 
Fig. 25 — Schedule Speed and Energy Consumption Curves for 
20-ton Car 

Fig. 26 — Schedule Speed and Energy Consumption Curves for 
7y 2 -ton Car 

Fig. 27 — Schedule Speed and Energy Consumption Curves for 
20-ton Car 

Fig. 28 — Chart Showing Decrease in Energy as Rate of 

Acceleration is Increased 
Fig. 29- — Chart Showing Decrease in Energy as Rate of 

Braking is Increased 
Fig. 30 — Speed-Time Graphs for 20 -ton, 2 8 -ton and 3 6 -ton 

Fig. 31 — Speed-Time Graphs for 20-ton, 28-ton and 36-ton 

Fig. 32 — Schedule Speed Curves for 20-ton, 28-ton and 36-ton 

Fig. 33 — Graph Showing Effect of Heating on Energy Con- 

Fig. 34 — Speed, Schedule Speed and Distance Graphs for 
20-ton Car 

Fig. 35 — Speed and Distance Graphs for 7%-ton Car 
Fig. 36 — Chart Showing Increase in Energy Consumption as 
Duration of Drop Is Increased 
Fig. 37 — Loading Time of Fort Worth Safety Car 
Fig. 38 — Graph of Miles per "Pull In" (Total "Pull Ins") 

January 5, 1918 



Table VII— Effect of Three Rates of Acceleration and Different Number 
of Stops on Power Costs, Platform Wages and Schedule Speeds, 
15,000-Lb. Safety Car 






Rate of 

Schedule Speed 

Power Consump- 
tion per 

Car-Hours for 
40,000 Car-Mile 

Platform Wages 

at 36 Cents 
per Hour Plus 
10 per Cent 

Power Cost 
40,000 Car-Mile 


Per Cent 



































































70S. 00 






































These savings, of course, cannot be obtained in their 
entirety. We all know that there are certain operating 
conditions which have to be considered in connection 
with any calculated savings. However, it is fair to as- 
sume that by explaining these different features to all 
of the men, we can secure under favorable conditions at 
least half of these savings. 

To determine what is the maximum rate at which a 
car can be accelerated, it is necessary to have the fol- 
lowing data : 

Weight of car complete with live load. 

Number of motors per car. 

Size of motor, that is, hourly rating. 

Motor gearing. 

Size of wheel. 

Characteristic curve of the motor arranged for the proper si»e 
of wheel and gearing. 

From these data it is possible to secure the amount of 
current which the equipment will require for different 
rates of acceleration. We will assume we have a car 
weighing 40,000 lb. and that the car is equipped with 
four 25-hp. motors having 74-tooth gear and 13-tooth 
pinion and that the wheel diameter is 26 in. To calcu- 
late this, proceed as follows: 

Since the car weighs 40,000 lb. or 20 tons complete 
with live load this will be equivalent to 5 tons per motor. 
Let us assume that we are desirous of knowing if the 
car can be accelerated at 2 m.p.h.p.s. To accelerate 1 
ton at 1 m.p.h.p.s. 91.2 lb. tractive effort or drawbar 
pull is required. It is also customary to add approxi- 
mately 7 per cent for the rotary effect of wheels, gears, 
axles and armatures, which will give a total of 98 lb. 
per ton. Therefore, to accelerate this mass at 2 
m.p.h.p.s. this figure will have to be doubled, by which 
we obtain a figure of 196 lb. per ton merely to ac- 
celerate the mass. To this figure for tangent level track 
it will be necessary to add 20 lb. per ton friction, which 
is the figure ordinarily used for rolling friction, energy, 
etc. Hence we would have a cumulative value of 196 
plus 20, or 216 lb. per ton. Multiplying this by five tons 
we find that we have a total of 1080 lb., or by referring 
to the characteristic curve, Fig. 19, we find that 61 amp. 
will be required to produce the desired torque which 
gives the desired rate of acceleration. The hourly com- 
mercial rating of this motor is 37 amp., and it will be 
noted that the 61 amp. represents a value of 165 per 
cent of the hourly rating. With this particular motor 
it will be satisfactory with the weight given to accel- 
erate with the currents specified. In the old non-com- 

mutating pole motors it is always safe to use accel- 
erating currents up to the full one-hour rating of the 
motor, and on certain non-commutating motors we can 
use accelerating currents as high as with the newer 
type commutating pole motors where it is safe to accel- 
erate up to 150 per cent of the hourly current raln.,^ 
However, it is always best to consult with the motor 
manufacturer before accelerating with currents which 
are in excess of the hourly rating. 

That the motorman may know positively what maxi- 
mum rates of braking and acceleration are permissible, 
it is advisable to have a sign placed above the controller, 
which sign should state distinctly the time in seconds 
in which it is safe to accelerate up to full series and full 
parallel when operating on level track. 

Before the inauguration of a campaign for the maxi- 
mum rates of acceleration and braking, it is necessary 
to have the mechanical department set up the circuit- 
breakers to a point which will allow them to open only 
when actual overloads occur. If this is not done, the 
circuit-breaker may be set so low that it will blow con- 
tinually during the normal operation of the car. The 
controllers and motors should also be overhauled and 
cleaned up. It is also important that the piston travel be 
of the proper length to secure the maximum braking 

After we have reviewed the tables which show the 
effect of different stops per mile with different rates of 
acceleration and different length of stop, we are bound 
to feel that we should do everything we can to eliminate 
all possible stops. We should not simply refer to the 
stops as "useless," but consider how they tend greatly 
to increase or decrease the schedule speeds. 

An example of what can be ac- 
complished and how popular is 
bound to be a reduction in the num- 
ber of stops is strikingly illustrated 
in the service which is given in 
the New York subway between 
Forty-second Street and Fourteenth Street. At these 
two points there are island platforms from which it is 
possible to take either express or local trains; the ex- 
press train having a running time between express sta- 
tions of approximately two minutes less than the local. 
Passengers almost invariably use the express train be- 
tween these two points regardless of whether there is 
ample seating room on the local train. Here is a case 
absolutely free from coercion which proves that pas- 
sengers are willing to sacrifice a seat to avoid four 
stops, in order to save two minutes and enjoy the 
exhilaration of riding in a vehicle which is not con- 
tinually accelerating and braking. 

This is a point which we should study and try to fol- 
low through to a conclusion. If we do this we shall be 
in better position to guide our public relations. This 
illustration of the use of the express train leads us di- 
rectly to the conclusion that fast schedules and fewer 
stops build up business. 


Public Puts 
Speed Before 

we assume that the railway 
has been permitted to put into ef- 
fect the speed-raising improve- 
ments discussed, it can go a step 
further — provided it can get the 
money — namely, rearrange its gear 
ratios. An idea of the schedule speeds which can be 
made with cars geared for different free running speeds 

Proper Gear 





Vol. 51, No. 1 

may be obtained from Table II and Fig. 20. We have 
assumed that the car weight complete with all equip- 
ment and live load will total 40,000 lb. and that by 
substituting different gearing we can arrange the car 
to have free running speeds of 15, 20, 25 or 30 m.p.h. 
This car would then be capable of making the schedule 
speeds shown in Table VIII 'when operating in a 
service of seven stops per mile with an average of five 
seconds per stop : 

Table VIII — Relation of Free Running Speed to Power Cost, Seven 
Stops per Mile 




per Car-Miles 
at the Car 

Power Cost for 
40,000-Lb. Car- 
Miles — Hi Cents per 
at the Car 






















*Sehedule speed in all. tables are understood to be the maximum speeds ob- 
tainable, no allowance being made for curves, grades and traffic interruptions. 
Actual schedule speeds will be 10 per cent lower. 

The Fourth Service Fundamental 
Is Weight 

The Advance Made by the Car Builder in Weight Re- 
duction Is But One Item; the Operation of Smaller 
But Faster Cars Is Still More Important 

THE service fundamental of weight embraces the 
size of car or seating capacity and the design and 
structure of a comfortable vehicle capable of op- 
erating at a speed which will satisfactorily meet the 
conditions of traffic. 

We need not enter here into the province of the car 
builder except to note how the evolution from rule-of- 
thumb methods to the days of stress diagrams has 
brought down the weight per seated passenger from 
1500 lb. to 500 lb. or less, as in the safety car, thus 
making an enormous saving in the cost of the weight 
propelled. Recently, detailed investigation was made 
on a prosperous, well-managed property which had in- 
herited certain equipments. It has in city service a 
number of cars which weigh approximately 60,000 lb. 
each. These cars seat forty-eight passengers ( 1250 lb. 
per seated passenger) and are geared for a speed which 
is higher than necessary. A new car, weighing only 
40,000 lb. and seating fifty-eight (687 lb. per seated 
passenger) was purchased to give even better service 
than the present equipments at an annual power sav- 
ing of more than $1,500 per car. 

Even before a railway decides upon new equipment, 
it will do well to review all the weights of existing types 
so as to select the extra heavy cars for trippers and ex- 
clude them, wherever possible, from any runs on which 
the maximum mileage is operated. 

The following Table IX shows the comparative power 
costs for 15,000-lb., 40,000-lb. and 60,000-lb. cars, as- 
suming schedule conditions to be alike, length of stop 
five seconds, rate of acceleration 1H m.p.h.p.s. and the 
cost of energy 1V 2 cents per kilowatt-hour at the car. 

But the problem is far broader than is expressed by 
those savings in weight which are due to the advances 
in car building, because we can make still greater sav- 
ings in the ton-miles propelled by using smaller but 

Table IX — Power Consumption and Power Costs for 15,000 Lb., 40,000- 
Lb. and 60,000-Lb. Cars with Power Costs of I 1 2 Cents per 
Kilowatt-Hour at the Car 


) Stops per Mile 

15,000-Lb. Car 
Power, Kw.-hr. 
per Car-Mile at 

40,000-Lb. Car. 
Power, Kw.-hr. 
per Car-Mile at 


60,000-Lb. Car. 
Power, Kw.-hr. 
per Car-Mile at 

Power Cost for 
15,000-Lb. Birnev 
Car, 40,000-Oar- 
Mile Operation 

- ^ ^ 

Power Cost 
60,000-Lb. Car, 




2 . 76 

























faster cars. In other words, the capacity of the cars 
should be considered on the basis of how many people 
they can carry per hour and not on how many they can 
carry per trip. 

The but recent realization of the principle that 
schedule speed is a vital factor of car capacity accounts 
largely for the popularity of the big pay-as-you-pass 
car and the small safety car. 

One beauty of the small car is the fact that it is the 
car with the least idle or excess weight during the light 
hours of the day. 

To help us review the influence of weight propelled 
on a particular motor on which the same gearing is 
used, graphs have been prepared to show the free run- 
ning speed which determines the schedule possibilities 
with cars having a total weight of 20, 28 and 36 tons 

Fig. 30 shows that the free running speed with the 
three different classes of equipment will be 

20-ton car — 25.6 m.p.h. free running speed 
28-ton ear — 23.4 m.p.h. free running speed 
36-ton car — 21.4 m.p.h. free running speed 

It will be noted that this graph has been made up 
to show three different runs which are of the same 
distance. However, the time of making the run varies 
with the different weights of cars. 

By referring to Fig. 31 we see that the highest speeds 
which are attained when the car is making six stops 
per mile are as follows : 

20-ton car — 21.0 m.p.h. max running speed 
28-ton car — 19.4 m.p.h. max. running speed 
26-ton car — 18.1 m.p.h. max. running speed 

The time required for each cycle of operation will be 
as follows: 

20-ton — 41.00 seconds 
28-ton — 44.00 seconds 
36-ton — 47.25 seconds 

By referring to Fig. 32 on page 20 we find that the 
schedule speeds which can be operated without leeway 
are as follows : 

Stops per mile 3 5 7 9 

20-ton car 16.5 13.9 12.25 10.9 

28-ton car 15.4 13.2 11.65 10.4 

36-ton car 14.6 12.2 10.8 9.65 

This is but one phase of the study of what weight 
means. Another phase is that every time excess weight 
is moved it is paid for in power. So we should keep 
weights down to the possible minimum and still retain 
safety and reasonable maintenance. If we desire to 
know the influence of weights of all different cars on 
the system which are in service, we can ascertain from 
characteristic curves what is the free running speed 
of each car which is in service. We can also follow up 
the service conditions as they actually are and obtain 

January 5, 1918 



the number of stops per mile with which the cars are 
operating. From these data, and also from the data 
which are given on the graphs of power consumption 
and schedule speed possibilities, we can determine to 
a surprising degree of accuracy the amount of power 
taken by the different cars on the system. Due allow- 
ance can be made for transmission, substations and 
line losses, and so we can figure out the total amount 
of power used by any combination of equipments. 

Where the mileage operated by each car and also 
the service in which it is operated are given, relative 
comparisons can be made as to what different cars cost 
for power consumption. Our estimates for wear and 
tear on track by equipments of different weight are 
not definite, but approximate figures can be taken to 
enable the operator practically to determine just what 
heavy cars cost. By making a comparison of this kind, 
the operating department will learn what cars should 
be run for the maximum mileage and what cars should 
only be used as trippers. 

The Fifth Service Fundamental 
Is Cost 

The Elements of Both Time and Weight Enter, Aside 
From Which Energy Savings Are Possible Through 
Anti-Friction Equipment and Scientific Operation 
with Maximum Coasting 

A NUMBER of factors which affect cost of power, 
such as number and time of stops, gear ratios, 
weights, etc., have already been discussed. The 
time elements, of course, also have considerable effect 
on platform costs. 

Undoubtedly there is a great deal of loss through 
wasteful operation of electric heaters and motor-driven 
hot-air heaters. If thermostats and automatic switches 
were used, the car-heating peak shown in Fig. 33 would 
be reduced 25 to 33^ per cent. At the same time, the 
riders would be more comfortable, because of the more 
uniform temperature attained. Thirty per cent of the 
electric heaters ordered last year from one maker in- 
cluded thermostats. 

Among the minor power losses are those due to 
dragging brakeshoes — a condition that can be elim- 
inated partly by the use of air brakes, automatic slack 
adjusters and more coasting. The installation of these 
devices will require new capital, which the operating 
company may or may not be able to secure at a reason- 
able rate of interest. 

In addition to these factors is 
the overwhelmingly important one 
of the motorman's handling of the 
car operating cycle, namely accel- 
eration, coasting, braking. Here 
are important opportunities if we 
first learn how to analyze the possibilities for ourselves 
and then instruct the motormen with the aid of car 
checking instruments to operate exactly as they should. 

Therefore, it will be of decided advantage to know 
just how many seconds are required for each particular 
part of the cycle of car operation. In order to facilitate 
our study Figs. 34 and 35 have been made up for the 
big and small cars respectively. Fig. 34 illustrates a 




car weighing 20 tons, which is geared for a maximum 

free running speed of 25 m.p.h., when accelerating and 
braking at iy 2 m.p.h. p.s. using 20 lb. per ton friction 
during the power-on period and 25 lb. per ton friction 
during the coasting period. Let us assume that this 
car is operating in a service with six stops per mile. 
Then the car will require 26.3 seconds to reach the 
point where the current is cut off and will have to 
traverse a distance of 580 ft. The time required to the 
end of the coasting will be 31.7 seconds and the dis- 
tance will be 700 ft. The time required to the end of 
the braking, namely, when the car comes to a complete 
stop, will be 44.5 seconds and the distance traveled will 
be 880 ft. On the lower ordinate it will be noted that 
time and stops per mile are specified. The stops per 
mile refer to the schedule speed graph which is shown 
above and should not be confused with the distance 
graph or with the graphs which illustrate the actual 
car speed, coasting and braking. 

Since the energy that can be saved during the run 
cycle depends largely upon the time available for coast- 
ing, it is not only desirable to use high rates of accel- 
eration and braking, but also to shorten the length of 
stop. By referring to the graphs, Fig. 36, we see that 
by making a seven-second stop the coasting will amount 
to 120 per cent of the power-on period, while by ex- 
tending the length of stop to 10.9 seconds, this figure 
is further reduced to 47.8 per cent; by further increas- 
ing the length of stop to 12.3 seconds, the coasting 
period is reduced to 2.63 per cent. It will therefore be 
readily appreciated that if we are operating a car at a 
given schedule, the length of stop is a big factor in 
the amount of coasting possible. We should, therefore, 
help the crews all we possibly can to take advantage of 
this phase of operation in addition to obtaining the 
permissible maximum rates of acceleration and brak- 

The use of anti-friction bearings, particularly for the 
journals, naturally will extend the coasting period. 

It may be added here that even on lines of three or 
four cars, where the larger economies (like saving a 
car) are impracticable it is at least possible to get more 
coasting, which means power savings. 

The Cars of To-day 

Why the Light-Weight One-Man Safety Car and the 
Pay-as-You-Pass Car Loom Up So Largely on 
the Electric Railway Horizon 

FROM the car-loading graphs presented earlier in 
this article, we have seen how readily a small car 
meets the average car loading. When we give this 
small car 15 per cent greater schedule speed, or mobility, 
through the use of higher accelerating and braking 
rates and fewer stops, and then economically give a 25 
to 50 per cent shorter headway, we shall find that the 
safety car can be run to good advantage on a large num- 
ber of lines. 

Table X has been prepared to show just what the 
safety car does under stated conditions for say a year's 
operation of 30,000 or 40,000 miles. By the use of this 
car with the fair average of seven stops per mile 
and five seconds per stop the cost of platform wages and 
power for 40,000 car-miles is estimated to be $1,964.90. 
This figure is but 41% per cent of the $4,727.70 cost of 



Vol. 51, No. 1 

Table X —Possibilities of the Safety One-Man Car 

40,000 Car-Miles Operation 




X ■ 

Length of Stop 

Schedule Speed 
with 2 m.p.h. p.s. 
Acceleration and 

per Car-Mile 
2 m.p.h.p.s. 

Acceleration and 

40,000 Car-Mile 

Power Costs 
1.5 Cents per 
at the Car 

Platform Wages 
36 Cents per Hour 
plus 10 per Cent 


Total Wage and 






























1414. 11 


30,000 Car-Miles Operation 








! S 
































a large two-man car in a service of nine stops per mile 
with ten seconds per stop. 

■ From the traffic checks previ- 

ously described, we can find the 
total number of passengers for cars 
for each hour of the day; also the 
total number of cars passing the 
checking point. With these data 
we can readily calculate what the seating capacity and 
size of car should be. We can also see just what will 
be the effect of putting on a lesser number of large cars 
or a greater number of small cars. 

Now the only limitation of the small car is the num- 
ber of units that can be run through the congested por- 

This is the originator of the safety car 

tion of the city. The studies of B. J. Arnold in Chicago 
indicate that the least permissible time between follow- 
ing cars is approximately twenty seconds. But looking 
at the subject in a broader way, we can well afford to 
consider what other possible parallel avenues of travel 
could be utilized if necessary to give adequate service 
with economy. 

Another fact to be considered is that in accordance 
with old-time viewpoints railways frequently have op- 
erated cars over certain streets and to special points be- 
cause they feared to offend public opinion. To put this 
in another way : a few prominent citizens, to serve their 
own selfish mercantile interests, wisely or unwisely have 
dictated to the railway where cars should be operated. 
Their will prevailed, not because the greatest number of 
citizens were properly accommodated thereby but be- 
cause these few citizens who thought they had some- 
thing big at stake, possessed the largest, loudest and 
most persistent voice as regards the accommodations 
which the railways should provide for the public. 

Recent events and conditions have accelerated the 
spread of the modern idea that all service, public and 
private, must be operated on the basis of the greatest 

economy consistent with public policy. In short, we 
must consider first the good of the largest number. 

For the purposes of comparison in costs, we have 
taken a 40,000-lb. car complete with load and 15,000-lb. 
car with load, as shown in Table XI. Let us first re- 

Table XI — The Superiority of the Safety Car for a Given Service 

Length of line, miles 

Interval between cars, non-rush, 

Interval between cars, rush, minutes. 

Cars required, non-rush 

Cars required, rush 

Stops per mile, non-rush 

Stops per mile, rush 

Average length of stop, seconds, non- 

Average length of stop, seconds, rush . 

Running time, minutes, non-rush .... 

Running time, minutes, rush 

Sohedule speed, miles per hour, non- 

Schedule speed, miles per hour, rush . . 

Rate of acceleration and braking, 
miles per hour per second 

Layover in minutes, non-rush . 

Layover in minutes, rush 

Seats per hour, non-rush 

Seats per hour, rush 

Car-miles per day 

Car-hours per day with four hours, 
rush service 

Crew wa^es per hour, cents 

Total platform wages with four hours' 
rush service 

Power cost per day 

Combined wages and power per day . . 

Combined wages and power per year, 
330 days 

40,000-Lb. , 15,000-Lb. 
Car Seating ' Car Seating 
Fifty-four Twenty- 

Car Seating 



10 5 



























48 5 













2 l A 


\ l A 




















47. 19 








$24,310. 10 

view the cost of platform wages and power of the large 
car on a line with ten-minute non-rush and 6.6-minute 
rush service. By putting on the small car with higher 
schedule speed we can give twice the service at an esti- 
mated operating saving of $3,674.60 per annum. In 
many cases this increase in service will produce 30 to 
40 per cent more gross. 

In each case studies should be made of the riding 
habits of possible customers to determine how many ride 
in automobiles, and we should also consider the class of 
people along the line to get an idea of what increased 
service is likely to do in changing the shopping habits 
of the community and other habits which are affected 
by transportation facilities. 

Of course, our small units will operate more car-miles, 
but the cost of maintenance per unit is sufficiently low 
to make one grade of service cost practically about as 
much as the other. 

The field of the small car yet remains to be deter- 
mined, but on routes of light or moderate traffic where 
the rush-hour requirements are not so greatly in excess 
of those during the rest of the day as to impose an 
excessive penalty in the form of numerous tripper cars, 
the electric railway manager can well consider the pos- 
sibility of this type of car. 

Analyze car loading by hours and zones to decide the size of car 

January 5, 1918 



Make Every Car Make Good 

Car-Mile Records Should Be Kept of All Equipment 
Defects and Their Influence on Service Analyzed. 
Every Railway Should Also Know the Use Factor 
of Its Equipment 

THE number of cars taken from service every day 
because of equipment defects directly pictures the 
physical condition of the apparatus and, broadly 
speaking, usually represents the amount of money which 
is spent for equipment maintenance. Where there are 
a large number of failures the cost of maintenance is 
in proportion. 

Records should be made of all crippled cars turned in 
by the transportation department; and it is advisable 
to transcribe this information into classified graphs 
which will show on the basis of car-miles per failure, 
the failures to motors, electrical equipment, car trucks, 
bodies and brakes respectively. On large, well-operated 
systems mileage per failure varies from 2800 to 4400 
car-miles. By the proper segregation of these failures 
the mechanical department knows exactly what por- 
tion of the equipment is causing the largest number of 
troubles and can use its energies intelligently to care 
for each trouble as it comes along. 

It is even more important to know just how many 
minutes delay certain defects caused in service on the 
line. With such a comparison, added to the mechanical 
analysis, it will not take long to learn what equipments 
are unprofitable and unsatisfactory. 

Perhaps the first thing to do is 
to determine the use factor of the 
cars, namely, the actual daily car- 
hours against the ideal car-hours 
obtained by multiplying the number 
of cars by twenty-four. At the 
very least, this will be good material for publicity ; but 
going deeper, we see how this ratio is affected by the 
proportion of cars unsuitable for the season or just out 
of a job, the proportion in for inspection, for repairs 
and for painting. Take the last-named item for ex- 
ample. If a car is painted once a year, a week saved 
by quick-painting methods corresponds to 2 per cent of 
its working time. 

The use factor, which varies between 30 per cent 
and 40 per cent, gives a definite idea of the number 
and consequent value of the extra cars required to give 
adequate rush-hour service. Interest, depreciation and 
upkeep of this extra equipment are parts of the cost 
of giving rush-hour service. 

The superintendent of equipment 
should classify all failures of 
equipment for each class of cars 
carefully. The following list of 
headings will be found convenient 
in this connection : 

Car Bodies 

Doors and operating mecha- 
Light circuits 
Window shades 

What's Your 
Use Factor 
of Cars? 



Car-body parts 
Sash or glass 
Gong signals 
Sand box 


Journal bearings 
Truck frame 
Brakeheads and shoes 


Brake rods 
Brake levers 
Bolster springs 
Loose brakes 
Tight brakes 

Trolley base 

Electrical Equipment of Cars 


Grid resistance 


Gear case 
Motor frame 
Motor leads 

Air Brakes 

Trolley pole or wheel 
Fuse box 

Field coils 
Low bearings 

Air-brake parts frozen 

If this classification is followed for each series of 
cars, we can ascertain what particular cars and kinds 
of failures recur again and again. Under each of the 
five general headings, it is advisable to chart the car- 
miles per pull-in. Of course, there should always be 
graphs showing the effect of the total pull-ins. A glance 
at these charts, such as Figs. 38, 39 and 40, will show 

Engineers valve 

Piping or brake cylinder 

We are indebted to this man for the pay-as-you-pass car 

whether or not the mechanical department is maintain- 
ing the proper relations between failures and pull-ins. 

Equipment failures are very expensive and unsatis- 
factory. Each car taken from service makes for serious 
public inconvenience and costs the railway much more in 
transportation losses and interruptions to service than 
for repairs to the car alone. Thus the book costs of re- 
placing a defective coil may be only $9 or $10; but this 
takes no account of the cost of moving the dead car to 
and from the shops nor of the losses in revenue and 
payment for idle platform time on all of the cars delayed 
— not to mention the inconvenience to the public. 

What we have said about the value of high rates of 
acceleration and braking will help to give a true appre- 
ciation of what it means to have equipments capable of 
meeting fully the requirements of an efficient trans- 
portation department. The maintenance cost of the 
equipment is but a small portion of the other expenses 
which may be incurred due to the failure of obsolete 
equipment to measure up to modern standards. It be- 
hooves the manager to investigate with particular care 
the merits of the higher acceleration four-motor equip- 
ment as compared with two-motor equipment. In fact, 
now that we understand better the dollars and cents 
value of higher rates of acceleration, we may expect 
the old controversy of four-motor versus two-motor 
equipment to be decided soon in favor of the former. 



Vol 51, No. 1 





£ £0 

£ 10 

-i t 


\ PtDA UT 



OF CAPS -iy^ 


















_>. Q_ > C ^ 
D <D O O C O 

-> in z -> s s 
1916 1917 

a > c ^ 
d m o o o o 
-5 (flZ -> 5 S 

1916 1917 


>> a > 
-) (/) z 



a; o" 1 

<n+- o 

| gin 100 

o m --o 90 
■ aj_2 



4- QJ _^ 

o *o a 

h OD 

■- oui 

<D c <U 

Q-c >> 
X - * 

















7 Figures based 
~st Six Months 

26 g 

500 u 20 £ 

0-I6 c 
fi 14 >, 
500 S 12 5 
s 10 ~S 
^ a £ 

(L> O c 

Z 6* 





4 g> 
2 fc 


P 5000 

a 4000 

= 5000 






— "S 




Years of Service 

FIG. 43 

§ 100 
I 90 
R. 80 

'5 60 

I 50 
n 40 

FIG 41 


\ V 









< in o 

2: q -j u. s < 







»- m 

V C 
>> . 3 


4- Oh 

100 ~) 500 












? 100 

S. 50 
c Q 

A.M. RM. 
6 6 10 12 2 4 6 6 10 12 2 4 6 
79 II 13579 II I 357 


Total Passengers - 

Total Cars — 
~)itthnunii= 77d 




a 250 

54151 126I54I39I45I70. 37l37l . Number 
37 34 41 45 34 51 5443 22 f Cars 


Total Passengers 



'Inbound -2271 

Total Cars 

inbound' /2U 

64 54!24l46l42l4l 154141 l25l Number 
41 34 3943 38 51 43 21 13 of Cars 

A.M. P.M. 
6 8 10 12 2 4 6 8 10 12 2 4 6 8 
7911 I 55 7. 911 1 3579 



1 1 1 1 1 
Total Passengers ' 
Inbound '= 2398 - 

Total Cars 

Inhni inrt = 7^*7 


■ . 

24l65l28l5l I30l36l83l46l24l Number 
71 36 66 27 37 36 58 24 13 of Cars 

A.M. RM. 
6 8 10 12 £ 4 6 8 10 12 £ 4 6 8 
79 11 13579 II 13579 



23'54 39i35l35!l4l32l60! 161 Number 
69 33 32 35 36 23 50 37 32 of Cars 



Fig. 39 — Car-miles per "Pull In," i.e., Cars Removed from 
Service Due to Car Defects 
Fig. 40 — Car-miles per "Pull In" 
Fig. 41 — Average Duration of Service of Trainmen. Dallas 
Pig, 42 — P L elation of New Men Employed and Cost of Settling 

Fig. 43 — Graphs Showing How "Platform Experience Cuts 
Platform Cost 

Fig. 4 4 — Graphs Showing Irregularity of Jitney Service and 
Regularity of Street Car Service, Town B. Excluding Suburbs 
Pig i- — Jitney Check in Town B. on C Street at Corner of 
First Street 

pig. 46 — Jitney Check in Town B. on E Street at Corner of 
Tenth Street 

pig. 47 — jitney Check in Town B, F Street, corner Fifth Street 

J (Dinar ij 5, 1918 



Fare Boxes Will Get More Money 

It's Not Only Good Policy to Waste Less But Also to 
Get Every Fare Possible 

IN A REVIEW of the operations of a company re- 
cently it was found that the cars were operated 
without fare boxes. After investigation the man- 
agement concluded if fare boxes were installed, there 
would be an increase of 5 per cent or $100,000 in the 
gross receipts of the company, because with the pres- 
ent system of fare collection a large number of fares 
are lost either through indifference or dishonesty of 
passengers and conductors. 

The psychological effect of having a fare box which 
every passenger must pass seems to be the one best 
way to get all the money due. The fact that a person 
passes the fare box means to both the person and the 
conductor that some fare must be put into it. If the 
fare is not deposited, not only the riders who try to slip 
by the box but others within earshot and eyeview are 
likely to have that fact called to their attention — a fac- 
tor that helps greatly to deter theft. 

Aside from its direct fare-collection value, the fare 
box also keeps the conductor in the proper place to give 
signals promptly and safely. Therefore the fare box 
is a logical part of our "safe speed" campaign for pro- 
ducing additional business. Since the conductor is at 
the door, he can supervise the entrance and exit of all 
passengers regardless of whether or not the car is emp- 
ty or full. With hand-to-hand collection it is neces- 
sary for the conductor to go up in the car and depend 
at these times upon the passengers to inform him if the 
starting signal should be given or not. This is not only 
an element of delay but of danger also, because the 
passengers have not got the skill nor should they be 
given the responsibility to observe whether it is safe 
for the car to be started. 

How Can We Keep Satisfactory Men 

Real Instruction, Complete Publicity As to Costs and 
Earnings, Agreeable Working Conditions on the 
Car and Recognition of Efficiency and Experience 
Are Among the Ways to Do It 

WHEN we have dug out every technical and ana- 
lytical resource that can be applied within the 
organization, we still have the great, big hu- 
man problem of relations with the employees who are 
expected to apply those resources. In short, the per- 
sonal equation of management remains the greatest 
single factor. 

We ought to leave nothing undone to get the right 
kind of men ; to instruct them in the right way without 
any concealment of motives; to make their jobs as 
pleasant as possible so they will feel like really enthusi- 
astic salesmen ; to use open inspection by "big brother" 
veterans who will say: "Haven't you overlooked a 
couple of fares, Jim?" and finally to make wages and 
bonuses rewards for honest service. Splendid results 
are being secured where the man at the top is in it 
heart and soul. 

It is very important that the trainmen have the 
privilege of receiving correct instruction in every 
branch of their duty. More can be accomplished for 

public relations by showing the employees how to 
handle the public than by any other means. 

To begin right, the instruction 
rooms should be well-lighted, well- 
ventilated and quiet, the newcom- 
ers being treated as guests. Great 
care should be taken in selecting 
an instructor. He should be a man 



who is thoroughly in sympathy with the management 
and who understands the fundamentals of the opera- 
tion and running of equipment, having gathered his 
technical knowledge through experience and study. It 
should be his duty to inform the men how every portion 
of the equipment is made, and to confer with the me- 
chanical and power departments at regular intervals 
to know what car-operating defects and wastage, re- 
spectively, are most frequent. He should be able to 
explain the benefits of proper rates of acceleration and 
braking, proper amounts of coasting, advantages of 
short length of stop, etc. Complete rule books should 

Give the 
Men AH 
the Facts 

A trainman instructor ought to know a speed-time curve and how 
to talk about it. 

not only describe the apparatus used on the cars, but 
should also include a general description of what power 
and schedule savings mean to the company. If proper- 
ly handled such instructions will greatly assist the 
management in the general campaigns of economy now 
so necessary. 

As to the general policy of the 
railway, if we do not convince our 
own employees that what we are 
doing is right, we certainly never 
can expect to convince the public. 
Inasmuch as each one of our em- 
ployees is a salesman for the company, it will be neces- 
sary to have him thoroughly believe the doctrines which 
we preach. It will be necessary to make known to all 
the men all of the expenditures of the company in the 
simplest form so as to be readily understandable. If the 
company is losing money, the employees should know 
it so that they can make every effort to keep the com- 
pany on a sound financial basis. If the company is 
making money they are equally entitled to the informa- 
tion. In these days when full financial reports are re- 
quired by the authorities there would be little possi- 
bility of a company concealing information about its 
financial status, even if it desired to do so. 

The influence of rates of pay 
and considerate treatment of plat- 
form employees is strongly brought 
out by a study of the Dallas Rail- 
way under Richard Meriwether, 
now general manager. The at- 
tached graphs, Figs. 41 and 42, show how a voluntary 
increase in the average rate of pay from 21 cents to 26 
cents an hour over a period of six years held the men. 

Costs Less 
Than Accidents 


Vol. 51, No. 1 
Distribution of Conductors' Figures Obtained in Traffic 

Run Number 




Point No. 1 21. 










Number of cars 






J 3 





























Out. In 






























































































5 • 


































































































































In 1911 the average length of service of a trainman 
was twenty-six months, while in the first half of 1917 
the average length of service had increased to forty- 
nine months. 

The influence which the retention of the men in the 
service has to accidents is very striking. It will be 
noted that the total expense in settling claims for this 
property was reduced from approximately $97,000 in 
1911 down to aproximately $50,000 in 1916. The costs 
in each case are exclusive of the shop repairs and mile- 
age losses due to shopping time. 

Aside from the decreased cost of accidents we must 
consider the saving in instruction cost and apprentice- 
ship periods. 

Fig. 43, derived from Blake & Jackson's "Electric 
Railway Transportation," presents these figures on a 
year-by-year basis. 

* * * 

How About Automobile Competition? 

The Sporadic Competition of the Jitney and the Con- 
tinuous Competition of the Private Automobile 
Have Forced Us to Find Out Why People Do Ride 
or Don't Ride — Short-Headway, Fast Service, Ac- 
curate Time-Points the Only Solution. 

AT THE very opening of this article it was said 
that the automobile manufacturers expected to 
get in use at one time 10,000,000 machines, or 
thrice the present number, before the saturation limit 
was reached — dour warning that unless electric rail- 
ways revolutionize their ways in the right direction 
"the worst is yet to come." 

In this journal it is unnecessary to rehearse the all- 
too-reeent jitney history. Only one example of the 
effect of this competition will be quoted to show what 
records were kept as a basis for discovering the habits 
of the intruder, for determining the extent of the losses 
and for finding a remedy. 

Although the jitney appeared in this particular city 
in 1914, there were still 268 jitneys in July, 1916, and 
by July, 1917, the number actually rose to 282. In the 
intervening months, however, as Fig. 44 shows, the 
number declined with the severity of the weather — only 

167 being run in January. Now compare this ground 
and lofty tumbling with the almost uniform record of 
electric car-miles throughout the twelve months. 

Isn't this a splendid exhibit of the dependability of 
electric railway service? 


Notice to Conductors 

February 14, 1917. 

The company desires to make as close a traffic 
check as is possible. The object of this check is to 
ascertain the number of passeneers in cars at defi- 
nite fixed points on all lines. This information will 
assist us to determine if any improvement can be 
made in the service. 

Each conductor will be furnished with a blank 
on which he is to note the number of passengers on 
his car at the different check points. Above each 
of the numbers a space has been left which can 
be filled in by the conductor to show the definite 
point at which the count is taken. 

The following points on the different lines have 
been selected and numbered as the best points for 
the counts. We desire this count on all lines, both 
inbound and outbound. 

Main Line — 

1 — Car house 

2 — 3rd and Jones 

3— 5th, '6th and Williams 

4 — Union Depot 

5 — Cross Street 
Spall Line — 

1 — 8th and April 

2— 22nd Street 

3 — 33rd and Washington 
Wa verly Line — 

1— 10th and Wood 

2— 24th and Waverly 

3 — 26th and Abner 

It is appreciated that there are certain times 
when it will be practically impossible for con- 
ductors to make an actual count of the passengers. 
At these times it is requested that the conductor 
use his own best judgment as to the number of 
passengers that are on the car, regardless of what 
the register reading is. It is the intention to have 
the figures as near right as is possible. Your cor- 
dial co-operation toward this end is requested. 

Asst. Supt. Transportation 

January 5, 1918 electric railway journal 29 

Survey at a Given Point — BaskervUle Line, June 15, 1917 




















i\ (/Mil U ' J 








































































62 1 








































0-i J 





























































































































The small initial investment in a jitney and the usual 
absence of all service obligations make it easy to with- 
draw individual machines from service; the large col- 
lective investment and fixed charges in an electric rail- 
way and the franchise requirements compel a large 
measure of service. Interest necessarily has to be paid 
on the investment, and every intelligent effort possible 
must be made to conserve that investment so that new 
capital may be obtained for new work. 

Of course, those companies which tried to answer 
jitney competition by cutting down their own service 
made a tactical error. It was not necessary, however, 
to go to the other extreme of increasing the service at 
all hours of the day. If the jitney traffic had been 
plotted by hours, as in Figs. 45, 46 and 47, the extra 
service could have been put on only when it served the 
purpose of making competition unprofitable. 

That the electric railway can win on this basis by 
the use of small, fast, one-man cars on short headways 
is now certain. The safety car in particular has proved 
that fact in a host of places. Electric railway men now 
know that the public isn't quite so prejudiced against 
them after all. What it really does is simply to take 
the first low-price transportation at hand — and if the 
street car is first, the street car gets the fare. 

Private Autos 
Are Tractable, 

The competition of the private 
automobile, naturally, is more sub- 
tle than of the jitney, its severity 
also fluctuates with the weather, 
and it can be attacked directly only 
jy zoning and parking restrictions. 
The latter are palliatives. As in the case of the jitney, 
the real deterrent is fast service with cars that the 
railway can afford to operate on short headways. Fur- 
thermore, exact operation to time-points will also help 
greatly — a feature which can be made effective auto- 
matically by the use of headway recorders, as at Fort 

Accurately synchronized watches are a most decided 
factor in making time-point operation a success. Up- 
to date electric railways use watch movements equiva- 
lent to steam railroad standards. New speed, headway 
and time-point operation often will call also for the 
better relocation of many switches. 

Experience in several cities indicates that with such 
standards the private automobile returns to its old 
limitations as a holiday car. Why bother to open and 
close the garage when the trolley car will start you 
on your trip downtown before you can get your auto- 
mobile started? 

This Car Card just 
issued is repro- 
duced at the end of 
Mr. Layng's article 
because it illus- 
trates the kind of 
co-operation which 
he describes. 

rpHE Motorman and Conductor 
of this car are members of the 


and they are pledged to save 
Electricity, which means COAL 


The United States Fuel 
Administration, through 
the Electric Railway 
War Board, will furnish 
car cards like th<s to 
electric railways wh'ch 
will cn-crerate i the 
conservat 1 ' n movement 
by secu'i™? p'edges 
from platform men to 
conserve erergv. 



Vol. 51, No. I 

How the Pay-As- You-Pass Car Was Developed 


Formerly Street Railroad Commissioner of Cleveland 

The Pay-As-You-Leave System, Introduced First in Cleveland, Prevented 
Boarding Delays, But Caused Congestion at Important Leaving Terminals — 
The Present Cleveland Car Cuts Down the Time of All Boarding and Alighting 
and Insures the Collection of All Fares — At the Same Time It Reduces the 
Work of the Conductor— The Peter Witt Car Is Also Well Adapted to the Zone 
System, Which the Author Considers the Best Solution for the Fare Problem 

ON Jan. 1, 1912, by appointment, I became the city's 
street railroad commissioner, an office created 
under the ordinance then and now in effect for the 
operation of the property of the Cleveland Railway Com- 
pany. By reason of the long drawn-out war (covering 
a period of ten years) the property not only was run 
down, but there was a lack of equipment, which pro- 
duced during the rush hours a condition of crowding 
which can be described only by saying it was indecent. 
Bad as it was for the public to endure this kind of 
service, there was another phase not generally known 
to the car riders as a whole, and that was the inability 
of the conductors to collect all the fares due. The cars 
were all of the pay-enter type, and some had very 
large platforms. With a crowd of twenty-five or thirty 
riding on one of these platforms it became very easy, 
especially for the persons riding on the steps of the 
cars, to do their riding without paying fare. 

Since new cars could not be ordered and delivered 
for many months, this condition called for the applica- 
tion of a speedy remedy, otherwise, the loss of fares, 
large as it was, would continue to grow as the news of 
the dishonest car riders was carried to the honest ones 
who were riding on the crowded platforms and still 
paying their fares. To give the full force of what I 
mean, let me quote a favored lecture of the late Albert 
Johnson to the conductors in his employ. He used to 

"Don't steal, for if you are caught you will be fired, 
but I would rather have you steal a dollar than miss 

one nickel. Why? Because every passenger up till the 
time that the conductor has failed to get his fare not 
only pays, but will make an effort to get the nickel 
to the conductor. But once you miss him and he has 
enjoyed the sensation of riding free he will be on the 
lookout to beat you ever afterward." 

What was to be done? This soon gave way to, What 
can be done? Several weeks of earnest and hard think- 
ing brought me to the place where I was convinced that 
to remedy the situation there was but one thing to do, 
and that was to operate the cars by reversing the time 
of payment, i. e., changing from pay-enter to pay-leave. 
Not only would it be possible for the conductor to get 
all fares because car riders get off in ones, twos and 
threes, but there would be a swiftness of loading at 
terminals which would solve the old standing and ever- 
pressing problem of congestion. So in February I re- 
quested John J. Stanley, president of the Cleveland 
Railway, to rebuild one of the large platform cars by 
removing the forward bulkhead and changing from 
transverse to longitudinal seats on the devilstrip side. 
This change meant a wider aisle and the consequent 
reduction of the inconvenience of going through the 
car when the passengers entered at the front door and 
made their exit at the rear. 

The Pay-Leave Plan Was Started in 1912. 

The first car so reconstructed was put into service 
on April 10 following. Its success was immediate, but 
as it ran on a line which carried ninety pay-enter cars, 

January 5, 1918 



in-bound cars were delayed at the downtown terminal 
because of the large number of fares which had to be 
collected there. What was gained by loading by this 
method of fare collection was at once offset by unload- 
ing. One day's trial resulted in the making of a com- 
bination of the two systems of fare collection. When 
the car was being operated to the city we adopted the 
pay-enter plan, with entrance at the rear door, and 
when the car was out-bound, the pay-leave plan, with 
entrance at the front door. So successful did this 
change prove that all the other cars of this type, 100 in 
number, were speedily changed to this type of seating 
arrangement and alternation of fare collection. 

In September of the same year the first of the 100 
center entrance trailers, which had been ordered in 
January, were delivered and ready for service. Here 
was still another problem ; cars without a platform. How 
to load them became the question. To use the method 
employed on the pay-enter platform cars meant con- 
fusion at the fare box, keeping the car riders out in 
the weather and the slowing down of the schedule. In 
order that the reader may get the full import of this 



I L L 

- M I 1 t . t - ■ t * - fcfc 



let me say that the alternate stop had already been 
established in Cleveland, and this means that at such 
stops there accumulate all the car riders who under the 
old scheme are distributed at all street intersecting 

The solving of this problem, however, was easy. All 
we did was to regard the rear half of the car a loading 
platform, then make all car riders as they deposited 
their fares proceed to the forward end of the car. When 
the car reached the terminal all the conductor had to 
do was to open both doors. Then he need pay no atten- 
tion to the front end, but simply watch the tickets drop 
from those in the rear. It was found that the non-paid, 
or rear, end of the car would empty just as fast as the 
paid end, for the rider in the rear end, having plenty 
of time, would have his ticket ready long before he 
would reach the box. Here was speed and convenience 

The next step was easy, as the pay-as-you-leave sys- 
tem was already in operation and familiar to the car 


riders in Cleveland. We made all cars pay-leave when 
leaving the downtown loops. To all unacquainted with 
the street layout of Cleveland and who desire to grasp 
it quickly it might be likened to a three-quarter wheel, 
with the hub for the heart of the city and the spokes 
for the radiating streets. What through lines there 
were we cut and made the hub (the Public Square) the 
transfer point. 

Under the former pay-enter system it was a nightly 
sight to see on all streets long lines of cars moving 
slowly toward the loop, because at the loop it used to 
take from two to three minutes to load a car. Under 
the new system these long lines disappeared, for a 
train now unloads and gets away in fifty seconds, in 
spite of the fact that a train covers more than 100 ft. 
of track, seats 127 passengers and has its complement 
of strap hangers. This method of operation was equal 
to doubling the terminal, which with us was impossible 
owing to an absence of streets. 

The Pay-Pass Principle Developed for 
Crosstown Traffic 

Now, in addition to the lines which radiate from the 
Public Square, we have five crosstown lines. The prin- 
cipal one of the five is the first one east of the Public 
Square, known as the East Fifty-fifth Line. This line, 
in a distance of three miles, crosses nine radial streets, 
over which run the cars of sixteen routes. On this line 
it is not unusual but ordinary for a car to discharge 
and take on anywhere from a score of riders from the 




h so 










40 50 60 
Pas s e n g e r s 

Curve A — Average loading and unloading time of rear-entrance, 
front-exit, pay-as-you-enter car with folding steps, 33-in. wheels 
and 26-in. entrance and exit. 

Curve B — Average loading and unloading time of Peter Witt 
car with front entrance, center exit, 26-in. wheels and 56-in. 
entrance and exit. Door not interlocked with control. 



Vol. 51, No. 1 

lightest of the radial lines to a full load at the heaviest 
ones. The need for a car to meet these most unusual 
transportation demands of this line called for a car 
having the advantages of both the pay-enter and pay- 
leave method and yet free from the shortcomings which 
both methods had developed, as already mentioned. The 
car had to be at once a front-end loader, and a quick 
loader, and it had also to be provided with a sure means 
of getting all the fares from the riders on a quick fill- 
ing car. Knowledge of what was needed and the ex- 
perience had with the first pay-leave car were of great 
help in solving this problem. The answer was the 
design which has since become known as the Peter 
Witt front-entrance center-exit car riders' car, the car 
with the pay-as-you-pass principle of fare collection. 

As the entrance to this car is through the front door 
and the exit is by way of the center door, the movement 

well. This means that in a very short while the man 
conductor will go. His place will be filled by a woman, 
partly because man labor is scarce but also because this 
is a woman's job. She will perform her duties more 
quickly than a man and also more neatly. At the same 
time the order and decorum will be better. Scrapping 
between the payer and the receiver of fares will be but 
a memory. 

How the Peter Witt Car Can Be Used with 
the Zone System 

The biggest thing for the car is yet to come, for the 
present method of charging a unit fare regardless of 
the length of haul must give way to the zone system. 
The rider who covers 9 blocks ought not to be obliged to 
pay the fare of the one who rides 9 miles. The street 
railway companies must become the equalizer between 


within the car is all one way, with the consequent 
absence of the confusion which comes from a conflicting 
movement. The doors are very wide, permitting the 
car riders to enter or leave two abreast. In the forward 
half of the car, which is really nothing more or less 
than a loading platform, longitudinal seats are used. 
This gives a very wide aisle and makes possible that 
rapidity of loading for which th3 design is particularly 
noted. It becomes a very easy matter for twenty or 
thirty people to board this car and to have the last one 
on before the first one arrives at the fare box. The 
paying then goes on while the car is in motion. 

The rear half of the car is provided with transverse 
seats. As these seats are of the type which the public 
prefers, quite naturally they are the first to be occupied. 
The effect of this is to remove the car rider from the 
entrance, so the incoming crowd can move in without 
interference. There being no crush at the fare box, the 
collection of fares not only becomes easy but sure as 

the short haul and long-distance rider. It must stop 
robbing the former, who now gets less than he pays for 
and refuses to stand for the larceny of the latter, who 
pays less than the service costs. 

This change, which is bound to come, should receive 
more than seriou consideration at this time, when the 
nickel is becoming less valuable every minute. It 
should be put in o effect, for through it and it alone 
will come the remedy for the present-day transporta- 
tion ills. It will even do more. It will easily prevent 
future ills, as come they will, to both owner and user 
of cars alike, for ^h^ stability of the nickel is gone. 
Its shrinkage hurts 'In former; its expans'on injures 
the latter. Any chin-re then needed to meet new con- 
ditions can easily be fought about by the simple and 
easy process of hortening or lengthening the zone. 
Fuch a plan of ch-ire^n? for rides is much less revolu- 
tionary than th° present way of increasing the unit. 
The latter me^h^r) kills the short and profitable haul 

January 5, 1918 



and fails to get what is due from the long haul. The 
zone system will save the short-distance rider to the 
transportation company and at the same time make the 
long-distance traveler pay the full price for the service 
he receives. 

Right here the objector to the zone system will appear 
and give as his reason for opposition to the change 
that old hackneyed and threadbare argument that the 
present way is the only way of preventing congestion. 
But does it? Of course not, and it never will. Wherever 
you find the haul the longest then you will find conges- 
tion the greatest. 

To him who refuses to take that answer as complete, 
let him look about. If he can show one extension that 
was ever made to relieve congestion which did not raise 
the value of land along the route traversed by the 
extension, he can show something no searcher has been 
able to find. 

In Cleveland we carry people nine miles for three 
cents. Experience has shown that if the fare were six 


cents just as many inhabitants would be living along 
this line, but with this difference: The land would sell 
for less, the decrease in the value of the lot would be 
measured by the increase in the fare. In other words, 
a high rate of fare means low land values in the sub- 
urbs, and a low rate of fare means high land values 
there. The owner of land at a distance from the center 
of a city capitalizes the industry and thrift of others. 
His is the game unbeatable and will remain so until the 
state appropriates for social purposes the social 
product — the unearned increment. 

But I am off the track. What I started out to say 
was that when the zone system comes the front-entrance 
center-exit car will be the one for such measured ser- 
vice. Not that some other designs cannot be used, for 
they can, but not with the same degree of convenience 
to the car rider, whose welfare should always be upper- 
most in the minds of every street railway operator. He 
must learn what up to the present he has failed to un- 
derstand — the car rider is a customer. Such being the 
case, what is the operator? Nothing more or less than 
a merchant. His occupation is that of merchandising 

I still have not disclosed the method of determining 
the cost or the scheme of fare collection when the zone 
system prevails. So here it is, not what is going to be, 
but what will be when the three Peter-Witt cars now 
building for the Mahoning & Shenango Railway Com- 
pany are put into service. 

This company operates a line from Warren to Low- 
ellville, Ohio, passing through five 5-cent zones. Pas- 
sengers when they board will receive from the motor- 
man a check showing point of origin. When the pas- 
senger gets ready to leave he will proceed to the con- 
ductor, who, from the check, will know the amount due. 
Simple, isn't it? 

The experience in Cleveland of low fares shows con- 
clusively that the riding habit can be stimulated, and 
since the greater part of every railway company's equip- 
ment is dead for twenty-two out of every twenty-four 
hours, everything should be done which will bring this 
dead equipment into use. To me the easiest way to do 
this is through the zone system, with fares so low that 
walking will become costly. 

A 1-Cent Line Is Run at a Profit 

Since the doubting ones will want more than my 
word for what I have said, let me cite briefly the story 
concerning the one-cent line in Cleveland by way of 
illustrating the wisdom of the zone system. This 
1-cent line is a mile long and runs from the Public 
Square, where all our lines converge, to the Municipal 
Docks, where land the boats from Detroit and Buffalo. 
These boats arrive at 6 o'clock in the morning and in 
the summer months come heavily loaded. To take care 
of the throng, cars must be on hand. About one hour 
after the arrival of the boats the place is dead. There 
is very little occasion for anybody to go to the boat 
landing. At night the boat passengers commence mak- 
ing their way to the dock after 7 o'clock, for the Buf- 
falo boat leaves about 9, and this movement continues 
until 11.45, when the Detroit boat departs. 

From this it will readily be seen that the line run- 
ning on a five-minute headway from 7 to 12 o'clock is 
over-serviced. Notwithstanding this and the big mile- 
age cost of bringing these cars from the nearest operat- 
ing station, which is five miles away, immediately 
after this line was put into operation it earned within 
2 cents per car-mile of what was earned by the whole 
Cleveland system. Were these cars operating through 
two parts of the city where people desired to travel, I 
have no hesitancy in saying that the 1-cent line, in- 
stead of earning within 2 cents of the average of the 
system, would have earned many cents above it. 

Coal Production Falls Off 

Supplementing the diagram and table printed on 
page 1120 of the issue of the Electric Railway Jour- 
nal for Dec. 22, the United States Geological Survey 
has issued a statement containing among others the 
following data: The average total bituminous coal 
mined per working day for the week ending Dec. 8 was 
1,853,030 tons; for the week ending Dec. 15, 1,406,425 
tons, and for the week ending Dec. 22, 1,652,858 tons. 
The total production for the week of Dec. 22 was 
9,917,145 tons. The depression in the bituminous in- 
dustry is accounted for by prolonged cold weather con- 
tinued during the week of Dec. 22. 



Vol. 51, No. 1 

New Electric Rolling Stock for 1917 

Orders Placed for New Cars and Those Built in Companies' Shops During the Last Year Total 2455, 
Which Is a Marked Decrease from Figures for Each of the Last Ten 
Years— One-Man Cars Increasingly Popular 

THE new rolling stock ordered during 1917 or 
built in the shops of the various electric railways of 
the United States and Canada and roads having 
electrified divisions is tabulated herewith. Although re- 
ports from all the companies were not received in time 
for compilation, the figures represent the railways hav- 
ing about 96 per cent of all the electric cars operated. 
The total of 2455 cars marks a return to the low figure 
of two years ago. The number of companies which 
reported new equipment is 182 as compared with 250 
in 1916, which is proportionately less of a decrease 
than in the total number of cars. 

The following table indicates the new rolling stock 
for the years since 1907, divided into city and inter- 
urban passenger cars and freight and miscellaneous 
equipment. In this summary cars for subway and 
elevated lines have been classed as city equipment 
and those for suburban or both city and interurban 
service have been placed in the interurban column. 
Freight and express cars, electric locomotives and 
work cars of all kinds have been grouped as miscel- 
laneous cars. As heretofore, the number of city cars 
predominates, the figure for 1917 having been affected 
by a single order for 477 subway cars for the Inter- 
borough Rapid Transit Company. 



Freight and 




Misc. Cars 

























































An increase of nearly 50 per cent in the number of 
one-man cars purchased as compared with 1916 figures 
is a noteworthy feature of these data, the number of 
cars listed of this type being 280, besides thirty-three 
which were arranged for either one or two-man opera- 
tion. The number of locomotives ordered was forty-nine, 
showing a decided increase over the numbers for 1916 
and 1915, which were thirty-one and forty-three re- 
spectively. Cars of all kinds built in railway shops 
total 281, four companies contributing 176 of this 
number. The number of home-made cars is about two- 
thirds of that for 1916, which was a distinct advance 
over previous years. The use of interurban trailers 
continues to diminish, only twenty-seven cars of this 
type having been ordered, as opposed to seventy-one of 
a year ago. Trailers that may be considered for city 
service, however, number 402, while for 1916 the cor- 
responding figure was 128. This difference is effected 
in part by 140 subway trailers for the Interborough 
Rapid Transit Company, which were included this year 
in the large order already referred to. No data were 
secured regarding orders for auto buses and motor 

In the following alphabetical list space limitations 
have made it necessary to condense the data as much as 
possible. All cars are specified as either passenger or 
miscellaneous, the former including also combination 
passenger and baggage cars and the latter consisting of 
freight, express, service, work cars, etc. Locomotives 
are entered separately. In classifying passenger cars 
for city or interurban service, disposition was made 
here also as previously explained, and no attempt was 
made to classify the miscellaneous equipment with re- 
spect to service. 

While in a canvass of this magnitude and one which 
must close on a definite date it is not possible to get 
reports from 100 per cent of the industry, every at- 
tempt has been made to present complete and accurate 
data. It has been possible in most cases to check the 
companies' figures against reports of the various car 
builders, and the courtesy of all who have co-operated 
in supplying statistics is earnestly appreciated. 


Type ^ oi 

Aberdeen Railroad 1 Misc. 

Alabama City, Gadsden & Attalla Rv. . . 1 Psgr. 
Alton, Granite & St. Louis Trac. Co . . . 3 Psgr. 

1 Psgr. 

Appalachian Power Co 1 Psgr. 

Augusta-Aiken Ry. & Elec. Corpn 4 Psgr. 

Austin Street Rv 4 Psgr. 

Bangor Ry. & Elee. Co 3 Psgr. 

Beaumont Trac. Co 7 Psgr. 

Blue Ridge Lt. & Pwr. Co 4 Psgr. 

Boston & Worcester St. Ry 6 Misc. 

Boston Elevated Ry 35 Psgr. 

1 Psgr. 
7 Misc. 

Bristol & Plainville Tramway Co 2 Psgr. 

Brockton & Plymouth St. Ry 2 Psgr. 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co 1 Misc. 

2 Misc. 

Buffalo & Depew Ry 1 Loco 

Burlington County Transit Co 1 Psgr. 

Cape Breton Elec. Co 2 Psgr. 

Cedar Rapids & Marion City Rv 15 Psgr. 

10 Psgr. 

Centralia & Central City Trac. Co 2 Psgr. 

Chambersburg, Greencastle & Waynes- 
boro St. Ry 1 Misc. 

Charleston-Dunbar Trac. Co 2 Psgr. 

Charleston Interurban R.R 1 Misc. 

4 Psgr. 

Chicago & West Towns Ry 5 Psgr. 

Chicago, MilwauKee & St. Paul Ry 2 Locos. 

5 Locos. 
10 Locos. 

Chicago, No. Shore & Milwaukee R.R. . 2 Locos. 
Chicago, So. Bend & No. Indiana Ry... 5 Misc. 

Chicago Surface Lines 5 Misc. 

Cincinnati & Columbus Trac. Co 1 Misc. 

Cleveland Ry 25 Psgr. 

2 Misc. 
51 Psgr. 

Cleveland, Southwestern & Col. Ry. ... 2 Psgr. 

Colorado Springs & Int. Ry 11 Psgr. 

Columbia Ry. Gas & Elec. Co 28 Psgr. 

Columbus Railroad 8 Psgr. 

Columbus Ry. Pwr. & Lt. Co 10 Psgr. 

Conestoga Trac. Co 8 Psgr. 

2 Misc. 

Cumberland & Westernport Elec. Ry. . . 5 Psgr. 
Cumberland County Pwr. & Lt. Co. . . . 8 Psgr. 

2 Misc. 

Danville St Ry. & Lt. Co 4 Psgr. 

Dayton, Covington & Piqua Trac. Co... 2 Psgr. 
Dayton, Springfield & Xenia Southern 

Ry 2 Psgr. 

Denver Tramway 1 Misc. 

4 Misc. 

2 Misc. 

Duluth Street Ry 8 Psgr. 

1 Misc. 

Durham Trac. Co 2 Psgr. 

E. Liverpool Trac. & Lt. Co 1 Misc. 




ty or 

otor or 






































































16 tons . . 







































4* 70 tons 
76 265 tons 
90* 266 tons 
37* 50 tons 
40 Int 





43* Int. 




46 City 

30 City 
40* . . 







































January 5, 1918 






v Type 


ly or 

otor or 

le or 
Two M 



T^aqt St LnnU Rv 

5 Psgr. 

46 h 




25 Psgr. 





Eastern Pennsylvania Rys 

8 Psgr. 
2 Misc. 





Eastern Wisconsin Elec. Co.. 

1 Misc. 




El Paso Electric Ry 

10 Psgr 





Enid City Ry 

2 Psgr. 





Fairburn & Atlanta Ry. & Elec. Co. 

1 Psgr. 





Fonda Johnstown & CI lovers ville R. R. 





Fort Dodge, Des Moines & Sohn R.R. . . 

2 Psgr. 





Fort Dodge Street Ry 

1 Psgr. 





Fort Wayne & Decatur Trac Co. 

3 Psgr. 





1 Misc. 




Fort Wavne & No. Indiana Xrac. Co, 

10 Psgr. 





2 Misc. 




Fox & Illinois Union Rv 





Gary & Interurban R R 

4 Psgr. 




2 Psgr. 





Georgia Ry & Pwr Co 

10 Psgr. 


Glendale & Montrose Ry 

3 Psgr. 

Grafton & Upton R.R.. 

2 Locos. 


30 tons 

Gd. Rapids, Gd. Haven & Muskegon. . . 

3 Misc. 




1 Psgr. 





Gray's Harbor Ry 

6 Psgr. 




Hagerstown & Frederick Ry 

3 Psgr. 





3 Psgr. 





Hammond, Whiting & E. Chicago Rv. 

2 Psgr. 





Harrisburg Rys 





Hocking-Sunday Creek Trac Co 

1 Psgr' 




■ ■ 

1 Psgr. 

1 / 3 



1 wo 

Holyoke Street Ry 

2 Misc. 

4ft L 


1 Misc. 




Honolulu Rapid Trans & Land Co 

10 Psgr. 




1 wo. 

7 Psgr. 





6 Locos. 

60 tons 

2 Psgr. 





Interborough Rapid Transit Co 

337 Psgr. 





140 Psgr. 




100 Psgr. 





4 Misc. 




3 Misc. 



2 Misc. 




1 Misc. 




2 Locos. 

60 tons 

Johnstown Trac. Co 

10 Psgr. 





1 Psgr. 





1 Psgr. 




Knoxville Ry. & Lt. Co 

12 Psgr. 





12 Psgr. 





1 Misc. 



1 Psgr. 





Lehigh Valley Transit Co 

24 Psgr. 





Lewiston, Augusta & W'v'le St. Ry 

10 Misc. 



6 Psgr. 
3 Misc. 
2 Misc. 
2 Misc. 





T .i nTir/"»i"»rl S+rf»pt T?v* 

1 Psgr. 





Little Rock Ry & Elec Co 

6 Psgr. 





5 Psgr. 





T.nrnin Strppt Ti R 

5 Psgr. 





Louisville & So. Indiana Trac. Co 

10 Psgr. 





T iei7i Hp T-? v* 

6 Misc. 




6 Psgr. 





1 Misc. 







lYlahomng & Shenango Ry. & Lt. Co . . . 

13 Psgr. 





3 Psgr. 





5 Psgr] 




One ' 

Massachusetts Northeastern St. Ry 

12 Psgr. 





5 Psgr. 

41 J 




4 Psgr. 





2 Psgr. 




3 Psgr. 




1 Misc. 




1 Misc. 



Milwaukee Electric Rv. & Lt. Co 

2 Misc. 




2 Misc. 




2 Misc. 



2 Misc. 




6 Psgr. 





4 Psgr. 





2 Psgr. 





1 Misc. 




3 Misc. 




1 Loco. 


40 tons 

Montreal & So Counties R>y 

3 Psgr. 





3 Psgr. 




50 Psgr. 





50 Psgr. 




Morgantown & Wheeling Ry 

1 Psgr. 





1 Misc. 




Newport News & Hampton Ry. Gas. & 


Elec. Co 

6 Psgr. 



1 wo 

30 Psgr. 

69 \ 




New York, New Haven & Hartford R.R 

1 Loco. 


145 tons. 

5 Locos. 


180 tons. 

New York State Rys. (Rochester) 

2 Misc. 




New York State Rys. (Syracuse) 

25 PBgr. 





1 Psgr. 




1 Misc. 




Vf ow V/wir R+o+o R^7«a fTTtir»»^ 

1 Misc. 





15 Psgr. 




2 Psgr. 





Northern Ohio Trac. & Lt. Co 

10 Psgr. 




10 Psgr. 





25 Psgr. 





4 Misc. 




4 Misc. 




3 Misc. 



1 Locos. 


50 tons. 


fe Type 




. W 

> Man 



ty o 






Northern Texas Trac. Co 

20 Psgr. 





2 Psgr. 





Northwestern Pennsylvania Ry 

2 Misc. 




5 Psgr. 





6 Psgr. 





2 Misc. 





4 Misc. 




16 Misc. 




10 Misc. 




12 Psgr. 





4 Psgr. 





1 Locos. 


30 tons 

40 Psgr. 





1 Psgr. 





1 Psgr. 





3 Psgr. 





Pacific Electric Ry 

3 Misc. 



Pacific Power & Lt. Co 

2 Psgr. 





Pennsylvania R.R. (Elec. Div.) 

1 Loco. 


250 tons 

Pennsylvania & Ohio Rys 

1 Misc. 



Peoria Rv- 

18 Psgr. 





Peoples Ry. of 

10 Psgr. 




Philadelphia & Garrettford St. Ry 

1 Misc. 




6 Psgr. 





PittBburg, Harmony, Butler & New 

Castle Ry 

2 PBgr. 




50 Psgr 




Portsmouth St. R.R. & Lt. Co 

3 Psgr. 





Princeton Power Co 

1 Psgr. 





1 Psgr. 





100 Psgr. 





50 Psgr. 





Puget Sound Int. Ry. & Pwr. Co 

10 Psgr. 





Puget Sound Trac. Lt. & Pwr. Co. 

24 Psgr. 





Quebec Ry Lt & Pwr Co 

^ r sgr. 





f>. 1... . r T*w. P_ T * 

6 Psgr. 





3 Psgr. 





Rhode Island Co 

2 Misc. 




6 Psgr. 






13 Psgr. 




5 Psgr. 




Salt Lake, Garfield & Western Ry 

6 Psgr. 





San Antonio Public Service Co 

20 Psgr. 





2 Psgr. 




Sand Springs Rv 

1 Psgr. 





Sandwich, Windsor & Am'b'g Ry . 

3 Psgr. 





Scioto Valley Trac. Co 

6 Misc. 




Seattle Municipal St. Ry 

6 Psgr. 





Sherbrooke Rv. & Pwr. Co 

1 Psgr. 





Shore Line Electric Ry 

2 Misc. 





Sioux City Service Co 

7 Psgr. 





Sioux Falls Trac. System 

1 Psgr. 





Slate Belt Elec. St. Ry 

4 Psgr. 





Southern New York Pwr. & Ry. Corpn.. 

1 Misc. 


Sftii+nwoat \Tiocmiri "R T? 

7 Putrr 

/ .rsgr. 





Springfield Street Ry 

20 Psgr. 





2 Misc. 



1 Misc. 



Rf Tncnnli X> , . T * TT+ jt r D,,rv. ^ 

8 Psgr. 




Tacoma Ry. & Pwr. Co 

32 Psgr. 





23 Psgr. 





Tarentum, Brackenridge & Butler St. 


1 Psgr. 





Terre Haute Trac. & Lt. Co 

1 Psgr. 





2 Misc. 




1 Misc. 




T o 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Ry. 

5 Misc. 




Texas Electric Ry 

2 Misc. 




3 Psgr. 





Toledo, Bowling Green & So. Trac. Co. 
Trenton & Mercer County Trac. Corpn. 

4 Psgr. 





10 Psgr. 





Tri-City Ry of Iowa 

■3 Poor 





Tuscaloosa Ry. & Utilities Co 

1 Loco. 


30 tons 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co 

8 Misc 




34 Psgr. 




1 Misc. 



1 Misc. 




* ' 

Twin State Gas & Elec. Co 

3 Psgr. 





Union Street Ry 

6 Psgr. 





1 Misc. 



United Rys. & Elec. Co, (Baltimore).. . 

80 Psgr. 





12 Misc. 



United Rys. of St. Louis 

40 Psgr. 




1 Misc. 


Vicksburg Light & Trac. Co 

4 Psgr. 





Virginia Ry & Pwr Co 

20 Psgr 





Washington, Bait. & Annapolis Elec. 

8 Locos. 


47 tons. 

Western New York & Penn. Trac. Co . . 

2 Psgr. 





Western Washington Pwr. Co 

2 PsgT. 





Wheeling Trac. Co 

14 Psgr. 
1 Misc. 





Wichita Falls Trac. Co 

5 Psgr. 





4 Psgr. 





^Vilmington & Philadelphia Trac. Co . . . 

15 Psgr. 





1 Misc. 



Winona Interurban Ry 




1 Misc. 




1 Psgr. 





10 Psgr. 





4 Misc. 




3 Misc. 




1 Misc. 




3 Psgr. 







Vol. 51, No. 1 

Track Rebuilt and New Track Placed in Service 

in the Year 1917 

Electric Railways of the United States and Canada Report a Total of 442 Miles of Track Constructed or 
Electrified During the Year. This Is Less Than in Any Corresponding Period During 
the Last Ten Years — Approximately an Equal Amount of Track Was Rebuilt 

THE results of a canvass of the electric railways 
Of the United States and Canada to determine the 
single-track mileage of lines built or electrified 
and placed in operation during the year 1917, and also 
the amount of track reconstructed, are shown in the 
accompanying lists. Although reports were not received 
from all of the companies, the data can be considered 
representative of 97 per cent of the total mileage under 
electric operation, and this is quite satisfactory in view 
of the difficulties involved in conducting a canvass of 
such wide scope. 

The following table, which was prepared from previ- 
ous compilations by the Electric Railway Journal, 
shows that the additions made during the past year to 
the electric railway trackage were considerably less 
than for any year since 1907. Exclusive of electrified 
steam lines there were 376.7 miles of new electric rail- 
way track built, of which 71.1 miles were represented 
by new rapid transit lines in Greater New York and 
305.6 miles by additions to various city and interurban 
lines. Although a comparison of the new electrified 
mileage placed in operation in the last two years shows 
a large decrease for 1917, the 1916 figure was greatly 
augmented by the 225-mile extension of the Chicago, 
Milwaukee & St. Paul electrification, and exclusive of 
this project the amount of new electrified line for the 
past year represents a slight increase. 

New Electric Electrified Total New 
Railway Track Steam Electric 
Built Line Mileage 

1907 •••• 1880.0 

1908 1174.5 84.0 1258.5 

1909 774.7 112.4 887.1 

1910 1204.8 192.4 1397.2 

1911 1105.0 86.5 1191.5 

1912 869.4 80.8 950.2 

1913 974.9 119.0 1093.9 

1914 716.5 229.0 946.4 

1915 596.0 448.2 1044.2 

1916 356.3 388.0 744.3 

1917 376.7 66.0 442.7 

The 376.7 miles of new line constructed and placed in 
operation can be divided roughly into two-thirds city 
and one-third interurban track. In 1916 the interurban 
track represented two-thirds of the total and the city 
track one-third. The number of states represented in 
the accompanying lists is practically the same as a year 
ago, while the number of companies that reported new 
work is about 15 per cent greater. 

Among the states in which new track was reported, 
New York leads with 82.9 miles, consisting, as already 
stated, principally of extensions to the rapid transit 
lines in Greater New York. This figure compares fa- 
vorably with the 78.4 miles constructed during 1916 in 
the State of California, which was the largest amount 
of new construction done in any one state, excepting, of 
course, Montana, in which a large amount of steam road 
had been electrified. In California and Ohio about 33 
miles of new track have been built during the last year, 
this being the second largest amount reported for any 
state. This, of course, does not include Oregon where 

the greater part of the new line indicated was an exten- 
sion of the Portland electrified division of the Southern 
Pacific Company. * • 

Electric railway construction in Canada suffered a 
decline from the good record of 1916, due, no doubt, 
to effects of the war. While several companies are men- 
tioned, by far the greater proportion of work done has 
been in rebuilding existing track. 

The total rebuilt mileage for the year was 375.4, 
about 85 per cent of which was city track. The Con- 
necticut Company seems to have been most active in 
this regard, having rebuilt a total of 25 miles. Since 
corresponding data were not compiled in previous years, 
no figures are available to use as a basis for comparison. 

Track, Rebuilt 

ARKANSAS Miles Mileage 

Fort Smith Light & Trac. Co 1.0 1.4 

1.0 1.4 


Los Angeles Ry. Corporation 10.1 

Municipal Ry. of San Francisco 11.7 

Northern Electric Ry 0.4 0.36 

Pacific Electric Ry. — La Habra to Fullerton 5.06 

San Diego Electric Ry 2.34 0.77 

Tidewater Southern Ry. — Hatch to Hilmar, 8 miles; 

Small to Mateca, 6 miles 14.0 

United Railroads of San Francisco 4.26 

33.50 15.49 


Colorado Springs & Interurban Ry. 0.90 1.5 

Denver & Interurban R. R. — Electrification extended 

1.67 miles in Boulder 2.11 

Denver Tramway 0.67 0.54 

3.68 2.04 


Connecticut Co 2.57 25.06 

Danbury & Bethel St. Ry 1.0 

2.57 26.06 


Wilmington & Philadelphia Trac. Co 6.04 



Washington & Maryland Ry 0.87 

Washington Ry. & Electric Co 1.35 



Jacksonville Traction Co 0.7 

Key West Electric Co 0.25 

Miami Traction Co 1.5 

Tampa Electric Co 0.75 

2.95 0.25 


Athens Ry. & Electric Co 0.25 

Columbus Railroad 2.0 

Georgia Ry. & Power Co 4.0 

Macon Ry. & Light Co 1.8 

Valdosta Street Ry 1.0 

5.0 4.05 


Boise Valley Trac. Co 0.5 



Alton, Granite & St. Louis Trac. Co 0.53 

Bloomington & Normal Ry. & Light Co 1.23 

Central Illinois Public Service Co 0.31 0.03 

Chicago & Interurban Trac. Co 2.5 

Chicago & Joliet Electric Ry 2.0 

Chicago & West Towns Ry 1.0 

Chicago, North Shore & Milwaukee R. R 4.33 2.02 

Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Ry 0.28 0.38 

Chicago, So. Bend & No. Indiana Ry 5.1 0.4 

Danville, Urbana & Champaign Ry 3.57 

Decatur Ry. & Lt. Co 0.43 

East St. Louis & Suburban Ry 2.3 

East St. Louis Ry 0.19 

Galesburg & Kewanee Elec. Ry 0.8 

Galesburg Ry., Ltg. & Pwr. Co 0.09 

January 5, 1918 



Track, Rebuilt 

ILLINOIS (Continued) Miles Mileage 

Hammond, Whiting & E. Chicago Ry 2.0 

Jacksonville Ry. & Light Co 10 

Peoria Ry b - u 

Rockford & Interurban Ry. — New track built from 

Rockford to Camp Grant 3.0 0.4 

Rockford City Trac. Co 0-34 0.8 

St. Louis, Peoria & Springfield R. R a - £ ° 

Southern Illinois Lt. & Pwr. Co 0.37 

Tri-City Ry. of Illinois 0.19 0.91 

15.01 27.74 


Central Indiana Lighting Co 0.24 

Indianapolis Trac. & Term. Co 14 

Interstate Public Service Co 0.9b U.Ub 

Madison Light & Ry. Co O.4., 

Public Utilities Co 0-38 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Trac. Co 0.94 

Terre Haute Trac. & Light Co 0.5j 

Union Traction Co. of Indiana 0.87 t.i> 

4.55 6.05 


Cedar Rapids <£. Marion City Ry 3.6 

Clinton, Davenport & Muscatine Ry 0.0b 

Dubuque Elec. Co 2.0 

Fort Dodge, Des Moines & Southern R. R. — Fort 

Dodge to Webster City and Lehigh 25.0 

Keokuk Electric Co •£< 

Mason City & Clear Lake R. R 1.6 1-& 

Oskaloosa Trac. & Light Co 0.12 U.zi 

Sioux City Service Co 

Tri -City Ry. of Iowa ■ 

28.30 10.02 


Joplin & Pittsburg Ry •• nr 2 -<> 5 

Kansas City, Lawrence & Topeka Elec. R. R 0.5 1.0 

Southwest Missouri R. R.— Electrified between 

Galena, Kan., and Baxter Springs, Kan 8.0 

Topeka Ry o > 

Wichita R. R. & Light Co • v - v 

8.5 5.21 


Kentucky Trac. & Terminal Co 0.6 

Louisville Ry.— Extension to Camp Taylor 4.0 

So. Covington & Cincinnati St. Ry ■ 0-a^ 

4.0 1.42 


Bangor Ry. & Electric Co 1.38 

Cumberland County Pwr. & Lt. Co 0.28 1.87 

Lewiston, Augusta & Waterville St. Ry 1.78 0-78 

2.06 3.98 


Cumberland & Westernport Elec. Ry 132 

Cumberland Electric Ry 10 

United Railways & Electric Co 5-03 li.S 

Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis Elec. R. R. — 

Naval Academy Junction to Camp Meade 4.5 

10.53 14.62 


Bay State Street Ry 5.8 

Berkshire Street Ry 11-0 1.2 

Massachusetts Northeastern St. Ry 4.08 

Norfolk & Bristol St. Ry ■ 0.34 

Plymouth & Sandwich St. Ry. — Plymouth to village 

of Sagamore 11-07 

Springfield Street Ry 3.1 < 2.Z 

Union Street Ry ;.j>8 

Worcester Consolidated St. Ry 1 49 4.7 

26.73 21.00 


Detroit & Port Huron Shore Line Ry 2.03 0.73 

Detroit, Jackson & Chicago Ry 0.6 

Detroit, Monroe & Toledo Short Line Ry 0.75 

Detroit United Ry 14-87 11-39 

Grand Rapids Ry 3.51 

Grand Trunk Ry. (St. Clair Tunnel Co.) 1.5 

Menominee & Marinette Lt. & Trac. Co 0.5 

Saginaw-Bay City Ry • °- 5 l 

18.25 IS. 14 


Twin City Rapid Transit Co 6.79 13.52 

St. Cloud Public Service Co 0.5 

6.79 14.02 


Blue Valley Ry 1-5 0.5 

Hannibal Ry. & Elec. Co 6.0 

Kansas City Rys 10.81 5.08 

United Railways of St. Louis 19.5 

12.31 31.08 


Morris County Trac. Co 3.0 

Public Service Ry 0.15 

Trenton & Mercer County Trac. Corpn 0.39 

0.15 3.39 


Auburn & Syracuse Elec. R. R 0.21 

Binghamton Ry 1-73 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. — New track: 19.1 miles 

rapid transit; 6.18 miles surface lines 25.28 6.72 

Buffalo & Depew Ry „ 0.5 

Elmira Water, Light & R. R. Co 0.83 2.14 

Hornell Traction Co 0.13 


NEW YORK (Continued) Miles 

Hudson Valley Ry 

Interborough Rapid Transit Co 52.01 

International Ry 2.1 

New York & Stamford Ry 

New York Central R. R. (Elec. Div.) 0.55 

New York, Westchester & Boston Ry 0.01 

Niagara Junction Ry 0.77 

Orange County Trac. Co 0.5 

Schenectady Ry 0.2 

Second Ave. Ry 

Southern New York Pwr. & Ry. Corpn 

Third Ave. Ry 0.34 

Westchester Street R. R 0.11 


Southern Public Utilities Co. — Between Charlotte 

and Camp Greene 4.75 


Northern States Pwr. Co 


Cincinnati, Milford <£. Loveland Trac. Co 

Cincinnati Trac. Co 

City Ry. of Dayton 

Cleveland Ry 10.61 

Cleveland Southwestern & Col. Ry 

Columbus Ry., Pwr. & Lt. Co 0.82 

Dayton & Troy Elec Ry 

Gallipolis & Northern Trac. Co 0.15 

Mahoning & Shenango Ry. & Lt. Co 1.72 

Northern Ohio Trac. & Light Co 2.1 

Portsmouth Street R. R. & Lt. Co. — Between 

Wheelersburg and Ironton 18.0 



Ardmore Ry 0.3 

Oklahoma Ry 0.5 



Pacific Pwr. & Lt. Co 

Portland & Oregon City Ry 1.0 

Portland Ry., Lt. & Pwr. Co 1.95 

Southern Pacific Co. (Portland Div.) — Electrification 

between Whiteson and Corvallis 47.5 



Altoona & Logan Valley Elec. Ry 0.85 

Ardmore & Llanerch St. Ry 0.93 

Carbon Transit Co 

Harrisburg Rys 

Mahoning & Shenango Ry. & Lt. Co 0.66 

Montgomery Transit Co 

Northwestern Pennsylvania Ry 3.65 

Philadelphia & Garrettford St. Ry 0.31 

Philadelphia Rys 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co 0.71 

Reading Transit & Light Co 

Scranton Ry 

Wilkes-Barre Ry 

York Rys 0.28 



Rhode Island Co 1.44 








Columbia Ry., Gas & Electric Co. — To Camp Jack- 
son, 8 miles 10.0 



Aberdeen R. R 

Sioux Falls Trac. System 


Chattanooga Ry. & Light Co 3.0 

Jackson Ry. & Light Co 

Memphis Street Ry 0.3 

Nashville Ry. & Light Co 



Austin Street Ry 1.5 

Beaumont Trac. Co 0.15 

Bryan & Central Texas Interurban Ry. — New track 

between Whittaker and Wilcox 2.25 

Bryan & College Interurban Ry 

El Paso Electric Ry 

Galveston Electric Co 

Jefferson County Trac. Co 0.11 

Marshall Traction Co 4.7 

Northern Texas Trac. Co 4.2 

San Antonio Public Service Co 4.7 

Southwestern Trac. Co 

Tarrant County Trac. Co 1.02 

Texas Electric Ry 1.55 



Ogden, Logan & Idaho Ry 

Salt Lake & Utah R. R. — Between Grangee and 

Magna 9.0 








0.9 , 




























Vol 51, No. 1 

Track, Rebuilt 
VIRGINIA Miles Mileage 

Danville Traction & Pwr. Co 02 

Hampton & Langley Field Ry. — Between Hampton 

and Government Reservation at Langley Field.. 3.5 

Roanoke Ry. & Elec. Co 1.0 

Virginia Ry. & Pwr. Co 2.2,5 u - aJ 

6.75 0.93 


Puget Sound Int. Ry. & Pwr. Co 0.25 

Puget Sound Trac, Lt. & Pwr. Co 0.19 

Seattle & Rainier Valley Ry 1-25 2.0 

Tacoma Ry. & Pwr. Co 2.0 

Yakima Valley Transportation Co 3.55 

7.05 2.19 


Monongahela Valley Trac. Co 5.5 0.8 

Norfolk & Western Ry. (Elec. Div.) — Electrified be- 
tween Cooper and Simmons 7.5 

Ohio Valley Electric Ry °- 8 ' 

13.0 1.67 


Eastern Wisconsin Elec. Co 3.99 

Milwaukee Electric Ry. & Lt. Co 2.19 5.84 

Wisconsin Ry., Lt. & Pwr. Co 1.33 

2.19 11.16 


Cape Breton Elec. Co., Ltd 0.15 1.0 

Hull Electric Co 1.0 0.95 

International Transit Co 0-32 

Janesville Trac. Co 0.51 

Levis County Ry 0.57 

London & Port Stanley Ry 0.34 

London Street Ry 1-68 

Niagara, St. Catharines & Toronto Ry 0.66 3.5 

Nova Scotia Tramways <£. Pwr. Co., Ltd 0.17 

Ottawa Electric Ry 0.6 

Port Arthur Civic Ry • 1-51 

Quebec Ry., Light & Pwr. Co 0.18 

Sandwich, Windsor & Amherstburg Ry 1.0 

Sudbury, Copper Cliff Suburban Elec. Ry 1.0 

Toronto Civic Ry °- 49 

3.82 11.81 

Total for all companies 442.7 375.4 

California Joint Committee on Inductive 
Interference Completes Report* 

A COMMITTEE which has, for the last five years, 
been investigating disturbances in communication 
circuits caused by induction from neighboring power 
circuits, under the auspices of the California Railroad 
Commission, has completed its work and presented its 

A preliminary report, rendered by the committee in 
1914, was printed in the Transactions of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers, Vol. 33, 1914, page 
1441. The final report of the committee will be pub- 
lished by the commission if a sufficient number of sub- 
scriptions is received to cover the actual cost of print- 
ing and binding. This is estimated not to exceed $10. 
It is proposed to publish thirty of the technical reports 
presented in the course of the work, selected as being 
of general interest and applicability. 

The complete report contains the following sections: 

1. Historical sketch, regarding the formation, person- 
nel, organization, investigations and finances of the com- 

2. Review of the basic principles, comprising a sim- 
ple statement of the nature of the subject, a summary 
of the facts established or agreed upon, and a concise 
statement of the guiding principles for the prevention 
of interference. 

♦Following are references to articles in this paper during the 
period covered by the report: June 8, 1912, page 963; June 15, 
1912, pages 1002. 1019; Aug. 24, 1912, page 288; Aug. 31, 1912, pages 
308, 336; March 15, 1913, page 512; March 22, 1913, page 531; Oct. 
11, 1913, page 690; Nov. 19, 1913, page 1141; Jan. 10, 1914, page 82; 
Feb. 7, 1914, page 313; March 7, 1914, page 529; March 28, 1914, 
page 706; May 2, 1914, pages 958, 960; Sept. 12, 1914, page 485; Oct. 
3, 1914, page 636. Since 1914 the matter has not had much atten- 
tion in the electric railway field. 

3. Recommendations for revised rules to govern the 
design, construction and operation of power and com- 
munication lines and associated apparatus, to prevent 
or mitigate inductive interference, followed by explana- 
tory comments. An exhibit accompanying the rules 
discusses the arrangement and spacing of power con- 

4. Five appendices dealing with: (1) Interference 
not covered by the recommended rules, which apply to 
constant-potential a.c. power circuits of more than 5000 
volts between wires or 2900 volts to ground and exclude 
telephone subscribers' loops. (2) List of technical re- 
ports prepared by the committee as a record of its in- 
vestigations. (3) Comments on the 1914 report. (4) 
Bibliography. (5) Chart showing the organization of 
the committee. 

Send-Off for Mr. Cairns 

Officials of the Manila Electric Railway & Light 
Corporation Pay Respect to Associate Departing 
for America 

A STRIKING testimonial of the popularity with 
which L. S. Cairns, recently assistant general man- 
ager Manila Electric Railway & Light Corporation, has 
been regarded during his five-year connection with that 
company was shown by the ceremonies at his depar- 


ture from Manila on Oct. 17 to take charge of the 
Eastern Pennsylvania Railways of Pottsville, Pa. One 
function of the farewell exercises was held in the Ma- 
nila Grand Opera House on the evening of Oct. 15, at 
which this large house was crowded. After an inter- 
lude of music and other entertainments there was an 
address by Mr. Santiago of the claims department, a 
reply by Mr. Cairns, and closing remarks by Vice- 
President Duffy. The following day there was a formal 
parade to the pier. About 1200 employees of the com- 
pany participated, marching in eight divisions, repre- 
senting the different departments of the company, and 
acting as an escort for Mr. Cairns and his family, who 
followed in an auto. On arrival at the pier the lines 
opened, giving an opportunity to the former assistant 
general manager to bid farewell to all as he passed 
through the two lines. 

In addition, a silver tablet, inscribed with best wishes 
for his future success, was presented to Mr. Cairns. 

January 5, 1918 



The Financial Wrecks of 1917 

Electric Railway Receiverships and Foreclosure Sales, in Mileage and Capitalization Involved, Show 
Heavy Increase Over Those of 1916 — This Due to One Large Company — Score of 
Small Companies Abandon Operation on Their 207 Miles of Track 

THE high cost of electric railway operation during 
1917 has left many a company in a disabled condi- 
tion. The most striking result is the number of to- 
tal wrecks. Heretofore, when electric railways have been 
forced into the hands of receivers because of accumu- 
lated burdens of regulation, unrestricted competition, 
over capitalization, or weaknesses of organization, they 
have almost invariably been able to effect some finan- 
cial or operating readjustment so as to insure continu- 
ance of service. 

The last year has seen about the usual number of 
companies either entering upon or completing their re- 
adjustments, but, more significant still, it has seen the 
passing of companies that have given up hope of any 
successful reorganization. A score of railway prop- 
erties have suspended service and in most cases have 
dismantled or are planning to dismantle their lines. 
In many instances this action has been taken volun- 
tarily by the management and not under court orders, 
and in several others the only willing purchaser at 
the forced sale has been the junk dealer. 

Such total wrecks, it is true, have all been small 
properties, and some of them were probably constructed 
without adequate, if any, transportation studies, and 
have never even approached operation on a sound basis. 
Yet at other times they all would undoubtedly have 
tried to struggle along. Their collapse, in this period 
of inflated costs, simply shows that the industry is 
now passing through a stage where mere existence for 
its weakest members is being found impossible. 

Bay State Line Swells Receivership Figures 

Owing to one large company, the Bay State Street 
Railway, the new receiverships in 1917 were greatly in 
excess of those in the preceding year, the mileage of 
1,139.37 involved being, next to the record in 1915, 
the largest in the last nine years. The capitalization 
of companies placed in receiver's hands was nearly three 
times as large as in 1916, and the figures for outstand- 
ing stock and funded debt are well up the list for the 
nine years. The record for this period (adjusted in a 
minor point to cover a late 1916 return) follows: 

Number of Miles of Outstanding Outstanding 
Companies Track Stock Funded Debt 

1909 22 558.00 $29,962,200 $22,325,000 

1910 11 696.61 12,629,400 75,490,735 

1911 19 518.90 29,533,450 38,973,293 

1912 26 373.58 20,410,700 11,133,800 

1913 18 342.84 31,006,900 47,272,200 

1914 10 362.39 35,562.550 19,050,460 

1915 27 1,152.10 40,298,050 39,372,375 

1916 15 359.26 14,476,600 10,849,200 

1917 18 1.139.37 33,497,925 33,394,400 

The accompanying table gives the details of electric 
railway receiverships in the last calendar year. An 
attempt was made in all cases to take the figures from 
the most up-to-date and most authoritative sources, 
and to secure the correct data in cases of disagreement 
among the financial manuals, a by no means infre- 
quent occurrence in connection with the smaller com- 

panies. These, it will be observed, constituted the 
great majority of the companies placed in receiver- 
ship, only three having more than 30 miles of track. 
The 867 miles of the Bay State receivership formed 
more than 75 per cent of the whole sum. 

Most of the receiverships were evidently caused by 
the decreasing margin between revenues and expenses, 
operation in territory of a poor character, and in- 
herent defects of organization; but in certain cases 
special reasons existed. The Bay State Street Rail- 
way, for example, was confronted with unusual cash 
requirements and a lack of borrowing capacity, and 
the receivership is a "breathing spell." The Cincin- 
nati, Milford & Loveland Traction Company has at 
last succumbed to the effects of the flood damages in 
1915. The receivership of the Cleveland & Chagrin 
Falls Railway was precipitated by an award of $50,000 
for injuries to a passenger, appeal on which is pend- 
ing. Serious accidents also figured in the cases of the 
Southern Cambria Railway and the Hornell Traction 
Company. The Plymouth & Shelby Traction Company 
receivership is the result of a court decision holding 
the company to be a fraudulent corporation. 

Foreclosure Sales Increased 

The number of electric railways sold at foreclosure 
in 1917 was twenty-five, a substantial increase over the 
nineteen of the year before. The mileage of 737.69 
compares with only 430.14 in 1916, and the capitali- 
zation figures are considerably larger. The miles of 
track sold in 1917 were greater than those in any of 
the preceding eight years. The following adjusted 
table gives all the comparative figures for the last nine 
years : 

Number of Miles of Outstanding Outstanding 
Companies Track Stock Funded Debt 

1909 21 488.00 $22,265,700 $21,174,000 

1910 22 724.36 19,106,613 26.374,065 

1911 25 660.72 91,354,800 115.092,750 

1912 18 267.18 14,197,300 10,685,250 

1913 17 302.28 15,243,700 19,094,500 

1914 11 181.26 26,239,700 44,094.241 

1915 19 308.31 30,508,817 16,759,997 

1916 19 430.14 13,895,400 22,702,300 

1917 25 737.69 27,131,900 27,083.045 

The detailed foreclosure sales are shown in the ac- 
companying table. As in previous years, some electric 
railways for which receivers had been appointed or 
against which foreclosure suits had been brought were 
able to carry out reorganization plans without the 
properties being offered at public sale. All the various 
forms of reorganization, readjustment and change in 
ownership without formal foreclosure sales were passed 
over in compiling the table. 

The sale of the Mt. Vernon Railway, reported in 
1916, was not confirmed, and the property was resold 
late this year. Furthermore, it should be noted that 
several properties were sold piecemeal, some parcels 
in certain cases remaining under the receivership. The 
Gary & Interurban Railroad, for example, was all sold 



Vol. 51, No. 1 

Electric Railway Receiverships in 1917 

Miles of 

Bay State Street Railway 867.78 

Beech Grove Traction Company 3.90 
Cincinnati. Milford & Loveland 

Traction Company 37.00 

Cleveland & Chagrin Falls Rail- 
way 12.00 

Danbury & Bethel Street Railway 16.00 

Eastern New York Railroad.... 15.00 

Grafton Light & Power Company 7.00 

Hornell Traction Company 10.90 

Manhattan & Queens Traction 

Corporation 22.00 

Minster & Loramie Railway.... 3.30 

Orleans-Kenner Electric Railway 11.60 

Pennsylvania & Ohio Railway. . 26.00 

Pittsburgh & Butler Railway... 33.00 
Plymouth & Shelby Traction 

Company 6.97 

Richmond & Rappahannock 

River Railway 25.40 

Southern Cambria Railway.... 30.00 
St. Louis, Lakewood & Grant 

Park Railway (a) 4.00 

Trans-St. Mary's Traction Com- 
pany , 7.52 













S, 688, 000 





1,139.37 $33,497,925 $33,394,400 

fThis sum represents installments paid in on subscriptions, there 
being no capital stock outstanding. 

(a) Not in operation since flood of 1915. 

in sections. The properties of the Minneapolis, St. 
Paul, Rochester & Dubuque Electric Traction Company, 
the Sunbury & Susquehanna Railway and the Richmond 
& Rappahannock River Railway, however, were only 
partially sold. In such cases the capitalization figures 
have been prorated on a mileage basis, with full weight 
given to any underlying liens. 

In most cases the foreclosure sales in 1917 were 
the forerunners to the beginning of business through 
a reorganized company or a new one. Some properties, 

Electric Railway Foreclosure 

Miles of 

Algiers Railway & Lighting 

Company 6.00 

Amarillo Street Railway 8.20 

Bluffton, Geneva & Celina Trac- 
tion Company 19.00 

Boise Railroad. Ltd 8.00 

Bristol Traction Company 15.30 

Cape Mav, Delaware Bav & 

Sewell's Point Railroad 20.00 

Catskill Traction Company 5.50 

Cincinnati. Dayton & Toledo 

Traction Company 83.90 

Cleburne Traction Company.... 8.00 
Columbus, Delaware & Marion 

Railway 60.00 

Empire United Railways, Inc. 

(a) 246.22 

Gary, Hobart & Eastern Trac- 
tion Company 9.00 

Gary & Interurban Railroad... 85.00 
Minneapolis. St. Paul, Rochester 
& Dubuque Electric Traction 

Company (b) 14.00 

Minster & Loramie Railway... 3.30 

Mt. Vernon (Ohio) Railway... 9.00 
Nashville - Gallatin Interurban 

Railway 27.05 

Pittsburgh & Butler Railway... 33.00 
Providence & Fall River Street 

Railway 10.12 

Richmond & Rappahannock 

River Railway (c) 9.10 

Sacramento Valley Electric Rail- 
toad 12.30 

Southwestern Traction Company 15.00 
Sunbury & Susquehanna Rail- 
way (d) 6.00 

Taunton & Pawtucket Street 

Railway (e) 17.50 

Waycross Street & Suburban 

Railway 7.20 

Sales in 1917 

Out- Outstanding 
standing Funded 
























2 537 2 25 









737.69 $27,131,900 $27,083,045 

♦Authorized amount ; outstanding amount not ascertainable. 

(a) This entry covers the controlled Rochester, Syracuse & 
Eastern Railroad (as in 1915 Table of Receiverships), although 
this company was sold separately. 

(b) Total trackage, 56 miles, was offered for sale on Dec. 18, 
but only a 14-mile section was sold. 

(c) See 1917 Table of Receiverships. Only the Seven Pines line 
has been sold. 

(d) Remaining mileage, 9 miles, still in hands of receiver. Sold 
portion represents property of consolidated Northumberland County 
Traction Company. 

(e) Sale covered all mileage of Bristol County Street Railway 
under old $200,000 mortgage, held in 1915 to be valid lien assumed 
by successor, Taunton & Pawtucket Street Railway. 

however, went from the sales to the junk pile. These, 
with the lines whose owners voluntarily abandoned 
operation, are shown in the accompanying table. An 
effort was made to segregate actually wrecked com- 
panies into two classes, the first, or "Dismantlements,", 
including properties actually scrapped, in process of 
being scrapped or having the necessary legal sanction 
for such treatment. The second class, or "Suspensions," 
includes lines where the service has been discontinued 
or the question of dismantlement, as far as can be 
learned, is still pending. No attempt was made to 
cover the abandonments of small sections of route' by 
operating companies. 

The 14-mile parcel of the Minneapolis, St. Paul, Roch- 
ester & Dubuque Electric Traction Company, purchased 
by a committee of bondholders in December, was ac- 
quired under a court order expressly permitting aban- 
donment if this was desired. It is reported, however, 
that operation has not yet been discontinued. 

Although the Norwood, Canton & Sharon Street Rail- 
way was sold in November to a junk dealer, it has not 
been included in the compilation. The prospective pur- 
chaser forfeited his deposit rather than become in- 
volved in certain litigation regarding the company, and 
the property reverted to its owners. Service has not 
been suspended. 

In closing, two instances may well be cited to show 
how electric railway service is better appreciated when 
its continuance is threatened. The Cape May, Delaware 
Bay & Sewell's Point Railway, a 20-mile property, was 
sold and became headed for dismantlement. The local 

Electric Railway Abandonments in 1917 

Out- Outstanding 

Miles of standing Funded 

i. dismantlements Track Stock Debt 

Alton & Jacksonville Railway 

(a) 21.30 $142,000 $450,000 

Arkansas Northwestern Railroad 2.13 '. 

Catskill Traction Company.... 5.50 60,000 70.000 

Citv Railway, Mt. Vernon, 111.. 3.25 40,000 None 

Cleburne Traction Company (b) 8.00 *15,000 None 

Goshen, South Bend & Chicago 

Railway (c) 20.00 1,109,400 519,900 

Mexico Investment & Construc- 
tion Company (d) 16.00 30,000 11,550 

Mt. Vernon (Ohio) Railway... 9.00 10,000 40,000 

Norfolk Citv & Suburban Rail- 
way 4.50 50,000 50,000 

Norfolk & Ocean View Railway 

(e) 10.00 62,500 625,000 

St. Lawrence International Elec- 
tric Railroad & Land Company 7.79 250,000 200,000 

Sacramento Valley Electric Rail- 
road 12.30 250,000 None 

Wavcross Street & Suburban 

Railway 7.20 30.000 40,000 

126.97 $2,048,900 $2,006,450 


Amarillo Street Railway 8.20 $212,000 $125,000 

Bluffton. Geneva & Celina Trac- 
tion Company (/) 19.00 675,000 None 

Bristol Traction Company 15.30 143,800 192,500 

Fort Smith-Oklahoma Light & 

Traction Company . 1.21 30,000 None 

Richmond & Chesapeake Bay 

Railway 14.80 2,500 1,000,000 

Southern Traction Company, 

Inc. (g) 4.50 10,000 24,500 

Taunton & Pawtucket Street 

Railway (h) 17.50 100,000 200,000 

80.51 $1,173,300 $1,542,000 

207.48 $3,222,200 $3,548,450 

♦Authorized amount ; outstanding amount not ascertainable. 

(a) Dismantlement order issued in December by Illinois Public 
Utilities Commission. 

(b) City Council has authorized removal of physical property. 

(c) Nineteen miles are. being junked now; citv of La Porte has 
option to purchase remaining 1 mile of track and equipment within 

(d) Actual dismantlement began at end of year. 

(e) Six miles of track were taken over by Virginia Railway & 
Power Company. 

(/) Purchaser bought property to dismantle, but work is h*eld up 
pending hearing before commission. 

(g) Sold for dismantlement and work started, but city and 
county have asked for receiver. Suit is pending. 

(h) Sold to wreckers for dismantlement when sale is confirmed 
See note in 1917 Table of Foreclosure Sales. 

January 5, 1918 



public then made various efforts to secure the operation 
of the property, even at the hands of the steam lines 
in the same territory. Nothing was accomplished, how- 
ever, until the United States Navy Department recently 
commandeered the railway for government use. 

The Providence & Fall River Street Railway, actually 
sold for junk, was saved from the scrap heap last No- 
vember. Service was suspended, and the removal of 
the line was imminent. Public-spirited citizens, how- 
ever, secured an option and organized a successor 
company, which took over the property and resumed 

Electric Railway Statistics 

Figures Are Given by States of the Miles of Track 
and Number of Cars Owned 

THE accompanying table gives statistics of the miles 
of track and cars of the electric railway companies 
in the United States, made up from the August, 1917, 
Electric Railway Directory of the McGraw Hill Com- 
pany. The dates of the reports in this directory aver- 
age about June, 1917, so that the table may be consid- 
ered to represent the statistics of the industry at about 
that time. 

A comparison of the totals given in this table with 
those in a somewhat similar table, published in the issue 
of Jan. 6, 1917, will show for all states a total of 1029 
companies instead of 1045, a decrease during the year of 
sixteen. The miles of track total 48,175 as compared 
with 47,562 in June, 1916, an increase during the year 
of 613, and the motor passenger cars total 81,383, as 
compared with 80,058 last year, an increase of 1335. The 
total number of cars, according to the table, increased 
from 100,476 to 102,359, or a total of 1883. 

The decrease in the number of companies is due in 
most part to the abandonment of operation by companies 
which had not found the service financially profitable, 
although there were a few consolidations. There were 
also several cases of the splitting up of former consoli- 
dated properties by action of the court or for some other 
reason. Some of the cases of segregation of individual 
properties brought changes in the mileage credited to 
different states, because under the plan followed the 
miles of track and number of cars belonging to each 
company are credited to the state in which the greater 
part of the mileage lies. Of the total increase in mile- 
age, more than 25 per cent is accounted for by the in- 
crease in rapid transit mileage in New York City. Part 
of the rest of the increase is probably due to seemingly 
inevitable discrepancies which occur when reports are 
made out by different officials each year. 

A few other words of explanation are necessary. The 
electrified mileage of steam railroads is included, but 
as this is reported to the directory usually as route mile- 
age, that figure is continued in the table, although the 
mileage of the city and interurban electric railway com- 
panies is figured as single track as usual. Under cars, 
the statistics include only the electric locomotives and 
the motor passenger cars of electrified steam railroads. 
Gasoline and storage battery cars are included as pass- 
enger motor cars. 

Many electric railway companies use the expressions 
express cars, freight cars, and service cars as inter- 
changeable terms. The table shows the way in which 
cars of these types are reported by the different com- 


II i 

I^O Jo 
o 3 — 5 

O ^ CO J£ 

^ 1 3,3 w£o £ 


oa © Wo 

New Englahd States: 




New Hampshire 

Rhode Island 


8 1,624 2,269 

15 534 540 

43 3,243 7,893 

14 252 286 

3 439 1,056 

10 128 141 

' 27 






30 177 
33 1,146 
12 13 

Total . 

93 6,220 12,185 384 115 

75 1,6 

Eastern States: 


District of Columbia. 


New Jersey 

New York 



West Virginia 


153 309 

412 1,074 

674 2,143 

1,545 3,286 

5,637 16,851 

4,579 8,732 

590 900 

639 611 











Total 321 14,229 33,906 1,159 180 44 189 3,826 209 

Central States: 





























Total . 

310 16,066 22,503 1,035 110 144 996 3,717 

Southern l 






Mississippi. . . . 
North Carolina . 
South Carolina. 

Total . 

Western States: 









New Mexico. . . . 
North Dakota . . 



South Dakota. . . 



Washington. . . . 





















' ' '2 





































































' ' 3 







' '42 































































201 9,144 9,024 342 170 103 1,449 3,850 

Total, all States 1,029 48,175 81,393 2,9 

582 325 2,721 13,987 


panies, but what is known as a service car on one road 
may be called a freight car or an express car on another 
road. In a few cases, where a company owns a large 
number of freight cars compared with the number of 
passenger cars owned, the total number of such freight 
cars has been intentionally omitted from the table. 
The most notable instances of this are the Chicago Tun- 
nel Company with 3000 "other cars" and the Fort 
Dodge, Des Moines & Southern Railroad with 2300 
"other cars." 

The skip-stop plan, which has been in trial use in 
Buffalo during the past few months, has finally been 
extended to include most of the routes in that city. 
The company states that the change has met with almost 
universal commendation throughout the city, for the 
service has been speeded up and the number of car 
stops has been actually reduced 50 per cent. 

American Association News 

Electric Railway War Board Co-op- 
erating with New York Public Service 
Commission for Second District 

Board Issues Bulletin No. 3 

New York Fuel Economy Campaign 

After Address by C. Loomis Allen of War Board at 
Conference in Albany Resolutions Are Passed 
Requesting Commission to Give Considera- 
tion to Adoption of Staggered Hours of 
Labor and Other Means of 
Conserving Fuel 

AS THE result of a conference on Jan. 3 between 
officials of electric railway lines doing business 
within the jurisdiction of the Public Service Commis- 
sion, Second District, held at the Albany offices of the 
commission, steps have been taken whereunder the con- 
sumption of coal by the seventy-two operating electric 
railways in the State of New York will be greatly 
diminished. The conference was called by the com- 
mission for the purpose of aiding in the nation-wide 
movement for the conservation of fuel. Chairman Van 
Santvoord opened the conference with a short address 
in which he dwelt upon the object of the meeting and 
touched upon the conditions which make it paramount 
that everybody should lend a helping hand in the gen- 
eral conservation movement. 

C. Loomis Allen, director of the American Electric 
Railway Association's War Board at Washington, then 
took the floor. He voiced the warning that unless coal 
is saved there will be a shortage next year. "The pro- 
duction of coal in this country is at its absolue maxi- 
mum," he said. "The output of coal during the year 
1917 was the greatest in the history of the country. 
It cannot be increased. Yet this coming year we must 
add at least 50,000,000 tons to our present output. The 
only way in which we can provide that is not by produc- 
tion but by economy." 

Mr. Allen went on further to state that the electric 
railways of this country are now annually consuming 
about 16,000,000 tons of coal and that of this amount 
they are being asked to save 1,000,000 tons. He then 
cited five principal methods which had been suggested 
in connection with an engineering study which had 
recently been made of the electric railway situation in 
Washington, D. C, and which, it is believed, will result 
in the annual saving of 25,790 tons of coal. These meas- 
ures include the skip or stagger stops, elimination of 
unnecessary car mileage, reduction of heating in the 
cars, a gradation of the dismissal hours of employees in 
large plants and stores, and the operation of both trac- 
tion systems in that city by means of the same power 

At the termination of the hearing a committee was 
appointed which was intrusted with the task of drafting 
resolutions. It was directed to make a thorough investi- 
gation into the means by which savings in coal can be 
effected, and to report its findings at the earliest possible 
date. This committee consisted of : 

Charles R. Barnes, chief of the division of electric 
railways, member ex officio; J. P. Barnes, general man- 
ager Schenectady Railway; H. B. Weatherwax, vice- 
president United Traction Company, Albany; W. H. Col- 
lins, general manager Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville 
Railway, and J. F. Hamilton, New York State Railways, 

The following resolutions recommending the steps to 
be taken by the traction companies within the jurisdic- 
tion of the commission in the matter of the saving of 
fuel were adopted: 

Whereas, The national and state fuel administrations, 
through C. Loomis Allen, director of the American Electric 
Railway Association War Board, have directed the attention 
of the Public Service Commission and the electric railroads 
to the necessity of conserving for war purposes during the 
year 1918 1,000,000 tons of the annual 16,000,000 tons con- 
sumption of coal by electric railways, and 

Whereas, Approximately 200,000 tons of coal are used 
annually by the electric railways of the State of New York 
under the jurisdiction of the Public Service Commission for 
the Second District, and 

Whereas, It is the unanimous opinion of the state and 
federal fuel administrations, the War Board of the Ameri- 
can Electric Railway Association, as well as of the officials 
and representatives of the various electric railroad com- 
panies in the Second Public Service District that one of the 
most effective means which can be employed in the conser- 
vation of energy as requested by the national and state fuel 
administrations and one which will cause the least incon- 
venience in proportion to the results to be obtained, is the 
"staggering" of hours of labor in industrial plants, the em- 
ployees of which are patrons of electric railroads, and 

Whereas, Under the present arrangement of working 
hours of these employees it is in most cases an impossibility 
for the companies to furnish a reasonably adequate service 
during the hours when they desire to travel, and 

Whereas, This is so not only by reason of the limited 
number of cars which companies can furnish but also by 
reason of track limitations preventing the operation of the 
necessary cars, and 

Whereas, With the suggested change in hours of service 
it might be possible to utilize one car to three times its 
present capacity, and 

Whereas, It is believed that the increased convenience to 
the employees of these plants by the change in working 
hours would more than offset any inconvenience which 
might result, and 

Whereas, It is further believed that practical results can 
best be obtained through the co-operative effort of the 
Second District Public Service Commission and the em- 
ployers of labor, now, therefore, be it 

Resolved, That this conference respectfully request the 
Public Service Commission to give immediate consideration 
to the possibilities involved in the above suggestions and to 
take such action as in its judgment may best promise effec- 
tive co-operation by industrial enterprises in the various 
cities within its jurisdiction where the project appears to 
be especially feasible. And be it 

Further Resolved, That this conference assure the Public 
Service Commission of the hearty co-operation of officials 
of electric railroad companies in the Second Public Service 
District in its efforts in this matter. And be it 

Further Resolved, That each electric railway in the Sec- 
ond District of the State of New York furnish to the Public 
Service Commission the names of the industries and the 
approximate number of employees in each where the "stag- 
gered" service would be beneficial and effective. 

January 5, 1918 



Trainmen's Pledges Are Subject of War 
Board's Bulletin No. 3 

On Dec. 20, 1917, Fuel Administrator H. A. Garfield 
addressed to the Electric Railway War Board a letter 
offering to furnish car cards and window posters for use 

in cars operated by men who 
have signed conservation 
'"Phe Motorman pledges. The poster is repro- 

1 ' duced on this page, and the 

car card on page 29 of the 
present issue. Dr. Garfield's 
letter forms the basis of the 
War Board's Bulletin 3, 
which the association is now 
distributing. The bulletin 
also contains the pledge card 
used by the United Railways & 
Electric Company, Baltimore, 
Md. This is substantially the 
same as the Capital Traction 
Company card shown on page 
1121 of the issue of the Elec- 
tric Railway Journal for 
Dec. 22, 1917. 

Inclosed with Bulletin 3 is 
the following suggested form 

'he Motorman 
and Conductor 
of this Car are 
members of the 




and they are Pledged 
to save Electricity 
which means 


War Board A m e i 
Electric Railroad Ask 

car window poster fur- 

fuel administration letter to car crews 

Uncle Sam Wants Us to Save Coal 

The men in the power house are saving every shovelful 
of coal they can to help our fighters. 

The men in the car houses and shops are doing their 
share, too. 

It is up to every motorman to do his part. Every time 
you handle the controller wrong, or blow your breaker, or 
spin your wheels (or skid or flatten them), you waste the 
coal the other fellows are trying to save. Every time you 
keep the current on unnecessarily and then apply the brakes 
instead of coasting, you waste coal. 

Be a coal saver, not a coal waster! 

It's up to every conductor to back up the motorman in 
his efforts to save. See that heat and light are not wasted. 
Handle your passengers and the bell cord so as to help the 
motorman. This will enable him to handle controller and 
brakes most economically. Be careful of your passengers 
and the car equipment. 

Encourage each other — co-operate and help. 

Each one of us must fight, if we are to win. Your fight 
is to save and co-operate. Your enemy is carelessness and 

Get behind our boys, "Over There." 

Fare Situation Discussed at New Haven 

The meeting of the Connecticut Company sec- 
tion, held on Dec. 20, was largely taken up 
with statements regarding the pending hearings be- 
fore the Public Utilities Commission in the matter of 
higher fares. As allowed under the Connecticut law, 
the company some weeks ago raised the urban fares on 
its property to 6 cents, subject to later approval by the 
commission. The hearings are preparatory to action 
by the commission. The speakers at the section meet- 
ing explained how the data had been prepared for con- 
sideration by the commission, and some of the data 
were cited by way of illustration. 

W. J. Flickinzer read the statement which had been 
presented at the hearing by President L. S. Storrs out- 
lining the causes which had led the company to increase 
the flat fare to six cents rather than to secure the in- 
crease by some other method of fare modification. Mr. 
Flickinzer also presented to the section a resume of the 

circumstances which had led to the formation of the 
Electric Railway War Board and explained briefly its 

Mr. Storrs then gave a picture of the state of the 
electric railway industry which, while at present dis- 
couraging in a way, is at the same time promising. He 
felt increasingly optimistic regarding the outlook. 

The meeting, as usual, was preceded by a dinner, en- 
livened with orchestral music and singing. The annual 
election was held also, resulting in the following se- 
lections: President, W. P. Bristol, manager Hartford 
division; vice-president, W. R. Dunham, Jr.; engineer 
maintenance of way; secretary, W. E. Jones, statisti- 
cian; treasurer, George M. Cresson, treasurer's office; 
director for three years, J. M. Hamilton, general agent 
New Haven division. The section decided to make a 
feature of the question-box plan in connection with the 
meeting programs. The membership committee re- 
ported a present membership of 249, including eighteen 
members now with the colors, a slight increase for the 
year in spite of difficulties incident to the war. W. E. 
Jones, secretary, stated that the honor roll of the com- 
pany contains 214 names at present, the total number of 
employees being roughly 4,000. 

Operating Costs Discussed in Portland 

G. Sabin Brush, superintendent of the railway de- 
partment, was the speaker at the meeting of the Cum- 
berland County Power & Light Company section held 
on Dec. 17. Mr. Brush discussed the circumstances of 
the company at the present time relative to the high 
costs of operation. He used charts to compare present 
prices with those of five years ago and also to show the 
various items of expense. Judge William Lyons, one 
of the guests, responded to a request for a short talk 
and spoke on the war. 

A notice was read at the meeting of a correspondence 
course in practical electricity which is being started in 
the power and light departments. The meeting was 
preceded by a dinner from 6 to 8 o'clock, and during 
the evening the section orchestra rendered several se- 
lections, supplemented by piano and cornet solos. 

Turkey Raffle at Chicago Meeting 

G. H. Pierce, of the electrical department, held the 
lucky number entitling him to a live 12-lb. turkey at 
the meeting of the Chicago Elevated Railroads' section 
on Dec. 18. About 100 members and guests listened 
to an instructive program, after which they gathered 
around the refreshment table where apples, doughnuts 
and cider were served. The service flag of the Elevated 
roads was displayed for the first time, showing a total 
of 291 men to be in government service. Recitations 
and a piano solo constituted the entertainment. 

The serious part of the program consisted of a talk 
on "Accounting," by T. B. MacRae, auditor, and a brief 
summary of the results already obtained in the use of 
coasting clocks, by H. A. Johnson, superintendent of 
shops and equipment. Following Mr. Johnson's talk, 
A. H. Daus, assistant superintendent of shops and 
equipment, replied to the inquiry : "Could not the heat 
generated in motor-starting resistance be utilized for 
heating motor cars?" This gave rise to a brief discus- 
sion, from which it appeared that the question deserved 
further study. 



Vol. 51, No. 1 

Letter to the Editor 

Captain Gonzenbach Favors Light Cars 

Somewhere in France, Dec. 15, 1917. 
To the Editors : 

Way over here in France I have come across copies 
of the Electric Railway Journal. I found them in 
the tent of one of our officers. The contents are inter- 
esting reading to me, and strange, too. It looks as if 
the electric railway industry in the States is hitching 
up its trousers and rolling up its sleeves for a new grip 
on itself. It seems mighty good to see "the paper" full 
of arguments for light cars, one-man operation and re- 
engineering, to one who has for years argued these 
points till he was blue in the face. 

Some of the same engineers who are now strong for 
all these things did not hesitate a few years ago to brand 
any one a "crank" who dared to prefer the dinky light 
cars of our early years to the young Pullmans we so 
fondly and blithely ordered from the always obliging car 
builders; and I would mention some boards of directors 
who smiled tolerantly when some non-conformist man- 
ager or engineer impudently suggested dumping the jug- 
gernauts on the scrap heap and starting all over again. 
That would have required lots of new capital, and still 
does, but I suspect that the money could more easily 
have been raised a few years ago than under present 
conditions of the money market, and particularly the 
public-utility market. Ho-hum, the world do move! 

I am sitting in a tent and can hear the guns exchang- 
ing hate as I write. 

Ernest Gonzenbach, 

Captain, E. O. R. C. 

Some Efforts in the Line of 

Coal Shortage Is Stimulating Service Economies — 
Reports from Several Sections of the 
Country Are Given 

THE conservation movement is gaining headway as 
indicated by the activities of railway managers in 
all parts of the country. A few of the most significant 
occurrences of the past few days are summarized below : 

Fuel Economy Committee Appointed in Indiana 

Evans Woollen, federal fuel administrator for the 
State of Indiana, has appointed C. L. Henry, president 
Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Company; Robert I. 
Todd, president Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern 
Traction Company ; S. W. Greenland, general manager 
Fort Wayne & Northern Indiana Traction Company; 
C. N. Wilcoxon, president Chicago, Lake Shore & South 
Bend Railway, and F. J. Haas, general manager Evans- 
ville Public Utilities Company, as a committee on fuel 
economy by electric railways. 

This committee held a meeting with Mr. Woollen on 
Dec. 28 to discuss ways and means of effecting fuel 
economy within the State. At a later meeting Mr. 
Henry was appointed chairman, and H. H. Lloyd, Terre 
Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Company, was 
named as secretary. Suggestions were made to the 

fuel administrator as to several questions which should 
be considered in fuel economy, such as the adoption of 
the skip stop, the elimination of all cars and trains 
unnecessary for public convenience, economy in the 
heating and lighting of cars and stations; the shutting 
down of the smaller, uneconomically operated power 
stations, current to be supplied from the larger gener- 
ating stations. 

Ohio Interurban Railways Are Suspending 
"Limited" Service 

Interurban railways entering Cleveland, Ohio, are 
preparing to reduce passenger service by the suspension 
of as many limited cars as possible. It has been pre- 
dicted that this will take place on all railways in the 
State, as the government has requested curtailment of 
service as a means of conserving coal. Limited cars 
are classed as luxuries and the government authorities 
expect traveling to be done on the local cars. Limited 
cars between Cleveland and Wooster on the Cleveland, 
Southwestern & Columbus were taken off on Dec. 28. 
The service between Cleveland and Bucyrus will not be 
changed for the present. On Jan. 1 all but two limited 
cars were taken off the Cleveland, Painesville & Eastern, 
five cars being taken out of service. 

Several limited cars have been taken off the Lake 
Shore Electric also, but the important through service 
to Toledo and Detroit will be continued. 

Economies at St. Louis and East St. Louis 

In response to requests received by the United Rail- 
ways asking that conservation measures be enforced 
President McCulloch stated as follows : "We are mak- 
ing every effort to comply with the request of the gov- 
ernment but are not able to save much coal at present. 
We are trying to eliminate waste by keeping the boilers 
in the power houses perfectly clean, etc. The supply of 
coal used in the cars has not been cut down. We are 
also trying to refrain from buying any but necessary 
supplies. This part of the conservation program has 
been easier for us to follow and already we have made 
a noticeable difference in the amount of material shipped 
to us." 

Last week D. E. Parsons, general manager East St. 
Louis & Suburban Railway, announced that cars would 
be taken off some lines and the heating of the cars 
would be reduced. Service will probably be reduced 
on the State Street and Cleveland Avenue lines. Stock- 
yards cars will not be run over the Eads Bridge to St. 
Louis and the lone car of the Jones' Park line will no 
longer be operated. The Stockyards cars will be run 
to Third Street and Broadway. Transfers will be issued 
good on cars going over the river. 

I. T. S. Considering Increased Headway 

The Illinois Traction System may annul certain trains 
on a number of divisions of the road. A two-hour 
headway at certain hours of the day instead of hourly 
service is under consideration. Some of the early 
morning cars could also be dispensed with as they are 
poorly patronized, especially in certain seasons of the 

The Chicago (111.) Surface Lines service flag contains 
542 stars. It was hung out of the window of President 
Busby's office on Christmas day for the first time. 

Construction, Maintenance and 


Engineers, Master Mechanics and Others Who Have Developed 
Economical Practices, or Who Have Worth-While Ideas Are Invited 
to Tell Readers of the Journal About Them in This Department 

Dispatching Trucks and Work Trains 

New York State Railways Have Developed a Simple 
but Effective Plan for Increasing Useful Mileage 

By C. L. Cadle 

Chief Engineer New York State Railways, Rochester Lines 

THE same principles that are effective and necessary 
in train and power load dispatching can be applied 
also to the assignment of duty to truck and work train 
crews. The way in which this work is handled by the 
New York State Railways, Rochester lines, is as fol- 
lows : 

The writer is responsible for the proper utilization 
of all repair trucks and work trains on the Rochester 
lines, and deputizes to a special telephone operator the 
authority necessary for the dispatching work in detail. 
This operator does not devote all of his time to dis- 

These are used for routine repair work and are called 
upon to cover all emergency conditions, such as "trolley 
wires down," "cars off the track," "vehicles blocking 
traffic," etc. In addition, there are four service trucks 
engaged in the other duties mentioned above. All of 
these come under the dispatcher's authority, as well 
as two or three, and sometimes four, work trains. 

For emergency operation the line trucks are called 
through the telephones which the company has placed 
at a number of important points, and we also take ad- 
vantage of the friendliness of the public. When a truck 
goes out in the morning the crew advises the dispatcher 
of its prospective location. As soon as it arrives there, 
if there is not a company telephone in reach, the driver 
arranges with the proprietor of a near-by store to call 
him to the telephone in case the dispatcher wants him. 
Seldom is a merchant unwilling to accommodate us in 








patching, but he makes this his first duty and familiar- 
izes himself with the whereabouts of all transporting 
equipment for which he is responsible. The dis- 
patcher's task is to see that supplies are de- 
livered when and where needed, that freight is 
promptly removed from railroad stations or delivered 
thereto, that rubbish is removed from streets at the 
proper time, etc. This involves a general knowledge of 
the requirements of all departments having materials 
to be moved. 

Each day the dispatcher gets from the roadmaster 
and the paving foreman lists of materials which will be 
needed, and where and when these are to be placed. 
The purchasing department furnishes him with the 
facts regarding freight at the railroad stations. The 
building department also specifies its requirements. 
With all of this information before him the dispatcher 
makes out a program for the day. He notifies each 
crew where it is to begin work and from what point 
he shall be called for further instructions. Each eve- 
ning provision is made for moving work gangs to new 
jobs so that they will know where to report in the 

The company has four line trucks assigned regu- 
larly to cover respectively four sections of the city. 

this respect. The driver notifies the dispatcher of the 
merchant's telephone number. In an emergency the 
latter calls two trucks at once by means of those num- 
bers, or on the company's telephones, the first one an- 
swering being sent to the seat of trouble and the other 
being told to continue working. 

All movements of trucks and trains are recorded on 
a large form which is constantly spread before the dis- 
patcher. A part of this is reproduced herewith. 
Thus a complete record is made almost automatically, 
which in itself is an important part of the scheme. 
This record furnishes a commentary upon the auto- 
graphic mileage records made by the trucks and also 
furnishes data for settling disputes as to performance. 

Experience at Rochester with the central control 
scheme has shown that it is quite possible to secure co- 
operation once its advantages are understood. Tact 
and patience are virtues required by the dispatcher, 
but it is easy to convince the men that their interests 
are being safeguarded rather than their rights invaded 
by the plan. The dispatcher is especially effective in 
sending trucks to the spot for emergency repairs, for 
he knows where all of them are at any moment and, in 
a pinch, can send to any point the first truck which he 
can reach regardless of its natural district boundaries. 



Vol. 51, No. 1 

Asphalt Plant Used Also for Car Sand 
Drying to Gain All- Year Use 

Installation of Asphalt Mixer Saves Considerable 
Expense on Both Asphalt and Sand Handling — 
Labor Saved Will Pay for Plant 
the First Year 

By A. E. Harvey 

Superintendent of Way and Structures Kansas City (Mo.) Railways 

BY working out a scheme for utilizing an asphalt 
mixer plant as a car sand dryer during the winter 
months and in non-construction periods in the summer, 
and thus keeping the investment working profitably 
practically all the year, we have been able to justify 
the expenditure for installing a Hetherington & Berner 
asphalt plant in our Southwest Boulevard material 
yard. An arrangement of the plant to allow the use 
of hoisting machines already in service in the storage 
yard in conjunction with the plant has also contributed 
materially to producing such savings in the provision 
of both sand and asphalt as practically to pay for the 
plant the first year. Our average requirements are 
about 5000 sq. yd. of asphalt per month during the 
summer, and 20,000 cu. yd. of sand per year for use in 
the cars. Where twenty-five men were formerly re- 
quired to prepare our asphalt when panning it by hand 
we are now able to handle this work with five men. A 
noticeable labor saving in connection with the sand 
drying has also been realized, since we formerly dried 
the sand in stoves at the division carhouses, and some 
of it in the asphalt pans at the storage yard. 

A compact arrangement of asphalt plant, derrick and 
sand bins has made it possible to run all materials 
through the asphalt plant without handling any of them 
by hand, except for the rolling of the asphalt cans up 
over the heating kettles. These kettles, as well as the 
revolving cylinders in which the sand and grit for 
mixture with the asphalt are heated, are fired with oil 
sprayed through the burners by means of steam from 
a small boiler. The entire plant is motor-driven. After 
being properly heated in the kettles, the asphalt is 
pumped out of these receptacles up into a receiving 
bucket hung on a monorail, which extends over the 
mixer. A motor-driven centrifugal pump is used for 
this purpose and the asphalt is constantly circulated 
through steam-jacketed piping and a by-pass valve at 
the outlet to the bucket, so that it will not become con- 
gealed. The sand and grit for the mix is taken from a 
pile at the rear of the machine and carried by means 
of a bucket conveyor up into the revolving cylinders 
concealed under the large drum hood seen in the pic- 
ture. After being heated sufficiently here the sand is 
elevated from the dump from these cylinders by means 
of another bucket conveyor up into the screen chamber, 
where it is separated into two sizes and discharged into 
the sand hoppers beneath. From these it is drawn by 
gravity into the mixer in measured quantities, while 
the asphalt is poured into the mixer simultaneously 
from the bucket on the monorail seen at the front of 
the plant. After suitable mixing the paving material 
is discharged by gravity into wagons below. 

When using the plant as a sand dryer for car use, 
the sand passes through the plant in the same manner 
as in preparing paving material except that it is dis- 
charged from the sand bunkers by gravity into sand 



bins conveniently located, instead of into the mixer. 
All sand for both purposes is unloaded from the cars 
in which it is brought to the yard by means of a grab 
bucket and motor-driven stiff-leg derrick adjacent to 
the plant. This derrick is also used for various other 
purposes in the yard, so that it is kept in service a large 
part of the time. The capacity of the asphalt plant 
when drying sand for use in the cars is about 100 cu. 
yd. a day. This amount is in excess of the needs of 
the railway, so that an accumulation of sand is readily 
obtained, making it possible to utilize the plant for. the 
purpose for which it was originally designed without 
causing a shortage of sand for car use. The storage 
bins are so located that the sand may be handled en- 
tirely by mechanical means from the cars in which it 
arrives at the yard, through the plant, and from the 
storage bins into the work cars for distribution to the 
various division carhouses. 

The asphalt plant, without the derrick, which was 
already a part of the yard equipment, was installed in 
the yard on concrete piers at a cost of approximately 
$10,000. The saving in labor the first year will prac- 
tically pay for the plant. 

Electrical Interlock for Use with Folding 
Car Steps 

A NUMBER of cars of the International Railway in 
Buffalo, N. Y., have been fitted with a home- 
made electrical interlock like that shown in the accom- 
panying photograph. It consists of a pair of standard 


January 5, 1918 



controller fingers supported on brass blocks which in 
turn are mounted on a block of wood. The brass blocks 
form the terminals of a loop from the resistor circuit of 
the control system. Brass stops are mounted as shown 
to permit adjustment of the spring tension by means of 
the set screws. The contact fingers are bridged by 
means of a brass, wedge-shaped contact block mounted 
on the end of a wooden rod which is retracted when- 
ever the step is down. 

The contactor is inclosed in a wooden box, 8 in. long 
and 7 in. wide, lined with asbestos board. This is sur- 
rounded by another box 20 in. long, 9% in- wide, 5Va in. 
deep, with cover, in one end of which is the guide for 
the step rod. 

Reclaiming Warped Resistance Grids 

By W. H. McAloney 

Superintendent of Rolling Stock Denver (Col.) Tramway 

MANY resistance grids which are broken or badly 
warped can be reclaimed to make savings which 
represent quite a considerable proportion of the cost of 
new grids. On our system the broken grids are re- 
claimed by welding, which is a rather simple process. 
We have also devised a scheme for reclaiming warped 
grids by heating them with current and holding them 
in proper position while they cool. 


The rig fixed up for doing this work is shown in the 
accompanying illustration. A piece of y 2 -in. transite 
board, 13 in. wide and 48 in. long, reinforced on the 
back with a ^-in. iron plate, is equipped with %-in. 
bolts properly spaced so that three grids can be bolted 
on the board at one time. The proper spacing between 
adjacent segments of the grids is maintained by in- 
serting No. 8-32 machine screws as spacers. These pro- 
ject through the transite and into a %-in. fiber strip on 
the back, which is used in order to make the threads 

An arm made of V2-in. x 3-in. transite, 36 in. long, is 
hinged at one end of the board and clamped down at the 
other, thereby holding the grids firmly against the 
board. Electrical connection is made by means of cop- 
per connecting strips on the back of the board. A cur- 
rent of about 250 amp. is maintained for approximately 
thirty seconds through the three grids in series. This 
brings the grids to a red heat, and as they are held' 
firmly in position while they cool off they remain per- 
manently in a plane. 

In the illustration, the middle grid is warped, typical 
of the condition before reclaiming, while the one at the 

left shows the result of this reclaiming process. The 
cost of doing this work, including energy and labor, 
amounts to only 3 or 4 cents, as against a present net 
cost of 14 cents to 28 cents for a new grid, depending 
on the size. 

Developments in Electrical Apparatus 
During 1917 

Development Work Has Suffered Owing to Conges- 
tion of Orders for Standard Apparatus 

THE Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Com- 
pany has prepared a comprehensive review of the 
manufacturing and engineering situation in this field 
during the last year. From this review the following 
paragraphs have been abstracted. 

Power Generation and Distribution 

The demand for underfeed stokers has been greater 
than was anticipated, most of the stokers for new plants 
being for use with relatively large boiler units. The 
1200-hp. to 1400-hp. sizes are popular. In a plant at 
Windsor, W. Va., which will be described in a later is- 
sue of the Electric Railway Journal, stokers of this 
type have been installed to evaporate 100,000 lb. of 
water each per hour from 100 deg. feed-water tempera- 
ture to steam at 250 lb. gage pressure, superheated to 
250 deg. For two hours these stokers can cause an evap- 
oration of 120,000 lb. per hour. The company finds a 
demand for the Roney stokers which is still ahead of 
available production. Most of these, however, are for 
small industrial plants. 

In generating equipment the most notable feature 
has been the increasing use of hydroelectric power, 
stimulated by the high cost of coal. During the year the 
Montana Power Company has installed four 12,000-kva. 
vertical units at Holter, Mont., very largely to supply 
power for the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul electrifica- 
tion. The high cost of materials, labor, etc., has also 
stimulated the use of synchronous condensers for power 
factor correction and voltage regulation. This it has 
done because the installation of such apparatus saves an 
increase in transmission line copper, or allows addi- 
tional load to be taken on a given line. 

The outstanding feature of the switchboard business 
has been the continued purchase of switch gear of great 
initial and ultimate capacity. A number of 150,000- 
volt outdoor oil circuit breakers of rupturing capacity 
far in advance of anything heretofore within the limits 
of high-voltage breakers have been completed. These 
breakers have round instead of elliptical tanks, domed 
instead of almost flat tops, and are of rolled steel con- 

Among other developments worthy of mention are the 
frame-mounted, indoor and outdoor high-powered steel 
tub 73,000-volt breaker, the combination 37,500-volt and 
132,000-volt outdoor single-pole disconnecting switches 
and choke coils all on a common base, :arrd.rthie.?6fi;Q00- 
volt post-type bus supports and disconnecting switches. 
There has also been developed a very compact drum type 
of circuit breaker controller. A number of outdoor 
switch houses have been installed to control circuits up 
to 6600 and 11,000 volts, a considerable increase in volt- 
age over previous practice. The Westinghouse Company 
has also developed a control equipment for automatic 
rotary converter substations. ,.. , . , 



Vol. 51, No. 1 

For the protection of apparatus on railway cars fur- 
ther developments have been made in the use of con- 
densers by surrounding them with molded insulating 
cases impervious to moisture. The capacity has been 
increased to 1 microfarad in all forms of arresters (for 
pole mounting as well as car mounting) giving a static 
discharge capacity said to be sufficient to take care of 
the worst conditions found in practice. 

During the year the company has added to its line 
of motors a new type, No. 577, having a rating of 200 
hp. at 600 volts. This motor is especially suited for 
heavy subway service and is a striking contrast to the 
"Wee" motor. The H.S. and H.S.D. types of control 
have been combined into a one-piece outfit for economy 
of space and simplicity of wiring and mounting. 

Regeneration has been extended to ordinary inter- 
urban applications, especially in locomotive service, and 
it is expected that this development will rapidly expand. 

Steam Railroad Electrification 

The past year has seen considerable detail develop- 
ment and improvement in apparatus pertaining to elec- 
trification of steam railroads. The company has de- 
veloped a very powerful split-phase locomotive which 
weighs 250 tons complete, has a horsepower capacity of 
4800 and a maximum tractive effort of 130,000 lb., all 
concentrated in one single cab unit. The locomotive 
contains a synchronous phase converter by means of 
which 100 per cent power factor can be obtained. This 
eliminates some of the line losses encountered with the 
induction type of phase converters. 

The high-voltage direct-current system has also re- 
ceived attention and a high-powered passenger locomo- 
tive was designed. This will be rated at 4000 hp. and 
the starting tractive effort will be 112,000 lb. The total 
weight will be 266 tons. This engine will also be a 
single cab unit. 

Cooling" Water for Power Plant 

New Type of Adjustable Spray Head — Nozzles 
Should Be Kept as Low as Possible — Efficiency 
Increases with Increase in Pressure and 
Decrease in Capacity 

EXPERIMENTS to ascertain the conditions govern- 
ing the cooling of water by means of spray ponds, 
involving the efficiency of the cooling process under 
varying conditions of pressure at the spray nozzles, 
temperature of water to be cooled, power applied to the 
pump, and height of sprays above the pond, have been 
conducted by the department of engineering of The 
Johns Hopkins University. The pond used was 35 ft. 
in diameter and 4 ft. deep and the water was ordinarily 
sprayed through one spray head, or nozzle. A motor- 
driven centrifugal pump with 4-in. suction and dis- 
charge was used to send the water through the con- 
denser tube to the spray head. The pressure of the 
spray head was in all cases measured by means of a 
mercury column connected to the entrance of the spray- 
ing device. Wind velocity was measured on a standard 
anemometer and the humidity by means of a wet-and- 

* Abstract of paper delivered before annual meeting of American 
Hoelety of Mechanical Engineers, by Carl C. Thomas. 

dry-bulb sling psychrometer. The amount of water 
circulated was measured over a 10-in. weir, fitted with; 
a micrometer hook gage. About 600 tests were made. 

The adjustable spray head used in most of the tests 
consisted of a cast-iron supporting base containing the 
water-entry opening, and carrying a Sy^-m. outside 
diameter bronze tube in which was cut a spiral opening 
of coarse pitch. This opening was cut with a tool 
placed at an angle of about 60 deg., with the axis of 
the tube so that the water was thrown up at this angle. 
The spiral tube was held between the base and a cap 
which fitted the top by means of a central bronze stem. 
This passed down to a close clearance bushing in the 
base. The stem was movable and operated through a bell- 
crank and an extended vertical arm, giving accurate 
control of the position of the stem. The result of the 
motion was to either increase or decrease the fineness 
of the film of water as it left the spray head. When the 
head was in operation, the water was discharged in a 
continuous sheet in a direction which inclined upward, 
due to the angle of the spiral opening. As the water 
film spread, it became thinner on account of its increase 
in diameter until a point was reached where the surface 
tension was overcome, and the sheet of water broke 
into a uniformly fine spray, a mist or a large number 
of small drops, depending upon the size of opening to 
which the spray had been adjusted. This principle of 
spraying a liquid as a result of the spreading of a film 
of water until it breaks into mists, or spray, or fine 
drops, is particularly applicable to low-pressure work. 
The pressures used in the experiments described are 
relatively low, being in general from 5 in. to 8 in. of 

It was desired to ascertain, among other things, the 
effect of placing a wire fly-screen cylinder about the 
spray head, and many of the tests were so made. Under 
some conditions this screen seemed to improve the ef- 
ficiency, but in general it was not found to be necessary. 

The efficiency of a cooling pond or tower may be ex- 
pressed as a ratio between the cooling actually pro- 
duced and that which would have resulted from cooling 
the water down to the dew-point or wet-bulb tempera- 
ture. A perfect spray cooling device would be one 
capable of subdividing the water so that evaporation 
would take place at the dew-point and to an extent such 
as to lower the pressure of the remaining liquid spray 
to that temperature. 

Experiments were made at three initial temperatures, 
namely, 98, 105 and 125 deg. Fahr., adjusting the spray 
head to suit the weather conditions. The results show 
that the efficiency increases with an increase in pres- 
sure, and with a decrease in capacity, and that the in- 
crease in efficiency is slightly less for temperatures of 
105 and 125 deg. than for a temperature of 98 deg. 

Tests made to obtain the efficiencies with water falling 
upon the bare cement bottom of the pond as compared 
with those resulting when the pond contained its nor- 
mal amount of water were rather surprising in their 
results, showing efficiencies of from 15 to 20 per cent 
less for the former. If a bare pond would serve as well 
as one containing water, the construction of the pond 
could be cheapened since less weight would come upon 
the foundation and less material would be required for 
the pond as a whole. 

The average evaporation may probably be taken at 
about 2 1 / 4 per cent. This will, of course, vary with 

January 5, 1918 



weather conditions, initial temperature of water, pres- 
sure at the nozzle, and humidity. A large number of 
tests made with water at high and low initial tempera- 
tures indicated that 2 to 2% per cent per hour repre- 
sents fairly well the average loss of water, but that it 
may be as low as one-half of 1 per cent and in windy 
weather as high as 10 per cent. 

The power required to circulate the water was de- 
termined by experiments made on a 40-ft. x 60-ft. pond 
equipped with two sets of nozzles. One set consisted 
qf forty-two non-adjustable, spiral-core nozzles and the 
other set of twelve adjustable spray heads. The power 
appears to be practically independent of the type of 
spraying device used. The cooling seems to be prin- 
cipally dependent upon the energy put into forcing the 
water through some suitable spraying aevice, and, given 
the requisite energy, a great variety of forms of noz- 
zles would yield about equally good results. The ad- 
justable spray head has many operating advantages, 
some of which are the ease with which the heads can 
be kept clean, and the possibility of regulation of the 
spray to suit weather conditions and to minimize loss 
of water in windy weather. Each head will handle from 
150 to 250 gal. per minute, making the cost of piping 
small, and will take care of the condensing water for a 
50 to 75-kw. plant. 

The height of spray nozzles above the surface of the 
pond has an important effect upon the cooling of the 
water. Experiments made in a small pond and in three 
larger installations have shown that the nozzles should 
be kept as low as possible. In the experimental pond 
heights from 8 ft. down to 3 ft. have been used and in 
larger ponds from 6 ft. down to 3 ft. A loss of several 
degrees results from placing the nozzle high above the 
pond due to the fact that a given pump placed in a 
certain relation to the surface of the pond will deliver 
a smaller amount of water to a high level than to a low 
level, and this smaller amount will leave the condenser 
at a higher temperature than would the larger amount 
of water. Also, with a given amount of power at the 
pump, less energy will be available for breaking up the 
water if the nozzle is placed high than if it is placed 
low, and it appears that minute subdivision of the 
water is more important than is a long path through 
the air. 

With a given adjustable spray head, as the spiral 
opening is made wider the degree of atomization and 
resulting cooling are reduced. This is advantageous in 
that in windy weather very good cooling can be obtained 
when spraying a very large amount of water per noz- 
zle and loss of water due to windage can thus be greatly 
reduced. Very good cooling effects are frequently ob- 
tained in very humid and even in rainy weather. Also 
the cooling effect seems to bear no direct relation to 
humidity, but to depend largely upon conduction of 
heat from the air, and it varies directly with the fine- 
ness of subdivision of the water particles. 

The New York State Railways, Syracuse, N. Y., is 
rearranging the lighting on fifteen of its interurban 
cars, a row of ten 94-watt tungsten lamps being placed 
along the center line of the ceiling, seven lamps in 
the main compartment and three in the smoking com- 
partment. The result is a very satisfactory distribu- 
tion of light. On the platforms 23-watt Mazda lamps 
will be used in series with the gage lamps. 

New Sander Designed to Prevent Causes 
of Stoppage 

THE effect of atmospheric conditions upon track 
sand, one of the common causes of stoppage in Sand- 
ers, has been overcome in the Reliance sander produced 
by Holden & White, Inc., Chicago, by placing a valve 
at the bottom of the sand chamber to prevent contact 
of the atmosphere with the sand. This sander is in- 
stalled in the usual manner at the bottom of the sand 
hopper and is operated by the motorman with the ordi- 
nary sander valve. With this device, when air is ad- 
mitted a small plunger is forced downward, opening a 
valve at the base of the sand chamber and allowing the 
sand to drop by gravity into the pipe leading to the 
track. Air is admitted simultaneously to the main pipe 
or hose, serving to force the sand to the track. As air 
pressure is not applied directly to the sand in the sand 
chamber, there is no tendency to produce a sand blast, 
and since contact with the air and atmosphere is pre- 
vented, the sand remains perfectly dry. 


The Reliance sander is designed to deliver any amount 
of sand up to 22 lb. per minute, and it is claimed it will 
force the sand around bends in the pipe. Installations, 
of the device have been made -by the Chicago, North 
Shore & Milwaukee Railroad, the Michigan Railway, 
the Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Company, the 
Chicago & West Towns and other railways, and from 
the experience of these roads it is understood that it 
has proved satisfactory in handling wet sand and that 
no trouble has been had from clogging. The sander is 
made of bronze and malleable iron, and weighs 2 lb. 
It is easy to install and can be used on a car where the 
sand hopper is not placed over the wheels. 

Storage Rack for Wooden Car-Repair Parts 

IN the shops of the New York State Railways, Syra- 
cuse, N. Y., a series of wall racks have been installed 
in the erecting shop for the storage of standard wooden 
pieces required in car repairs. 

This procedure has resulted in great saving of time 
in making such repairs, as the foreman is able to de- 
termine at a glance whether a reasonable stock of each 
piece is on hand and thus keep the stock up to require- 
ments. Proper labeling of the sections of the racks 
makes possible the selection of the proper piece for a 
given repair on any type of car by workmen who may 



Vol. 51, No. 1 

be unfamiliar with the details of the car construction. 
The racks are arranged for vertical storage of pieces to 
economize space and prevent warping. 

Retaining a Record of Transfers 

Adaptation of Cash Fare Receipt Box to Transfers 
Gives Very Simple and Inexpensive System of 
Checking Back — Large Part of Waste 

THE Macdonald Ticket & Ticket Box Company, 
Cleveland, Ohio, has brought out an adaptation of 
its well-known cash fare receipt box for use in issuing 
transfers on city lines. The arrangement consists of 
one of the standard holders in which the printed trans- 
fer slips are inserted and which is equipped with five 
movable pointers determining the hour, minute, day of 
the week, week of the month and whether issued in the 
morning or afternoon. On the printed transfer are in- 
cluded the name of the company at the top, a space in 
which special conditions of transfer may be printed, 
the name of the car line from which the transfer is 
issued and the name of the month. A serial number in 
red is also printed on each transfer. 

In issuing transfers the conductor simply has to set 
the pointers and tear off the printed slip. This leaves 
a stub giving a duplicate record of the transfer issued, 
which is retained in the folder and turned in by trips 
at the end of the run. A slight pressure on the back 
of the holder draws the points of paper left under the 
pointers when a transfer is torn off, back into the 
holder, thus retaining 'the record and clearing the cut- 
ters for the next transfer. Since the hour pointer is 
moved but once an hour, the day-of-the-week pointer but 
once a day, and the week-of-the-month pointer but once 
a week, it leaves only the minute pointer as an active 
one which the conductor must watch. 

It is claimed that this form of transfer prevents illegal 
transfer sale or "trading," since the time indicated on 
the audit stub retained in the holder must correspond to 
the running schedule time. In order either to sell or 
trade transfers, it is necessary to date the transfer 
issued in advance, and, of course, if the stubs or trans- 
fers issued were all in advance of the regular schedule 
time, it would give ample evidence of manipulation. 

Another advantage claimed for the transfer is that 
all the information which the receiving conductor re- 
quires is to be found in a single line on the left edge 
of the paper. In view of the fact that the device has 
but one really active pointer, it is said that it may be 



operated with a speed equal to a one-punch transfer. 
With transfers which have the date printed on, the 
wastage is naturally considerable on account of the im- 
possibility of estimating closely the requirements of any 
particular day. Under this Macdonald scheme only the 
month is printed in, thus saving a large part of the 
wastage, since it is possible to estimate much more 
closely the requirements throughout a month than the 
daily consumption. This scheme also eliminates the loss 
where transfers have only the day of the month printed 
and the unused transfers are returned for use the cor- 
responding date on the next month, thus involving a 
cost of filing and a loss due to passengers retaining 
their unused transfers for thirty, sixty or ninety days, 
or until such time as they can be used. 

The principal value of this system of transfers, how- 
ever, lies in the possibility it gives to the auditing 
department to check up on a suspected conductor's work 
at a cost only a small part of that involved in checking 
under ordinary systems. For example, under present 
conditions it is usually necessary to gather all the trans- 
fers collected and returned for the day. Then the open- 
ing and closing numbers for the particular conductor 
are noted and a search begins. Each transfer issued 
by this conductor must be segregated, and then filed in 
numerical order. Then those issued for each trip must 
again be segregated and the punch marks checked 
against the running schedule time. In an average city 
where the number of transfers turned in in a day is 
around 100,000, it is easily appreciated what magnitude 
there is to this task, which, of course, multiplies rapidly 
as the size of the city increases. 

Under this record-retaining system of transfers, it 
is not necessary to segregate the passengers' portions 
of the transfers, as these are only a duplicate of the 
audit stubs returned after each trip by the conductors. 
Thus it is only necessary to collect together the turn- 
ins from the various trips of the conductor in question 
for each day to make a complete check. The simplicity 
of this work practically eliminates the excessive cost of 
segregation which has prevailed on most properties 
when it was desired to make a check on the misuse of 
transfers, thereby making it possible to conduct a much 
more thorough supervision of the daily income than is 
now practicable. 

Jarmary 5, 1918 



Spokane Line Car Has Air-Operated 

AN air-operated tower is the feature of the line car 
operated by the Washington Water Power Com- 
pany, Spokane, Wash. The raising and lowering mech- 
anism is actuated by an air cylinder, 10 in. in diameter 
and 7 ft. long, which receives its pressure directly from 
the air-brake system through control valves located in 
both ends of the car. The cylinder has by-pass ports to 
prevent the tower from being raised to too great a 


height. The air pressure will hold the tower with two 
men working on it for twenty minutes, but chains are 
used to take the weight off the cylinder if a longer job 
is to be done. 

The working platform of the tower is 14 ft. x 4 ft., 
and is mounted on roller bearings so that it can be 
swung around by one man. The roof of the car is 
decked over with V2-in. planks to form an additional 
platform so that the crew can work from any point 
on the car. 

More Brains Needed in the Boiler Room 

IN response to a request from the Bureau of Mines to 
a number of prominent fuel engineers for sugges- 
tions on coal conservation, Martin A. Rooney of Detroit, 
Mich., said among other things: 

"At best one-fifth of all of our coal is wasted, and it 
is shamelessly and needlessly wasted. Instruments and 
machinery for getting out all the heat that there is in 
the coal are not nearly so complicated or expensive as 
the cash register used to keep tab on cash receipts in 
a store, or as the motor truck. Carbon dioxide, tem- 
perature and draft are subjects easier to comprehend 
than bank discount or freight rates. 

"The time is coming when the government is going 
to limit the supply of coal, and fuel will be denied to 
those who cannot show that it is going to be used ef- 
ficiently. Let the government show the patriotic coal 
user how to conserve this most important material. 
Let us send into our furnace and boiler rooms men who 
can show our engineers and firemen how to burn their 
fuel with the least waste, as we have sent them among 
our fields and orchards to show the farmer how to in- 
crease the productivity of the soil." 

New Reduced-Height Truck for Low 
Level Cars 

TO meet the growing demand for a truck suitable to 
be used with the latest types of extremely low level 
cars, either center- or end-entrance, the Taylor Electric 
Truck Company, Troy, N. Y., is building a new light- 
weight truck which has several features especially to 
commend it for such service. The new truck, called the 
Taylor R. H. (reduced height) truck, is built along 
lines similar to the company's L. B. truck and is 
designed to receive the inside-hung so-called "Baby" or 
"Wee" motors. Although no part of the truck is closer 
to the ground than any part of the L. B.-type truck, the 
height of the center plate has been reduced about 6 in., 
making possible a very low step from the pavement to 
the floor of the entrance well. The compact arrange- 
ment of all the parts affords ample clearance between 
the top of the rails or pavement and the lowest part of 
the truck so that the car will not be stalled by obstruc- 
tions in the street. This feature, of course, is impor- 
tant in operation in congested districts and especially 
during the snow season. Safety for high-speed service 
is obtained by the use of a twisted bottom bar which 
prevents any portion of the swing bale link or bolster 
from dropping in case of fracture. 

The pedestal is of a new type to receive the same 
size journal spring over the journal box as that used on 
the L. B. truck. This spring is designed entirely to 
absorb the shock due to pounding on rail joints and 
special work, and thereby to eliminate the objections to 
the arch-bar type of truck which has only spiral springs 
for the riding of the car body. By the use of the Tay- 
lor continuous one-piece bale hanger the end surging 
or shucking motion of the truck, which is produced by 
the sudden stopping or starting of the car, is largely 
overcome. The bale hanger is supported on U-shaped 


hangers placed between the side bars of the main frame 
of the truck, and full elliptic springs used for the rid- 
ing of the car produce the same riding qualities as the 
S. B. and L. B. types. 

Special attention has been given to designing the 
brakes. The live and dead brake levers and brake hang- 
ers have ample clearances and are made without off- 
sets to give a straight-line action and thus eliminate 
the twisting strains when the brakes are applied. The 
brake is released by adjustable flat brake release 
springs and the shoes are fitted to wear even with the 
periphery of the wheel. 

This truck is equipped with a Taylor wrought steel 
bolster, self-lubricating center plates, adjustable side 
bearings and renewable wearing shims on the ped- 



Vol. 51, No. 1 

Recent Happenings in Great Britain 

Scarcity of Materials and Labor Leads Board of Trade to Appoint a 
Committee to Deal With Shortages — Government Tramway 
Direction Likely 

(From Our Regular Correspondent) 

It is officially announced that, in 
view of the difficulty of meeting the 
demands for various materials and for 
labor required for the maintenance and 
renewal of the permanent way and 
rolling stock of the tramway under- 
takings in Great Britain, the Board of 
Trade is appointing a committee to 
consider the needs of these undertak- 
ings, so that the necessary steps may 
be taken to supply, as far as possible, 
such needs, even at some temporary 
sacrifice by less essential undertak- 

How Members Will Be Appointed. — 
The Municipal Tramways Association 
and the Tramways & Light Railways 
Association have been invited to nomi- 
nate members of the committee, and 
the board has asked the London County 
Council to allow A. L. C. Fell, the man- 
ager of the Council tramways, to serve 
on it. This request has been granted. 
James Devonshire has been invited to 
be chairman of the committee. The 
London County Council, however, has 
announced its disapproval of that ap- 
pointment. It considers the selection 
of an interested chairman to be unfor- 
tunate. It is also understood that J. 
B. Hamilton, general manager of the 
Leeds tramways, will serve on the com- 
mittee. He will probably abandon the 
Admiralty work with which he has 
been connected for the last year or 
two. J. M. McElroy, general manager 
of the Manchester Tramways, will also 
serve on the board. He will probably 
have to abandon the other Government 
work in which he has been engaged for 
some time. 

Severe Shortage of Material. — The 
principal difficulty in the way of the 
maintenance of efficient tramway facil- 
ities throughout the country is the lack 
of material for repairs and renewal. 
A general rearrangement and redis- 
tribution of rolling stock and other 
plant has become necessary in order 
to maintain adequate traveling facili- 
ties in areas and districts where large 
numbers of people are engaged on 
work of national importance in con- 
nection with the war. 

Government Direction Likely. — The 
matter has been under the considera- 
tion of the Board of Trade and the 
Ministry of Munitions, and these Gov- 
ernment departments have consulted 
representatives of the various tram- 
way organizations. The result of the 
deliberations is understood to be that 
the Government proposes to assume di- 
rection of all the tramways, which will 
be run, as the railways are now run, 
principally in the national interest. 
The pooling of resources will permit 
special facilities to be provided in se- 
lected districts. The actual working 
of the systems will be left in the hands 
of the present officials, but the board 
will have the power to order curtail- 

ment or rearrangement of services or 
redistribution of plant and appliances 
where required. 

Cars and Materials to Be Concen- 
trated. — It is understood that it will 
be the policy of the new board to con- 
centrate available rolling stock and ma- 
terials in the districts where the con- 
tinuance of a frequent service of cars 
is essential. To do this it will probably 
be necessary to curtail the service on 
other routes to a considerable extent, 
even in districts where the volume of 
traffic at present may be both heavy 
and profitable. The expectation is that 
residential districts will suffer except 
in cases where they are served by the 
same cars that run to munition areas. 

Adequate Power Supply Needed 

The Lord Provost of Glasgow and 
W. W. Lackie, the general manager 
and engineer of the Corporation Elec- 
tricity Department, have given evi- 
dence in London before the committee 
on electric power supplies of the Board 
of Trade. That committee was ap- 
pointed to consider what steps should 
be taken to ensure an adequate and 
economical supply of electrical power 
for all classes of consumers in the 
United Kingdom, particularly indus- 
tries which depend on a cheap supply 
of power for their development. Re- 
cently the Town Council agreed to 
authorize the witnesses to state that 
if it was ultimately determined to di- 
vide the country into areas for the 
purpose of generating electricity, and 
an area was created for Glasgow and 
the Clyde and places adjacent, the 
Corporation was prepared to become 
the generating authority for such area, 
provided the terms and conditions upon 
which it was required to do so would 
not be detrimental to the city and its 
existing electrical undertaking. 

Additional War Bonus Awarded 

The committee on production has 
awarded an additional war bonus of 4s. 
a week, payable at the rate of 8d. a 
day, to the drivers and conductors, 
male and female, of the London & 
Provincial Union of Licensed Vehicle 
Workers. The committee has also 
granted an advance of 4s. a week in 
the wages of all drivers and conduc- 
tors and the inside staffs of the Met- 
ropolitan Electric Tramways, Ltd., the 
South Metropolitan Electric Tramways 
& Lighting Company, Ltd., and the 
London United Tramways, Ltd. 

Croydon Goes Behind 

The Croydon tramways and elec- 
tricity undertakings, which in the past 
have relieved the, rates considerably, 
show deficits of £1,633 and £1,690 re- 
spectively on last year's working. War 
allowances to tramway employees in 
the forces absorbed £5,824. 

Need for Higher Fares 

The London United Tramways has 
intimated to the districts through 
which its lines pass that it is going 
to apply to Parliament for an Act ask- 
ing to be relieved from the restrictions 
imposed on the company with regard 
to fares, so that it can raise them, and 
also for power to abandon some por- 
tions of its lines in Middlesex and 

Transfer Changes Beneficial 

The highways committee of the Lon- 
don County Council, reporting on fare 
changes and transfer facilities on the 
tramways, says that as a result of al- 
tered arrangements brought into oper- 
ation early in October, facilities af- 
forded to passengers in 1915 have been 
restored, but on a more extensive basis. 
The alteration has been effected with 
the primary object of recovering the 
necessary degree of control over the 
traffic. One important effect of the 
alteration has been a considerable re- 
duction in the number of sections on 
the tickets. The committee adds that 
it is satisfactory to note that the al- 
teration is having the effect of im- 
proving the carrying capacity of the 
tramways by acceleration of the 

220 Women Drivers in Glasgow 

More than sixteen municipal tram- 
way undertakings throughout the 
country employ women drivers. Glas- 
gow has 220 of them. The highways 
committee of the London County Coun- 
cil, which has collected the facts, is 
shortly to consider a proposal to use 
women on the front platform. Women 
conductors have been employed for 
some time. The new Board of Trade 
committee has been asked to consider 
the feasibility of using the trams for 
carrying parcels, as in Bradford, and, 
to some extent, Leeds, the Potteries, 
and other places, and perhaps even for 
the carriage of mail bags. 

Advance Asked in Newcastle 

At a meeting of the tramway com- 
mittee of the Newcastle Corporation 
a deputation of tramway workers, 
headed by the president of the New- 
castle branch of the Tramway & Ve- 
hicle Workers' Union, waited on the 
committee in respect of an application 
for an advance of 5s. a week for motor- 
men and conductors; 2s. 6d. a week for 
women conductors and cleaners, and 2s. 
6d. a week for lads of eighteen and 
under working as conductors. The ap- 
plication was referred to a sub-commit- 
tee for consideration. 

Many Other Pressing Problems. — The 
tramways committee is faced with 
many problems of importance at the 
present time. Pressure is continually 
being brought to bear upon the man- 
agement for an increased service of 
cars for workmen, a great proportion 
of whom live far from their work. An- 
other problem the management has to 
deal with is the difficu^y of maintain- 
ing a regular service of cars in the 
winter time, when driving is always 
more difficult. A. C. S. 

News of the Eledric Railways 


Toledo Report Will Be Made to New Mayor 

New Ordinance and Report in Type Awaiting Final Amendment and 
Signature of Mr. Doherty 

The final report of the Street Rail- 
way Commission of Toledo, Ohio, will 
be made to Mayor Cornell Schreiber, 
successor of Charles M. Milroy. This 
was indicated by a note written to 
Mayor Milroy on Dec. 27, in which it 
was claimed that Henry L. Doherty had 
sought to reopen some of the features 
of the agreement which had been made 
between him and the commission. The 
note is as follows: 

"The Toledo Street Railway Commis- 
sion had hoped and expected to make 
a report to you, as Mayor, including 
an ordinance agreed upon by both par- 
ties after long negotiation with Henry 
L. Doherty. 

"The agreement between Mr. Doherty 
and the commission was reached on 
Oct. 13, 1917, and the ordinance and a 
report addressed to you were ordered 
printed and were given to the printer 
at once. 

"For weeks the ordinance and report 
have been in type awaiting Mr. Do- 
herty's signature. Just recently Mr. 
Doherty has sought to reopen negotia- 
tions by objecting to some of the pro- 
visions to which he had already agreed. 

"This has delayed our report and 
necessitates further postponement, and 
the making of a final report to your 
successor, who will have to deal with 
the street railway situation. 

"The commission desires to thank 
you sincerely for your uniform cour- 
tesy and ready disposition to help in 
every way." 

The members of the Toledo commis- 
sion are: Johnson Thurston, president; 
E. P. Usher, Nat C. Wright and N. D. 

Personnel of Original Commission 

Originally this commission, appointed 
soon after Mr. Milroy took his seat 
two years ago, was a committee, con- 
sisting of Carl Spitzer, James Thomp- 
son, Henry L. Doherty, Edward Usher, 
Johnson Thurston, N. D. Cochran, Nat 
C. Wright, R. C. Patterson and the 
Mayor himself. Mr. Cochran refused 
to sit with the committee as long as 
Mr. Doherty was a member, so Mr. 
Doherty withdrew. Then a sub-com- 
mittee, consisting of Messrs. Cochran, 
Wright, Thurston and Usher, was 
named. When the sub-committee re- 
ported a community of interest plan, 
it was proposed that a street railway 
commission be established. Messrs. 
Spitzer, Thompson and Patterson 
thereupon resigned, leaving the sub- 
committee as the commission. 

The Toledo Times contends that the 
members of the original committee and 
of the commission were named while 
Mayor Milroy was still a private citi- 
zen and that neither has a legal stand- 
ing. If this is correct, it cannot bind 
the city to any action that may have 
been taken or may be taken in the 
future. This paper asks who is going 
to pay the expenses of the commission 
and what is proposed to be done 
about it. 

Mayor Schreiber Will Decide 

Since the whole matter now goes 
over to Cornell Schreiber, whose term 
began the first of the year, he will have 
the task of straightening out the mud- 
dle in which the street railway ques- 
tion and the community plan are in- 
volved. As city solicitor some years 
ago, Mr. Schreiber had considerable 

experience in street railway matters. 
What his attitude toward the com- 
munity plan may be is not known, but 
his friends assert that he will take a 
reasonable and proper course in his 
efforts to secure a settlement. 

Mr. Doherty Seeks Revision 

At a conference recently it seems 
that Henry L. Doherty asked for a re- 
vision of some of the technical features 
of the condemnation clause in the pro- 
posed community plan, and that the 
request was refused. Johnson Thurs- 
ton is said to be responsible for the 
course matters took, and Mr. Doherty 
declared that unless he changes his at- 
titude and his tactics there is little hope 
of a peaceful settlement. 

Mr. Doherty has asked for a confer- 
ence with the entire commission, which 
now consists of the four men named 
and Mayor Milroy. 

Recently the Toledo Times reprinted 
from the New York Sun the article on 
the community plan to which reference 
is made on page 56 in this issue. 

Eighty-two Miles of Rapid Transit Lines 

The Year 1917 Represented the Largest Single Increase in New Rapid 
Transit Facilities in New York Since 1904, When First 
Subway Was Opened 

Many of the new rapid transit lines 
of the dual rapid transit system in New 
York not yet in service will be placed 
in operation during 1918. It is believed 
that unless undue delays occur in the 
delivery of materials, it will be pos- 
sible to have upwards of 85 per cent 
of the total track mileage of the new 
lines of the system in operation by 
Dec. 31, 1918. Most of the remaining 
lines will probably be ready for serv- 
ice by mid-summer of 1919 or shortly 
after. This forecast is based on the 
theory that contractors will be able 
to obtain the requisite materials and 
labor to complete the work approx- 
imately within estimated periods. 

Contracts already awarded for city- 
owned lines of the dual system, in- 
cluding those completed, now aggre- 
gate more than $200,000,000, in addi- 
tion to real estate purchases amount- 
ing to $15,000,000. Exclusive of their 
own purchases of real estate, the two 
operating companies, the Interborough 
Rapid Transit Company and the New 
York Municipal Railway Corporation, 
have entered into contracts or agree- 
ments for construction of company- 
owned lines and for equipment on both 
city-owned and company-owned lines, 
involving a total of almost $200,000,- 
000 more. 

The year 1916 represented the high- 
est point in construction work under 

dual system contracts, both the num- 
ber of contractors and the working 
forces engaged during 1917 being sub- 
stantially less than in previous years. 
Numbers will continue to decrease in 
the future. Only five general construc- 
tion contracts remain to be let, out of 
the approximately ninety such con- 
tracts for new lines in the dual system. 
Practically all will be let during the 
next six or eight months, together with 
most of the remaining station finish, 
track installation and minor contracts. 

The year 1917 represented the largest 
single increase in new rapid transit 
facilities provided for the traveling 
public of New York in any one twelve- 
month since the opening of the first 
subway in 1904. The lines or portions 
of lines placed in service in 1917 and 
to be placed in service early in 1918 
aggregate approximately 82 track- 
miles, added to the track 7nileage of 
other new lines of the dual system pre- 
viously placed in service, a total is had 
of 174 track-miles out of the grand 
total of 345 track-miles of new lines 
in the dual system. It is estimated 
that by the end of 1918 more than 300 
track-miles will be in operation, leav- 
ing about 40 track-miles to be com- 
pleted and placed in service in 1919 or 

It is expected that during 1918 both 
the Lexington and Seventh Avenue 



Vol. 51, No. 1 

lines will be in operation, including all 
of the Jerome Avenue branch and a 
part of the Pelham Bay Park branch 
of the Lexington Avenue line; that the 
Eastern Parkway line in Brooklyn and 
the Nostrand Avenue line in the same 
borough will also be in service, with 
the Webster Avenue Extension of the 
Third Avenue elevated railroad and the 
162nd Street extension of the Ninth 
Avenue elevated line. All of the above 
lines are for operation by the Inter- 
borough Rapid Transit Company. Of 
the lines for operation by the Brooklyn 

Unable to secure the co-operation of 
the municipal authorities, the Interna- 
tional Railway, Buffalo, N. Y., has 
been prevented from making the im- 
provements to its city lines which were 
recommended in the recent report of 
Charles R. Barnes, electric railway in- 
spector for the Public Service Commis- 
sion of the Second District. In conse- 
quence the daily newspapers have crit- 
icized the company's service severely, 
and the Buffalo Times has started an 
agitation for municipal ownership. 
Members of the City Council have 
pledged themselves to investigate the 
possibilities of taking over the rail- 
way properties within the city. The 
new Mayor was elected upon a plat- 
form of electric railway service re- 

Aroused by the demands made by 
various commercial organizations which 
have allied themselves with the critics 
of the company, the Public Service 
Commission sent a communication to 
the City Council asking why action had 
not been taken on the requests of the 
railway for permission to lay addi- 
tional tracks in the congested sections 
of the Main Street district. The com- 
pany had previously filed applications 
with the City Council for permission 
to lay a single-track loop around the 
Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument in 
Lafayette Square so as to relieve the 
Washington Street congestion, and re- 
quest was also made for permission to 
enlarge the safety zone in Shelton 
Square so as to allow three cars to be 
loaded at one time instead of two cars 
as under present conditions. The com- 
pany also sought permission to con- 
struct a steel shelter house for the 
convenience of its passengers at Shel- 
ton Square. All of these applications 
have merely been "received and filed" 
by the municipal authorities. 

In addition to hindering the com- 
pany from making these necessary im- 
provements to its service so as to 
facilitate the movement of traffic 
through congested centers, the mu- 
nicipal authorities did not co-operate 
with the company when it was making 
vigorous efforts to clear its tracks of 
snow after the severe snowstorm three 
weeks ago. This storm crippled the 
movement of cars on all lines, and 
when the city refused to aid the corn- 

Rapid Transit subsidiary, the New 
York Consolidated Railroad, it is ex- 
pected that the following will be placed 
in operation during 1918: The Broad- 
way subway from Fourteenth Street to 
Forty-second Street for express serv- 
ice, and from Rector Street to Forty- 
second Street for local service, part 
of the Culver Rapid Transit Railroad, 
the remainder of the Jamaica Avenue 
line, the Montague Street Tunnel line, 
the Brighton Beach line connection, the 
East New York improvement and the 
Coney Island terminal. 

pany in cleaning the streets, the com- 
pany's tracks were blocked with ve- 
hicles which caused the bunching of 

When the Public Service Commis- 
sion received the reply of the City 
Council regarding the delay in con- 
sidering the requests of the railway, 
the commission announced a confer- 
ence to be held in Buffalo between 
members of the City Council, officials 
of the International Railway and two 
members of the commission. On the 
day of the conference, none of the 
members of the City Council was pres- 
ent and the city was not represented. 
E. G. Connette, president of the rail- 
way, and Thomas Penney, vice-presi- 
dent and general counsel, attended and 
discussed the traffic problem with mem- 
bers of the commission. 

Supplemental Report by the 

Charles R. Barnes, inspector of the 
commission, was instructed to make an 
additional survey of traffic conditions, 
and this supplemental report will be 
made to the commission at Albany. 
After the conference with members of 
the Public Service Commission, Presi- 
dent Connette made a statement to the 
newspapers in regard to the inability 
to maintain service on most of its lines 
during the week following the snow- 
storm. He said that the cars became 
crippled faster than the shops could 
repair them. Car door mechanism be- 
came disarranged in a large number of 
cars, air pipe lines froze and motors 
became crippled. He also placed a 
large part of the blame upon the 
"track hog," and he urged the police 
department to arrest all vehicle drivers 
who intentionally block the tracks. 

Some of the Work Under Way 

Answering the criticism regarding 
the company's alleged inability to 
handle the employees of the large war 
plants in the Elmwood-Hertel section, 
President Connette called attention to 
the fact that the company had awarded 
contracts for the erection of a mod- 
ern passenger loading terminal on 
property adjoining the plant of the 
Pierce-Arrow Motor Car Corporation 
in Elmwood Avenue. The blizzard and 
heavy fall of snow delayed building 

operations on the foundation and track 
work, but Mr. Connette said that work 
was now progressing rapidly. He also 
pointed out that the company was 
working almost night and day trying 
to complete the North Elmwood Ave- 
nue double-track extension to the 
plants of the Curtiss Aeroplane Com- 
pany, and other large war industries 
in this rapidly growing section. It is 
expected that this line will be com- 
pleted and placed in operation within 
the next thirty days. 

The Lafayette Square loop which the 
International Railway seeks to con- 
struct would probably halve the Wash- 
ington Street congestion. The Broad- 
way and probably the Sycamore Street 
lines, two of the heaviest patronized 
arteries to the east side, would make 
this loop and avoid the downtown 
congestion. The enlarged safety zone 
in Shelton Square would permit the 
loading of twice the present number 
of cars at one time at this point. The 
Niagara and the Grant Street lines 
make this loop their downtown ter- 
minus. It is also proposed to cut the 
long cross-town lines in two. The 
west side lines which continue out to- 
ward the east side city line pass 
through a congested section, and delays 
in this section caused the bunching of 
cars along the entire route. It is also 
proposed to reroute other lines so as 
to make quicker time between down- 
town outlying districts. 

In replying to criticism of the com- 
pany E. J. Dickson, vice-president, in a 
public statement placed full responsi- 
bility for delays and bunching of cars 
during the storm on Dec. 9 and 10 upon 
the track hog. Mr. Dickson said: 

"During the storm thirty-two cars at 
one station were put out of commission 
by air pipes freezing. Because of the 
extraordinary exertion of the motors 
of the snow-fighting equipment these 
machines must have constant attention 
at the carhouses. A large proportion of 
the men at work in the shops and car- 
houses are diverted from passenger car 
maintenance to snow equipment mainte- 
nance. Also during the storm the 
mechanism of passenger cars develop 
defects which ordinarily would not oc- 
cur. The operating mechanism of steps 
and doors is damaged, leads and con- 
tacts are broken and frequently air 
brakes are rendered inoperative because 
of the collection of snow and ice." 

The statement also called attention to 
Ihe fact that seventy-five men em- 
ployed at one carhouse quit work when 
(he storm started and that the company 
experienced the same shortage of help 
as other industries in western New 

In replying to the criticism against 
lack of equipment, Mr. Dickson called 
attention to the fact that the company 
was unable to get delivery on 50 per 
cent of its new cars, orders for which 
were placed a year ago. The company 
has also placed orders for additional 
snow-fighting equipment which has not 
yet been received. Flat cars have been 
equipped with steel plows to aid in 
keeping the lines clear of snow. 

City an Obstructionist 

Dilatory Tactics of Buffalo City Council Prevent International Railway 
From Carrying Out Commission Recommendations 

January 5, 1918 



Philadelphia Lease Measure Passed 

Proposed Contract for Operation of New High-Speed Lines by the Phila- 
delphia Rapid Transit Passed by One Branch of Councils 

The Common Council of Philadelphia, 
Pa., on Dec. 31, by a vote of sixty-three 
to eight, passed the measure providing 
for the lease of the new high-speed 
rapid transit lines to the Philadelphia 
Rapid Transit Company, after it had 
been amended. The bill was to be acted 
upon on Jan. 3 by Select Council, and 
indications were that it would pass that 
body with little opposition. 

The only opposition voiced in the 
Common Council came from Council- 
man Meckert of the Twenty-third 
Ward and Councilman Conn of the 
Eighth Ward. Mr. Meckert opposed 
the passage of the bill because of war 
conditions, and Mr. Conn moved that 
the entire matter be postponed until an 
opinion could be obtained from Mr. Con- 
nelly, the city solicitor. 

Mr. Conn said that the people should 
have the expert opinion of the city 
solicitor, in addition to the "various 
verbal opinions of the special counsel 
who has been retained by the Mayor." 

Amendments Offered 

After Clerk Felton had read the first 
section of the bill Mr. Gaffney, chair- 
man of the finance committee, offered 
amendments which made the supervis- 
ing board a body of three instead of two 
members, but eliminated previous re- 
quirements that they all be engineers. 
Under the provisions of the lease the 
city's representative will be the direc- 
tor of city transit. His salary will 
be fixed by Councils. The company's 
representative will be appointed by the 
Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company 
and his salary will be fixed and paid by 
the company. The third member, who 
will serve as chairman, will be chosen 
by the Mayor and the president of the 
Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company. 
The amendments make the board a "su- 
pervising board" instead of a "super- 
vising board of engineers." 

Passage of Measure Urged 

In urging the passage of the measure 
Mr. Gaffney said: 

"All the objections advanced by Mr. 
Conn and Mr. Meckert were threshed 
out thoroughly at the various com- 
mittee meetings. The city solicitor 
has no objection to the passage of the 
lease. I see no reason why there should 
be any further delay. I think the lease 
should be approved right now. The 
question is not of abnormal or normal 
times. It is: Is this the best lease that 
can be obtained for the people? I tell 
you, with all the candor I possess, that 
you couldn't find better servants for the 
people than Doctor Lewis, adviser to 
the Mayor, and Director of City Transit 
Twining have been. If the matter is 
postponed the lease will simply be 
thrown back into the political field to 
be kicked about by both factions." 

The chamber then voted down Mr. 
Conn's motion for postponement and 
the final vote was taken. 

Mr. Lamberton, who had come to be 
regarded as the leader of the opposi- 
tion, made a speech in favor of the 

St. Louis Sleeping 

Writer Points Out Wherein City Has 
Failed to Make Most Out of Oppor- 
tunities as an Interurban Center 

An article by Hugh L. Wood on th« 
front page of the St. Louis Republic 
for Dec. 29 calls attention to the need 
of St. Louis encouraging the building 
and extension of electric railway trans- 
portation from Illinois, Indiana, Ken- 
lucky, Ohio, and even Wisconsin and 
Michigan into that city. The article 
urges the building of an immense union 
passenger and freight station on 
Gratiot Street, between Twelfth and 
Fourteenth Streets. This property is 
now vacant, but Mr. Wood sees no ob- 
stacle to its purchase by the city and 
lease under favorable terms for a long 
tenure to the several interurban lines 
using the station. He said the Free 
Bridge should be opened to passenger, 
express and freight service. 

The Links That Are Needed 

Mr. Wood urged the connecting of 
St. Louis by electric railway with Terre 
Haute, Indianapolis, Fort Wayne, Louis- 
ville, Cincinnati, Dayton, Columbus, 
Cleveland, Toledo, Detroit and other 
cities and towns. Three links would 
have to be built, all of them compara- 
tively short. They are: A link be- 
tween the Illinois Traction System at 
Ridge Farm, 111., and the Terre Haute, 
Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Com- 
pany at Paris, 111.; a connection be- 
tween the Illinois Traction System at 
Danville, 111., and the Fort Wayne & 
Northern Indiana Traction Company 
and the Terre Haute, Indianapolis & 
Eastern Traction Company at LaFay- 
ette, Ind., and a connection between the 
Illinois Traction System at Danville, 
111., and the Terre Haute, Indianapolis 
& Eastern Traction Company and the 
Indianapolis & Northwestern Traction 
Company at Crawfordsville, Ind. 

Fuel Board Takes a Hand 

Becomes a Player in the Detroit Rail- 
way Game and Has the Call With 
a Strong Hand 

The Federal Fuel Administration has 
taken a hand in the electric railway 
situation in Detroit, Mich. As a result 
of an order issued by the Wayne County 
fuel administration the Detroit United 
Railway on Dec. 23 re-established skip- 
stop and rerouting operation, which the 
City Council had ordered discontinued 
two weeks before as a reprisal measure 
because of higher fares. The fuel board 
over-rode the Council even though that 
body had adopted a resolution warning 
the fuel board to "keep its hands off" 

the car question. The fuel board de- 
clared that skip stops and rerouting 
were necessary to conserve coal. It was 
figured that by a return to their use 
from 50 to 75 tons a day would be 

Whereas formerly the Detroit United 
Railway had permission from the 
Council to operate skip stops on only 
eleven lines the fuel board order com- 
mands the company to extend this plan 
to every line in the city. 

The action of the government is a 
move that the city hall politicians are 
unprepared to meet. The general pub- 
lic enthusiastically welcomed the return 
to skip stops and rerouting. Some of 
the Aldermen are considering further 
reprisals against the company. These 
may take the form of ordering the com- 
pany to keep interurban, freight and 
construction cars off the city streets. 

Illumination Decreased 
The order by the fuel board to the 
company also requested that artificial 
illumination of the cars be reduced 50 
per cent. This has also been done. 

Sir Albert Quoted 

The New York Times for Jan. 4 con- 
tained a cable dispatch from London 
by its correspondent, Charles H. Grasty, 
who interviewed Sir Albert Stanley, 
president of the British Board of Trade. 
Sir Albert was quoted as saying that 
he regarded it as very desirable for 
the government to take the coal mines 
in with the railroads and co-ordinate 
and work them together. It was pos- 
sible to save much mileage by bringing 
the source of production and the point 
of consumption as near together as pos- 
sible. Both the railroads and the coal 
mines were under the Board of Trade 
in England and co-ordination was 
simple. The interview will prove of 
particular interest to Americans in 
view of Mr. Stanley's long association 
with electric railways in this country. 

Preliminary Subway Survey 

Cleveland Council Will Be Asked for an 
Appropriation of $50,000 

At a meeting of the Subway Com- 
mission of Cleveland, Ohio, on Dec. 28, 
it was decided to ask the Council for 
an appropriation of $50,000 to cover 
preliminary engineering, legal and other 
expenses while an investigation is 
being made. A preliminary survey will 
be made. City Engineer Hoffman and 
Bridge Engineer Richards will act in 
an advisory capacity until a permanent 
engineer can be selected. Former Ap- 
pellate Judge Walter D. Meals and for- 
mer Municipal Judge Pierre White will 
be asked to act as special legal advisers 
under the supervision of City Law Di- 
rector FitzGerald. 

W. R. Hopkins, president of the 
Cleveland Rapid Transit Railway; O. P. 
Van Sweringen of the Cleveland & 
Youngstown Railway, and other men 
who have been connected with subway 
enterprises, will be called into consul- 
tation with the commission and joint 
meetings with the City Planning Com- 



Vol. 51, No. 1 

mission will be held in order to insure 
co-ordination between the two bodies. 

Attorney William T. Redmond has 
been selected as secretary of the com- 
mission at a salary of $3,000 a year. 

U. S. Wants Men with Engineer- 
ing Experience 

The Army and Navy staff depart- 
ments continue to demand men of en- 
gineering experience, especially in in- 
dustrial lines. At present the outlook 
is that this demand will continue 
throughout the period of the war. 

In calling attention to this, the 
United States Public Service Reserve, 
Washington, D. C, where records of 
men willing to serve when called will 
be kept on file, points out that a man 
of engineering experience has a rare 
combination of opportunities open to 
him which are not available to the aver- 
age patriotic American, as follows: 

1. To serve the country in his most 
effective capacity. 

2. To keep in touch with his own 
profession, with the result that his pa- 
triotic service will not have caused him 
to become rusty by the time peace re- 

3. To become a commissioned officer 
and receive much better pay than the 
average man who has wholly subor- 
dinated personal interests and now 
works for the national good. 

4. To perform his service usually 
without leaving the United States. 

New City Officers' Plans 

Mayor Hylan of New York and his 
incoming Board of Estimate have de- 
cided to ask the Legislature for sixteen 
specific laws, through which to fulfill 
the pre-election pledges made by the 
Democratic candidates. The program 
includes the following: 

Legislation necessary to empower the 
city of New York to acquire and operate 
all public utilities. 

The election of the Public Service 
Commission. The commission for the 
first district, which includes all of the 
greater city, to be composed of five 
commissioners, one chosen by the voters 
of each borough, thereby making that 
body responsive to the public. 

Increase of the city's share of the 
new corporation franchise tax estab- 
lished by the Legislature in 1917 to 50 
per cent instead of 25 per cent, as at 

Bills to carry out these ideas prob- 
ably will be introduced into the Legis- 
lature at once by Senators Robert F. 
Wagner and James A. Foley. 

Subways for Tokio 

Greater Tokio, according to the Far 
Eastern Review, Shanghai, will be sur- 
rounded with subway lines when the 
following plans are carried out: The 
Ikegami Electric Railway, capitalized 
at 400,000 yen, will connect Amori Sta- 
tion on the Railway Board Line to the 
Meguro terminus of the street car line, 

covering 7 miles. The 5-mile line be- 
tween Kameido and Matsuemura, start- 
ing from the Kinshibori terminus of 
the city train line, will be completed at 
the end of June. Other proposed lines 
are one along the River Edo, between 
Matsuemura and Shinkawaguchi ; the 
extension of the Oji Electric Railway 
line from Otsuka to Shinjuku via Zos- 
higaya; and a line from Shinjuku to 
Horinouchi via Nakauo. 

Bus Injunction Hearing 


Argument on the application of 
Henry H. Klein, a taxpayer, for an 
order restraining the Mayor and the 
Board of Estimate & Apportionment 
of New York from holding a hearing 
upon the application of the Fifth Ave- 
nue Coach Company for an omnibus 
franchise, was adjourned by Justice 
Platzek of the Supreme Court until 
Jan. 4. The adjournment was asked for 
by counsel representing all parties. 

News Notes 

Daily Paper Describes Toledo Settle- 
ment Plan. — The community plan of 
ownership for the settlement of the To- 
ledo franchise deadlock was described 
in the magazine section of the New 
York Sunday Sun for Dec. 23. It was 
a very interesting account of the nego- 
tiations, heightened in its value by quo- 
tations direct from H. L. Doherty, 
chairman of the board of the Toledo 
Railways & Light Company. The ar- 
ticle was signed by Harry Esty 
Dounce. It was accompanied by a por- 
trait of Mr. Doherty. 

Representative of the Department of 
Labor at Toledo. — In reply to the ap- 
peal of the motormen and conductors of 
the Toledo Railways & Light Company, 
Toledo, Ohio, the Federal Department of 
Labor has sent A. L. Faulkner, special 
agent, to Toledo to investigate the 
claims of the men that they are unable 
to live on the wages they are receiving. 
Some time ago they made a demand 
upon the company for an increase, 
although their present contract does 
not expire until April, 1919. Henry L. 
Doherty, in a conference with their 
representatives, declared that the wage 
scale could not be increased unless the 
rate of fare was increased at the same 

Arbitration Award Made in Wilming- 
ton. — The committee of citizens of 
Wilmington, N. C, which was formed 
as a board of arbitration to act upon 
the complaints of the men and the 
Tidewater Power Company, operating 
the local electric railway in Wilming- 
ton, has filed its report, which allows 
an increase of 1 cent an hour to the 

motormen and conductors. The men in 
Wilmington went on strike on July 4, 
1916, and returned to work on July 12, 
that year, in accordance with the terms 
of an agreement reached through the 
efforts of a citizens' committee. Be- 
fore returning to work, each man 
signed an agreement to abide by the 
conditions of the settlement. The 
strike was reviewed in the Electric 
Railway Journal for July 29, 1916, 
page 202. 

Association Meeting Program 

Northern White Cedar Association 

The twenty-second annual meeting of 
the Northern White Cedar Association 
will be held at the Hotel Radisson, 
Minneapolis, Minn., on Jan. 22 and 23. 

National Foreign Trade Council 

James A. Farrell, chairman of the 
National Foreign Trade Council, has 
issued the formal call for the Fifth 
National Foreign Trade Convention 
to meet at the Gibson Hotel, Cincinnati, 
Ohio, on Feb. 7, 8 and 9, 1918. The 
theme of the convention will be "The 
Part of Foreign Trade in Winning the 

Approximately one-half of the time 
of the convention will be given to the 
presentation of prepared papers and 
reports dealing with one or another of 
the numerous phases of this great con- 
vention theme. The remainder will be 
devoted to group sessions for the in- 
tensive discussion of single problems 
under the leadership of specially quali- 
fied experts. 

Consuls to Attend 

The Secretary of State will assign 
to the convention several Consuls Gen- 
eral and Consuls from Europe, Latin 
America and the Far East, who are 
expected in the United States on leave 
at the time of the convention. These 
officials, several of whom have been in 
the consular service for many years, 
will be accessible to delegates for the 
purpose of personal conversation or for 
informal conference with groups of del- 

In addition the Secretary of Com- 
merce will assign to Cincinnati during 
the convention officials and experts of 
the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic 
Commerce, who will be available for 
individual consultation. 

Collection of Samples 

Among the special features of the 
convention will be a large collection of 
samples assembled by the Bureau of 
Foreign and Domestic Commerce from 
all parts of the world, vividly showing 
the character of products marketed by 
other nations. The Pan-American 
Union will have representatives at the 
convention to supply information re- 
garding the Pan-American friendship 
in commerce, and a number of gentle- 
men, long experienced in foreign trade, 
will be present to give particular advice 
to delegates on the details of foreign 

January 5, 1918 



Financial and Corporate 

Dallas Railway Reports 

Balance of $39,384 Shown for the First 
Month of Operation Under the 
New Service-at-Cost 

The net earnings of the Dallas (Tex.) 
Railway, the electric railways consoli- 
dated under the Strickland-Hobson 
management, for October, 1917, the 
first month the lines were operated 
under the service-at-cost franchise, were 
$66,191, according to the monthly re- 
port, filed with the Supervisor of Public 
Utilities by the company. Various de- 
ductions, aggregating $26,807, are ap- 
plied to the different reserve funds, 
leaving the company a balance of $39,- 
384 as a return upon the property value 
allowed by the franchise. This gives 
earnings of approximately 6 per cent 
on the agreed valuation. The franchise 
permits the company to show a return 
of 7 per cent before fares are auto- 
matically reduced. 

Report Summarized 

A summary of the report, prepared 
in the office of the Supervisor of Public 
Utilities, is as follows: 

Gross October 

Earnings— 1917 1916 Dec. 

Railway $139,101 $154,943 $6,842 

Interurban term. 9,952 8,930 »1,021 

Total gross 
earnings $149,054 $154. S74 $5,820 

Operating Exp's — 

Railway $78,627 $9S,S13 $20,185 

Interurban term. 4,235 4,454 218 

Total operating 
expenses $82,863 $103,267 $20,403 

Net earnings 
from operation .. $66,191 $51,607 *$14,583 

* Increase. 

These differences, it is said, are in 
large part due to the fact that under 
the method of accounting required by 
the franchise, an amount of $12,260 for 
maintenance during October, 1917, has 
been charged to the "repair, main- 
tenance and depreciation reserve" ac- 
count, whereas the expenditures for 
this purpose in 1916 were charged to 
operating expenses. 

Short Topeka Line Abandoned 

State Commission Agrees to Discon- 
tinuance of lVi Miles of Track 

The Public Utilities Commission of 
Kansas has granted the Topeka Rail- 
way permission to remove the old track 
running southeast to old Vinewood 
Park. The line from California Avenue 
in Highland Park will be torn up and 
the rails will be used in other exten- 
sions the company may make in the 
future. In all about 1% miles of track 
with side tracks at old Vinewood will 
be taken up. 

Dan Patch Reorganization 

If the Contemplated Plan of Reor- 
ganization Is Not Successful the 
Property Will Be Dismantled 
and Junked 

With the purchase of the Minneapolis, 
St. Paul, Rochester & Dubuque Electric 
Traction Company's cut-off from Auto 
Junction to Luce Line Terminal by C. T. 
Jaffray and associates under fore- 
closure, noted in the Electric Railway 
Journal for Dec. 22, page 1136, plans 
were set in motion for reconstruction 
of the road from Minneapolis to North- 
field and Faribault at a cost of $750,- 
000. Mr. Jaffray said : 

"If our plans are met by investors, 
the road will be electrified for both 
freight and passenger traffic to Fari- 
bault. This would mean the bringing 
to Minneapolis of most of the business 
from the rich districts near Northfield, 
Faribault, Rochester and Mankato. 
Much of this trade now goes to St. Paul 
C. T. Bratnober, receiver for the prop- 
erty during pendency of cases involving 
the status of the line, will have charge 
of the attempt to reorganize. If the 
plan for reorganization is not success- 
ful the property will be dismantled and 
sold for junk." 

The sale of the cut-off was conducted 
by Howard S. Abbott, master in chan- 
cery. The only bid made was by the 
committee representing the holders of 
the collateral notes against the road. 
The purchasers under the court order 
have the right to scrap this 14 mile sec- 
tion, but operation has not yet been 

the Farmers Deposit Company, Pitts- 
burgh, to purchase the coupons repre- 
senting the said interest, when properly 
presented to it by the holders, with the 
certificates of ownership attached which 
are required by the Federal income tax 

The companies named were as fol- 
lows: Central Traction Company, Du- 
quesne Traction Company, Federal 
Street & Pleasant Valley Passenger 
Railway (general mortgage), Federal 
Street & Pleasant Valley Passenger 
Railway (consolidated mortgage), Pit- 
cairn & Wilmerding Street Railway, 
Pittsburgh, Canonsburg & Washington 
Railway, Pittsburgh, Crafton & Mans- 
field Street Railway, Pittsburgh Incline 
Plane Company, Pittsburgh & West 
End Passenger Railway, Second Ave- 
nue Traction Company, United Traction 
Company, Washington & Canonsburg 
Railway, West End Traction Company, 
West Liberty Street Railway, West Lib- 
erty & Suburban Street Railway. 

Pittsburgh Interest 

Philadelphia Company Arranges for the 
Payment of Interest on Bonds of 
Underlying Companies of 
Pittsburgh Railways 

J. H. Reed, president of the Phila- 
delphia Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., 
which controls the Pittsburgh Railways, 
has issued the following statement: 

"The Philadelphia Company has, in 
the past, loaned large sums of money 
to the Pittsburgh Railways to enable 
it to continue its operations, and is now 
a creditor of the railway for a very 
large amount. The Philadelphia Com- 
pany directors refuse to make any 
further loans to the railway, but in 
order to avoid hardship to security hold- 
ers whose interest will come due on 
Jan. 1, 1918, the Philadelphia Company 
announces that, as tlie Pittsburgh Rail- 
ways will not be able to pay the interest 
due on Jan. 1, 1918, upon bonds of the 
underlying companies in the Pittsburgh 
Railways system it has arranged with 

Canadian Issues Under 

New Financial Offerings Must Have 
Certificate of Approval from 
Finance Minister 

Under the authority of the war meas- 
ures act the Union government has 
passed an order-in-council by which new 
issues of bonds in Canada, whether by 
any provincial, colonial or foreign gov- 
ernment, municipality, commission, local 
government, institution, corporation or 
incorporated company, can only be made 
or sold with the approval of the Min- 
ister of Finance by his certificate in 

The order equally applies to any 
offering of shares, whether preferred or 
cofnmon, of any incorporated company, 
from this time onward. Provision is 
made whereby any issue or sale in con- 
travention of the prohibition may be 
restrained. Heavy penalties are pro- 
vided for violation of the regulation. 

The regulation is similar to that 
which has been in force in Great Britain 
and has the same object of conserving 
the financial resources of the country 
for war purposes. 

Public Represented on Board 

Alfred M. Lyon, Newtonville, Mass., 
has been selected by a committee rep- 
resenting the Newton Board of Trade 
and all the village improvement socie- 
ties in the city as their representative 
on the board of directors of the Middle- 
sex & Boston Street Railway, Newton- 
ville, Mass. This action is on the sug- 
gestion of James L. Richards, presi- 
dent of the railway. The appointment 
of a representative of the people to the 
board is in connection with the con- 
certed protest of the public against a 
further increase of fares. Mr. Richards 
told the committee that in placing a 
representative in the councils of the 
road intimate knowledge of its workings 
and needs could be gained. Mr. Lyon 
is a lawyer and school board member. 



Vol. 51, No. 1 

News Notes 

Lancaster Company Increases Its 
Stock. — The Lancaster County Railway 

6 Light Company, Lancaster, Pa., has 
increased its authorized capital stock 
from $2,500,000, of which $1,000,000 is 
5 per cent cumulative preferred, to 

Lorain Bonds to Be Extended. — The 

Ohio Public Utilities Commission has 
authorized the Lorain Street Railroad, 
controlled by the Lake Shore Electric 
Railway, to extend for two years the 
$200,000 of 6 per cent notes maturing 
this month. 

Common Stock Dividend Reduced. — 

The directors of the Philadelphia 
Company on Dec. 17 declared a quar- 
terly dividend of IV2 per cent on the 
common stock. This is one-fourth of 1 
per cent less than the company has paid 
for a number of years. 

Charlottesville Preferred and Common 
Dividends.— The Charlottesville & Albe- 
marle Railway, Charlottesville, Va., has 
declared a semi-annual dividend of BV2 
per cent on its preferred stock, making 

7 per cent for the year, and 2 per cent 
on its common stock, making 4% per 
cent for the year. 

New Stock for Public Service Rail- 
way. — A decision has been rendered by 
the State Board of Public Utility Com- 
missioners of New Jersey approving the 
application of the Public Service Rail- 
way, Newark, N. J., for authority to 
issue $1,250,000 of its capital stock. 
The company is controlled by the Pub- 
lic Service Corporation of New Jersey. 

Successor to Snake Line Seeks to 
Issue Stock. — Officials of the Swansea 

& Seekonk Street Railway, Swansea 
Centre, Mass., the successor to the 
Providence & Fall River Street Rail- 
way after the property of the latter had 
been sold for junk, appeared before the 
Massachusetts Public Service Commis- 
sion recently and petitioned for ap- 
proval of an issue of $100,000 in stock. 

May Prove His Claim. — The Supreme 
Court of Illinois has denied a petition 
for a rehearing prayed by the Wood- 
stock & Sycamore Traction Company, 
Genoa, 111., in its defense against John 
Seymour, one of the original organizers 
of the road. Mr. Seymour now has the 
opportunity to prove his claim of $40,- 
000 against the company. 

Action on Boston Suburban Dividend 
Deferred. — The trustees of the Boston 
(Mass.) Suburban Electric Companies 
took no action on Dec. 28 on the pre- 
ferred stock dividend, due this month. 
Two payments of 50 cents each were 
made in January and April, 1917. In 
1916 and 1915 $3 was paid. The pre- 
ferred stock is entitled to 4 per cent 
per annum, which is cumulative. 

Make Your Claim-. — J. Moss Ives, re- 
ceiver for the Danbury & Bethel Street 
Railway, Danbury, Conn., is giving 
notice to the creditors of the company 
that the Superior Court in and for the 
county of Fairfield has ordered and ad- 
judged that four months from Dec. 14, 
1917, be limited for the presentation of 
claims against the railway and that all 
claims not presented within the time 
limit will be thereafter barred. 

Dunkirk Railway Seeks Service Re- 
duction and Higher Fares. — Efforts are 
being made by the receiver for the Dun- 
kirk (N. Y.) Street Railway to sell the 
property. The company has an appli- 
cation pending before the Public Ser- 
vice Commission of the Second District 
of New York for permission to aban- 
don part of its line. An application has 
also been made for permission to in- 
crease the rate of fare within the city 
from 5 cents to 6 cents. 

Another Road in Danger of Being 
Scrapped. — Gustave Benjamin, Buffalo, 
N. Y., has bought the property of the 
New York & Pennsylvania Railroad, 
operating between Canisteo, N. Y., and 
Shinglehouse, Pa. The amount involved 
was approximately $350,000. Unless 
sufficient funds can be raised along the 
line to keep the property in operation, 
Mr. Benjamin will junk the road. Com- 
mercial organizations in the towns 
along the railroad are reported to be 
considering the organization of a com- 
pany to electrify the line. 

Mortgage for $5,000,000 Recorded.— 
The Springfield Street Railway has filed 
in the registry of deeds at Springfield, 
Mass., a mortgage for $5,000,000 in fa- 
vor of the Old Colony Trust Company, 
Boston, Mass., for refunding purposes. 
In November, 1917, the company was 
authorized to issue at this time not to 
exceed $3,275,000 of mortgage bonds, 
payable twenty years from date and 
bearing interest at 6 per cent. The pro- 
ceeds of bonds amounting to $2,305,000 
will be applied exclusively to the pay- 
ment, refunding or retiring of bonds is- 
sued by that company by reason of its 
purchase of other railway properties. 

Abandonment of the Cincinnati-Bethel 
Line Proposed. — C. M. Leslie and 
Charles Thrasher, receivers of the In- 
terurban Railway & Terminal Company, 
Cincinnati, Ohio, plan to apply to the 
Ohio Public Utilities Commission for 
fiuthority to abandon the branch be- 
tween Cincinnati and Bethel. At the 
same time application for permission to 
increase the rates of fare on the Rapid 
and Eastern divisions will be made. 
Some time ago Judge Cushing of the 
Common Pleas Court authorized the re- 
ceivers to abandon the Bethel branch, 
but the Appellate Court decided that 
they had no authority to take this step. 
Since that time a new law has gone into 
effect on this point, and, with the au- 
thority of Judge Cushing, they will take 
the matter to the Public Utilities Com- 

Electric Railway Monthly Earnings 


Operating Operating Operating Fixed Net 

Period Revenue Expenses Income Charges Income 

lm„ Oct., '17 $43,397 '$28,169 $15,228 $6,551 $8,677 

1" " *16 36.466 *18,205 18,261 6.568 11.69S 

12 17 450,537 »284,065 166,472 78,684 87,788 

12" ** '16 387,757 '227,251 160,506 T8.470 82,036 

lm.. Nov., '17 $1,732,412 $30,050 $1,702,362 $209 $1,702,15* 
1 16 1,328,388 20,021 1,308,367 244 1.308,123 


lm., Oct. 

1 " 
12 " 
12 " 


•17 19,110,628 
'16 9,071,718 

347.281 18,763,347 2,948 18,760,399 
236,868 8,834,850 299,480 8,535.370 







$31,593 $S«,090 

28.572 25,809 

852,640 301,773 

343,884 160,170 


lm., Nov., '17 $538,572 *$270,131 $268,441 $217,983 $50,458 

1 " " '16 512,904 *224.107 288,797 215,702 73,095 

5 17 2,572,504 *1. 260, 851 1,311,653 1,088,924 222,729 

5 16 2,397,008 *1, 084,185 1,312,823 1,075,132 237,691 


lm., Nov., '17 $3,454,687 *$1,900,069 $1,554,618 $1,097,265 ±§$680,035 
1 " " '16 3,451,756 *1, 575, 179 1,876,577 1,005,553 ±§934.262 
5 17 15,928,087 *9, 018, 680 6,909,407 5,380,053 ±§2 765 798 

5 1-6 15.388,778 *7, 437, 878 7,950.900 4,974,641 +§3.261,804 


lm., Oct., '17 $59,743 »$42.606 $17,137 $15,819 $1,318 

1 " " '16 49,646 *34,930 14,716 15,437 f!21 

12 " " '17 678,268 *455.967 222,301 188,242 34,058 

12 16 619,387 *422,793 196,594 182,308 14.X86 


lm., Nov.. '17 $533,250 $375,467 $157,783 $80,318 $77,464 
1 16 458,668 238.697 219,971 106,149 113,822 

11 " " '17 5,814,817 3,648,752 2,166,065 859,140 1,306,925 

11 " " '16 4,689.676 2,389,776 2,299,900 1,038,490 1,261,410 


lm., Oct., '17 $25,807 »$15,592 $10,215 $7,808 $2,407 

1 " " '16 21,439 '12.319 9,120 7,714 1,408 

12 17 331,242 *193.106 138,136 93,405 44,731 
12 16 279.557 «154,398 125,159 91,217 J$,942 


lm., Nov., '17 $464,296 *$327,584 $136,712 $90,184 ±$54,033 

1 " " '16 344,942 *196,083 148,859 70,848 ±78,260 

12 17 4,770,074 *3, 203, 779 1,566,295 995,388 ±632,980 

12 16 3,935,073 *2, 271, 569 1,663,504 816,605 ±862,798 

lm., Nov., '17 $807,839 $553,543 $254,296 $164,511 $89,785 
1 " " '16 8.48.497 521,767 326,730 137;676 189,054 
11 17 9,345,633 6,250,474 3.095,159 1,691,344 1,403,815 

11 16 9,290.401 5,727,440 3.562,961 1,572,554 1,990,407 

•Includes taxes. Jlncludes non-operating income. 

^Includes accruals, under rapid transit contracts with city, pay- 
able from future earnings. 

January 5, 1918 



Traffic and Transportation 

Commission Upheld in Indianapolis Fare Case 

Circuit Court Decides Against Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Com- 
pany in Its Effort to Compel Public Service Commission to 
Assume Jurisdiction in Rate Case 

Judge Lewis B. Ewbank in the Cir- 
cuit Court, Marion County, on Jan. 2 
handed down a decision finding that the 
Public Service Commission ruled cor- 
rectly in declining to accept jurisdiction 
in the case of the petition of Indianap- 
olis Traction & Terminal Company for 
a 5-cent fare. The decision of court is 
summed up as follows: 

Decision Summed Up 

The city franchise of the Indianapolis 
Traction & Terminal Company — "rela- 
tor" — fixing the rates of fares on street 
cars in the city of Indianapolis is a 
binding contract which excludes all 
jurisdiction of the Public Service Com- 
mission to increase or otherwise modify 
or change such rates while that con- 
tract remains in force. The only con- 
sent which the state has given or under- 
taken to give for any release or modi- 
fication of any of the terms of that 
franchise contract was by the voluntary 
surrender of the franchise "prior to 
July 1, 1917." It was not so surren- 
dered. Whether its surrender would have 
released the relator from its obligation 
to the city and its inhabitants to main- 
tain the franchise rates of fares is not 
before the court and is not decided. The 
state legislature has no constitutional 
power to authorize the Public Service 
Commission to relieve the traction com- 
pany "relator" of any part of the obli- 
gations of the franchise contract or 
otherwise to modify that contract so 
long as the contract has not been sur- 
rendered, forfeited, or otherwise termi- 
nated. A mandamus will not issue to 
require the Public Service Commission 
to entertain in a petition for an in- 
crease of passenger fares on an electric 
railway where it affirmatively appears 
that, because of a binding franchise 
contract fixing the rates of fares for 
the remaining fifteen years of a term 
for which the contract was entered into 
by express legislative authority, the 
commission has not power to grant any 

Trial of the Case 

Arguments were heard before Judge 
Lewis B. Ewbank on Dec. 26, 27 and 
28 in behalf of the petition of the com- 
pany, to compel the commission to take 
jurisdiction and investigate the com- 
pany's request for an increase in 
rates of fare to straight 5 cents. 
The commission had ruled several 
days previously that it was without 
jurisdiction because the Indianapolis 
franchise was granted under spe- 
cific delegated authority by the Legis- 
lative act of 1899 and because the 

company did not surrender its franchise 
before July 1 of this year and accept 
an indeterminate permit. 

The company was represented by 
Ferdinand Winter and W. H. Latta. The 
attorneys who appeared against the 
petition were W. Masson, M. H. Miller 
and Assistant Attorney-General Lesh. 

The Company Presents Its Side 

Mr. Winter's theory of the case was 
that the State had full power over 
franchises, that a city was merely the 
agent of the State, and that whenever 
the State, the principal, decided to 
modify a contract it could do so pro- 
vided the other party, the public utility 
corporation, consented. He submitted 
that there were only two parties to a 
utility franchise contract, the utility 
corporation and the State, so that if 
the two parties to the contract agreed 
there was no objection in law and there 
was no impairment of the obligations 
of a contract, which the attorneys for 
the Public Service Commission had em- 
phasized in their arguments. Mr. Win- 
ter further submitted that the Legisla- 
ture had conferred full rate-making 
power on the Public Service Commis- 
sion, and that if the commission chose 
to do so it could change any utility 
franchise rate, with the consent of the 
public utility corporation, because the 
commission would be exercising the 
State power over franchises, which Mr. 
Winter repeatedly asserted was com- 

In referring to arguments of at- 
torneys for the other side and comment- 
ing on the court decisions, they had 
cited in support of the proposition that 
a State might delegate express author- 
ity under which a contract could be 
made, which the State itself could not 
modify, Mr. Winter submitted that all 
such decisions arose out of a state of 
facts in which the public utility cor- 
poration itself was contending that 
subsequent action by the Legislature 
would impair the obligations of its con- 
tracts. He said: "Every case on which 
they rely for authority is where the 
controversy arose between the State 
or city on the one side, and the public 
utility corporation on the other." 

Will H. Latta, for the company, said 
the intention of the State in the act of 
1913, creating the Public Service Com- 
mission, was to exert all the power it 
has. He said he went a little beyond 
Mr. Winter in the belief that in the 
1913 law the Legislature gave to every 
public service corporation just, reason- 
able and sufficient rates. The law added 
burdens to such corporations, and at 

the same time it provided that compen- 
sation should be adequate for the in- 
creased burdens. He believed that the 
commission could put any burdens on 
a public utility corporation it saw fit, 
but the rates had to be sufficient to 
carry those burdens. The law of 1913, 
he argued, was a guarantee of adequate 

Mark Miller made the first of the 
closing arguments. He thought it was 
not reasonable to assume that the Leg- 
islature had created a commission with 
power to change a contract only ad- 
versely to the city. 

Chicago Elevated Fare 

President Budd Intimates Chicago Ele- 
vated Railroads Favor Zone System 
for Future Use 

Britton I. Budd, president of the Chi- 
cago (111.) Elevated Railroads, an- 
nounced on Dec. 30 that the applica- 
tion of the company to the Public Util- 
ities Commission of Illinois for permis- 
sion to charge a higher rate of fare 
and probably the right to carry package 
freight would be filed early in January. 
Higher operating costs is the reason 
given. It is likely that the zone district 
will be the basis for the proposed in- 
creased rate. 

Expenses Up 

The Elevated News, issued monthly 
by the railway, outlines the roads' posi- 
tion in the December issue as follows: 

"The roads want their patrons to 
know the facts. Every economy possible 
is being practised, but the revenue is 
insufficient. Everything which the road 
has to buy has gone up in price. The 
increase in wages alone in the last 
three years amounts to more than 
$1,000,000 a year. The pay roll for 
October last shows an increase of $87,- 
101 over the pay roll for October, 1914. 
That is at the rate of $1,045,220 a year. 

"Through routing and free transfer 
privileges have increased the length of 
the haul on the elevated roads until it 
is now 6% miles, twice what it was five 
years ago. The people want to get out 
of the congested districts. Each year 
they move farther out, but they still 
continue to pay the same little old 
nickel which did service in the horse- 
car days. 

Nickel Has Shrunk 

"That nickel isn't nearly as big in 
purchasing power as it was in the 
horse-car days, either. If you think it 
is, try it on the baker for a loaf of 
bread, or on the milk man for a quart 
of milk, or on the grocer for a pound 
of sugar. They won't take it. But the 
elevated roads have to take it. Don't 
you think that is just a little un- 

On the proposed freight privilege is 
this sentence: 

"Hundreds of commodities now 
shipped as package freight over the 
steam roads, congesting terminals and 
utilizing equipment, can be handled by 
electric lines, can be handled at hours 
when their equipment is otherwise idle." 



Vol. 51, No. 1 

Wages Dependent on Fares 

Pittsburgh Railways Announces That Increase is Dependent on the 
Company Securing Six-Cent Fare 

The Pittsburgh (Pa.) Railways, as 
noted briefly in the Electric Railway 
Journal of Dec. 29, page 1175, an- 
nounced on Dec. 21 an immediate in- 
crease of 2% cents an hour in the 
wages of its trainmen. At the same 
time the company said that a further 
advance of 2% cents an hour would be 
made if the request of the company to 
the Public Service Commission for an 
advance in fares was allowed. A state- 
ment which was issued by the company 
follows : 

Company Statement 

"As a result of numerous conferences 
between representatives of the city of 
Pittsburgh and representatives of mo- 
tormen and conductors and officials of 
the Pittsburgh Railways, a tentative 
arrangement for the temporary restora- 
tion of rush-hour tripper and trailer 
service has been made, effective to- 
morrow morning. 

"In order to accomplish this without 
further delay, the Pittsburgh Railways 
agreed temporarily to advance the 
wages of the motormen and conductors 
2% cents an hour to facilitate the im- 
provement of the rush-hour service 
pending the filing with the Public Serv- 
ice Commission of a new schedule ad- 
vancing the present rate of fare to 
5% cents when tickets are used, and to 
6 cents when cash fare is paid. As 
soon as this increased fare goes into 
effect the advance in wages of the mo- 
tormen and conductors will be made 5 
cents an hour. This will amount to 
several hundred thousand dollars a 
year. As a result of this increase the 
motormen and conductors agreed to 
operate the rush-hour trippers and 
trailers, which they have refused to 
operate for the past nine weeks. 

"The advance in wages is given de- 
spite the fact that the wage agreement 
with the motormen and conductors, 
made in May, 1916, for the existing 
wages, does not expire until April 30, 

The New Wage Scale 

The 2% -cent increase is operative 
until Feb. 1, when, if the increased 
fare the company asks is allowed by 
the Public Service Commission, the in- 
crease in wages will become 5 cents an 
hour for every man, or a minimum of 
32 and a maximum of 40 cents an hour. 
On a nine-hour day, which is the aver- 
age day, the motormen and conductors 
would, after Feb. 1, receive from a 
minimum of $2.86 to $3.60 a day. With 
the increase which has just been 
granted in effect the wage scale is as 
follows: First six months' service, 
29% cents an hour, instead of 27 cents, 
the present minimum; second six 
months, 31% instead of 29 cents; sec- 
ond year, 33% instead of 31 cents; 
third year, 35% instead of 33 cents; 
fourth year, 36% instead of 34 cents; 
fifth year of service and thereafter, 
37% instead of 35 cents. 

The City Council by unanimous vot* 
has directed C. K. Robinson, assistant 
city solicitor, to oppose the proposed 
new tariff before the Public Service 
Commission. Under the Pennsylvania 
public service corporations law public 
notice of a change in tariffs by a public 
utility corporation must be made thirty 
days in advance of the new tariff tak- 
ing effect. 

Asked for Bread and Got a Stone 

The railway manager who asks his 
patrons for advice is indeed a brave 
man. But temerity among managers 
is not dead, although there has been 
more than enough in recent years to kill 
it. One brave manager who recently 
threw discretion to the winds and asked 
for advice received this caustic reply: 

"The notices you have pasted in the 
cars asking the help and criticism of 
the public might be passed as a joke 
or 'bull' if they were not in fact an 
insult on injury. 

"When you have done 50 per cent of 
what you or your office boy knows 
should be done, the efficiency of the 
service will be materially increased and 
suggestions from patrons might then be 

"Possibly you want the patrons to run 
the business while you devote your 
time to increasing fares and reducing 

"It is difficult to imagine what more 
the patrons can do, unless we ride the 
roof or brake beams and send our 
money by mail. We wait and wait for 
cars (?). 

"Sometimes one comes along and we 
crowd in till it is difficult to breathe. 
As a rule there would not be half 
straps enough to hang on if all straps 
were there, but many are absent and 
others broken." 

I. U. T. Fare Increase Allowed 

Indiana Commission Grants Main Requests of Indiana Union Traction 
Company for Fare Increases 

The Public Service Commission of 
Indiana on Dec. 28 handed down its 
decision on the petition of the Union 
Traction Company for increased rates 
of fare. 

The New Rates 

The commission permitted the com- 
pany to increase its rate for mileage 
books on its lines to 2 cents a mile; 
to increase its rates for commutation 
tickets to 1% cents a mile from 1% 
cents, the former mark, and to increase 
the rate for school passengers on its 
lines to 1 1/5 cents a mile. 

The round-trip fare between Indian- 
apolis and Fort Benjamin Harrison 
will be increased to 35 cents, and the 
single fare between the military reser- 
vation and the city will be 25 cents. 
The fare between Indianapolis and 
Lawrence, under the new order, will 
be 35 cents for the round trip daily 
and 25 cents for the single fare be- 
tween those points. 

New Rates from Jan. 1 

Abolishment of the sale of six 
tickets for a quarter was authorized 
on the urban lines of the company in 
Anderson, Marion, Muncie and El- 
wood, where hereafter a straight 5-cent 
fare will be in effect. The new rates 
were to become effective Jan. 1, 1918, 
provided the company filed new tariffs, 
covering such advances, by that date. 

Part of Decision Held Up 

The commission held up its decision 
in the part of the petition that asked 
authority to increase the minimum in- 
terurban fare of the company from 5 
cents to 10 cents, after the members 
tentatively had agreed that the body 
would deny the right to increase the 
minimum under existing statute pro- 
hibitions, although at least some mem- 

bers believed that the minimum should 
be increased. This matter, the under- 
lying legal theory of which will figure 
also in rate increase petitions from 
other interurban systems, to be heard 
by the commission early in January, 
probably will be decided later. 

Opinion by Commissioner Corr 

After a legal discussion regarding 
the commission's powers in the decid- 
ing of the part of the petition refer- 
ring to the Broad Ripple increase, the 
opinion, which was written by Edwin 
Corr, of the commission, says: 

"Applying to this statute the well- 
established rule of interpretation, that 
the mention of one thing is the exclu- 
sion of the others, this commission is 
forced to the conclusion that the pro- 
visions of this franchise contract are 
void which undertake to fix rates for 
service outside the town of Broad 
Ripple. The town of Broad Ripple had 
authority to regulate and fix rates 
within said town, but it had not power 
to fix rates between Broad Ripple and 

The commission further stated that 
a 5-cent fare between Broad Ripple 
and Indianapolis was a very low one and 
that the commission had been disposed 
to increase this fare were it not con- 
vinced from evidence introduced that 
the company at this time was not pro- 
viding adequate service between Indian- 
apolis and Broad Ripple. The commis- 
sion intimated, however, that if the 
company will improve its service it will 
entertain an application for an increase 
of the fare on the Broad Ripple line. 

In discussing the increased revenue 
to the company from the fare increases 
granted the commission's order said: 

"The increase in fares and charges 
which this commission will allow, as 
indicated above, based upon receipts 

January 5, 1918 


6 I 

for the first ten months of 1917, and an 
estimate for the last two months of 
that year, it is estimated, will produce 
.an increased revenue of approximately 

The hearing's before the commission 
in this case were reviewed in the Elec- 
tric Railway Journal of Dec. 22 
and 29. 

Inquiry into Kansas City 

The Public Service Commission of 
Missouri has announced that it will 
conduct an investigation into the service 
of the Kansas City Railways. The hear- 
ings are to begin on Jan. 9. The serv- 
ice engineers of the commission are in 
Kansas City conducting preliminary in- 
vestigations before the hearings proper 
are begun. In making this announce- 
ment the commission said: 

"The commission will proceed on its 
own motion to investigate fully the 
service rendered. Notice is hereby given 
that a proceeding of inquiry and inves- 
tigation be and is hereby instituted by 
the commission on its own motion to 
determine the character of the service 
rendered by the Kansas City Railways." 

Acting President Ready and Willing 

Clyde Taylor, acting president of the 
company, says: 

"The Kansas City Railways will wel- 
come an investigation by the commis- 
sion and will co-operate with that body 
and furnish it the fullest information 
upon any subject. Coal, labor shortage, 
limitation of power due to long delays 
in deliveries of electrical machinery, 
tremendous increased cost of operation, 
and other factors, and the relation of 
these to service can be investigated by 
the commission which is fully equipped 
for such work. It is the desire of the 
officials of the company to render the 
best possible service in these abnormal 
times and if the commission can find 
ways in which that can be done it will 
be rendering a necessary service." 

Curtailed Service Protested 

Representative of City of Seattle Sug- 
gests Use of Women on Cars as 
One Way Out 

In registering a complaint against 
curtailed service on the railway lines of 
the Puget Sound Traction, Light & 
Power Company in Seattle, Wash., A. 
L. Valentine, Superintendent of Public 
Utilities, recommended to that company 
that women be used as conductors. Mr. 
Valentine said: 

"While I appreciate the fact that you 
are having trouble in obtaining opera- 
tors for your cars, the transportation 
situation is so acute that I am going to 
suggest that you endeavor to obtain 
women conductors in an effort to re- 
lieve conditions which are rapidly grow- 
ing worse." 

According to Mr. Valentine, the com- 
pany is called upon to transport more 
passengers each day than ever before, 
and to aggravate this condition there is 
a shortage of from one to eight crews 

on every line almost every day. In reg- 
istering his complaint Mr. Valentine ac- 
companied his letter with records of 
car checks made by inspectors of his 
department on Dec. 19. 

A. W. Leonard, president of the com- 
pany, said: 

"We are making every effort to ob- 
tain sufficient men to maintain adequate 
service on all our lines, and while we 
are adding men daily, many of the lines 
are being operated frequently on cur- 
tailed schedules, because of a lack of 
operators. It may be necessary as a 
war measure to employ women as con- 
ductors, in order to release men for 
other work. No steps to that end have 
yet been taken." 

Forum and His Little Brother 

The United Railways & Electric 
Company, Baltimore, Md., through 
Forum and his little brother, Trolley 
News, the first published by the com- 

pany in the interest of the employees 
and the second in the interest of the 
public, is extending holiday greetings 
to patrons and friends in the form of a 
card 6 in. wide by 3% in. high done in 
colors. The card, about two-thirds the 
original size, is shown in the accom- 
panying engraving. 

Transit Facilities Poor 

Admiral Bowles Complains About Lack 
of Accommodation for Ship- 
yard Employees 

Admiral Bowles, head of the construc- 
tion department of the Emergency Fleet 
Corporation, before the Senate com- 
mittee conducting the shipping inquiry, 
asked on Dec. 28 for authority to com- 
mandeer houses, street cars and ferry 
boats, and to declare war zones about 
certain shipyards in order to clean them 
up and make them habitable for ship- 
yard employees. He explained that his 
program contemplated requiring elec- 
tric railways to operate special cars to 

carry the workmen to and from work. 
He said: 

"It is almost impossible to keep men 
when they have to hang on a street car 
for an hour or two in order to get to 
work and then to get home in the 


He said that by commandeering 
transportation facilities of this kind the 
force of workmen could be increased 
by providing a greater living area. Two 
cases, which Admiral Bowles said were 
typical, were cited by him. 

Appeal to Shop Early 

By Josh Wink in "The American" 
Shop early and often, 

If so you incline, 
pitying women, 

But please draw the line 
At riding in hours 

When workers must rush, 
And so keep the traffic 

From being a crush. 

So you'll conserve fuel, 

And you'll conserve space, 
You'll, too, conserve labor, 

And if by your grace 
These do double duty 

Thus economized, 
You're doing a service 

To be highly prized. 

So, ladies, shop early, 

For leisure is yours, 
The hours restricted 

To others restores 
Your consideration; 

Then go home and knit 
Content with your conscience 

For doing your bit. 

According to J. F. Strickland, presi- 
dent of the Texas Electric Railway, 
Dallas, Tex., it appears most likely in 
the present government emergency that 
the transportation of freight will be 
centered in the steam lines and that the 
interurban electric lines will be de- 
signed as passenger carriers where 
steam and electrics serve the same ter- 




Vol. 51, No. 1 

Another Pennsylvania Fare Increase. 
— The Shamokin & Mount Carrael Tran- 
sit Company, Mount Carmel, Pa., oper- 
ating between Shamokin and Ashland, 
will increase its rates from 5 to 6 cents 
per zone on Jan. 15, and will withdraw 
from sale the three-for-a-quarter tickets 
which have been in use between Ash- 
land and Centralia. 

No Expert for St. Louis. — The ordi- 
nance providing for an appropriation 
of $5,000 for hiring an expert to ad- 
vise the public utilities committee of 
the Board of Aldermen of St. Louis, 
Mo., in connection with the preparation 
of a new franchise ordinance for the 
United Railways Company was killed 
in the Board of Estimate and Appor- 

Legislators Will Not Be Favored. — 

The Kentucky Traction & Terminal 
Company, Lexington, Ky., has declined 
to quote reduced rates between Frank- 
fort and Lexington to persons who, 
during the session of the coming Legis- 
lature at Frankfort, wish to make their 
headquarters at Lexington. The Louis- 
ville & Nashville Railroad and Chesa- 
peake & Ohio Railroad will issue com- 
mutation tickets. 

Paper for San Diego Railway Patrons. 

—The San Diego (Cal.) Electric Rail- 
way, beginning Jan. 1, 1918, will issue 
a monthly pamphlet for the purpose of 
acquainting the public with the aims 
of the company regarding service, im- 
provements, changes and happenings 
affecting electric railway operation in 
San Diego. The pamphlet will be 
placed in boxes in the cars and will 
be mailed to persons desiring it. Ernest 
L. Phillips is advei-tising manager of 
the company. 

I. T. S. Christmas Greeting.— What 
should serve as a worth-while reminder 
of the satisfactory service and amiable 
relations which have existed during the 
year is contained in the Christmas 
greeting sent out by the Illinois Trac- 
tion System, which was engraved on 
an attractive card and read as follows: 
"We feel that the year 1917 should not 
pass without some expression of grati- 
fication over the cordial relations ex- 
isting between us, and we desire to 
convey the season's best wishes for a 
Merry Christmas and a Prosperous 
New Year. Signed, Illinois Traction 
System (McKinley Lines)." 

Jitney Bonding Company Quits. — The 

Golden State Indemnity Company of 
California is retiring from the field. 
The company was headed by Andrew J. 
Gallagher, one of the supervisors of 
San Francisco and enjoyed virtually a 
monopoly of the jitney bus insurance 
business. The reason announced for 
the retirement is the inability to raise 
$75,000 additional capital by Jan. 10 
which the company would require if 
it were to continue in business under 
recently enacted laws. It is announced 
that the Western Indemnity Company 
will take over the unexpired policies of 
the retiring company, but that hereafter 
the insurance rate will be $12.50 per 
lonth instead of the $8 previously in 

Personal Mention 

C. G. Ballentyne has resigned as gen- 
eral manager, purchasing agent and 
claim agent of the Honolulu Rapid 
Transit & Land Company, Honolulu, 

Howard E. Jaeger has recently been 
advanced to the position of purchasing 
agent for the Oakland, Antioch & East- 
ern Railway at Oakland, Cal., succeed- 
ing Ernest E. Haquette, resigned. 

W. M. Bird, formerly assistant super- 
intendent of transportation of the 
Tampa (Fla.) Electric Company, has 
been appointed superintendent of trans- 
portation to succeed G. A. Webb. 

B. H. Meyer, appointed to the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission from Wis- 
consin, has been nominated by President 
Wilson for reappointment for the seven- 
year term expiring on Dec. 31, 1924. 

G. A. Webb, formerly superintendent 
of transportation of the Tampa (Fla.) 
Electric Company, has been appointed 
traffic manager of the company. Mr. 
Webb has been with the company for 
about twenty-five years in various 

E. A. Merrill has been appointed chief 
engineer of the power station of the 
Galesburg Railway, Lighting & Power 
Company, Galesburg, 111., controlled by 
the Illinois Traction Company, to suc- 
ceed L. N. Jenkins, resigned. Mr. Mer- 
rill was formerly connected with the 
Underfeed Stoker Company, Chicago, 

R. E. Kelly has been made general 
agent of the Pacific Electric Railway, 
Los Angeles, Cal. Mr. Kelly began 
service with the Pacific Electric Railway 
in 1901 as a conductor. At the time of 
his appointment as general agent he 
was general agent of the eastern divi- 
sion with headquarters at San Ber- 

Foster Hannaford, for two years su- 
perintendent of the St. Paul lines of the 
Twin City Rapid Transit Company, has 
been appointed general manager of the 
company, the duties of which office have 
been carried on for six years by Presi- 
dent Horace Lowry. Mr. Hannaford 
was born in St. Paul. He is a son of 
J. M. Hannaford, president of the 
Northern Pacific Railway. 

William Siebert, superintendent of 
surface railroad transportation of the 
Brooklyn (N. Y.) Rapid Transit Com- 
pany, has been elected a director of the 
Nassau Electric Railroad; Brooklyn, 
Queens County & Suburban Railway, 
and the DeKalb Avenue & North Beach 
Railroad Company, all subsidiaries of 
the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company, 
to succeed Slaughter W. Huff, now 
president of the Third Avenue Rail- 
road, New York. 

Van Dusen Rickert severed his con- 
nection on Dec. 31 with the Eastern 
Pennsylvania Railways, Pottsville, Pa. 

Early in October Mr. Rickert resigned 
as assistant general manager and as- 
sistant secretary and treasurer of the 
Eastern Pennsylvania Railways and 
assistant general manager and secre- 
tary and treasurer of the Eastern Penn- 
sylvania Light, Heat & Power Com- 
pany. At that time Mr. Rickert agreed 
to remain at Pottsville until a new gen- 
eral manager was appointed. 

Charles Remelius has resigned from 
the Peter Smith Heater Company, De- 
troit, Mich., to become assistant master 
mechanic of the New York State Rail- 
ways at Rochester. Mr. Remelius has 
had a long experience with electric rail- 
ways in mechanical work, having been 
connected with the Cleveland (Ohio) 
Railway, Detroit (Mich.) United Rail- 
way; Indianapolis Traction & Terminal 
Company, Indianapolis, Ind.; St. Louis 
(Mo.) Transit Company; Brooklyn (N. 
Y.) Rapid Transit Company, and the 
Public Service Railway, Newark, N. J. 

F. J. H. Kracke has been appointed 
by Governor Whitman of New York to 
the Public Service Commission of the 
First District to succeed Col. William 
Hayward. He is to serve until the re- 
turn of Col. Hayward from military 
duty. Mr. Kracke is one of the princi- 
pal Republican leaders of Brooklyn. He 
has held the post of Commissioner of 
Plant and Structures, formerly Bridge 
Commissioner, in the Mitchel adminis- 
tration, and before that was Naval Of- 
ficer of the Port of New York from 1906 
to 1913. Mr. Kracke managed Gov- 
ernor Whitman's campaign in 1916. 

W. T. Waters, former advertising 
manager of the Georgia Railway & 
Power Company, Atlanta, Ga., and 
editor of Here We Are, published by 
that company, is a first lieutenant in 
the Field Artillery and is stationed at 
Fort Logan, Houston, Tex. Mr. Waters 
entered the officers' training camp at 
Fort Oglethorpe three months ago, after 
many weeks of hard work on the draft 
exemption board. He was graduated 
far up in the A list of first lieutenants. 
Mrs. Waters, who held her husband's 
place as advertising manager during his 
absence in camp, will continue in that 

Charles Bulkley Hubbell has been ap- 
pointed by Governor Whitman of New 
York to the Public Service Commission 
of the First District to succeed H. W. 
Hodge. He is to serve until the return 
of Mr. Hodge from military duty. Mr. 
Hubbell was chairman of three subway 
commissions by appointment of the Ap- 
pellate Division. He was the last pres- 
ident of the board of education before 
consolidation and the first president of 
the new board of the greater city, and 
is still chairman of the board of trus- 
tees of Hunter College and the College 
of the City of New York. He has been 
active in the alumni affairs of Williams 

January 5, 1 ( J18 



W. O. Minard has been appointed 
electrical engineer of the Rutland Rail- 
way, Light & Power Company and the 
Western Vermont Power & Light Com- 
pany, Rutland, Vt. Mr. Minard entered 
the employ of the companies in Rut- 
land about eight years ago as a lineman, 
in which capacity he worked for three 
years. He then resigned to become 
chief electrician of the Consolidated 
Light & Power Company, Whitehall, 
N. Y. After a year with this company, 
he returned to Rutland as electrician 
and substation repair man for the West- 
ern Vermont Power & Light Company 
and the Rutland Railway, Light & 
Power Company. 

Stuart H. Patterson, who has been 
appointed comptroller of the Guaranty 
Trust Company, New York, a newly 
created office, has been connected with 
the American Water Works & Electric 
Company, as vice-president and treas- 
urer, since its organization, in April, 
1914. Mr. Patterson was born in New 
York City on Feb. 12, 1871, and on 
Jan. 1, 1887, he began his business 
career as an office boy in a wholesale 
dry goods house. In 1891 he went to 
Seattle, Wash., and learned some of the 
practical side of the electrical business. 
Mr. Patterson returned to New York in 
January, 1894, to join his father in 
the accounting business. He became a 
certified public accountant in 1896. 
Nine years later Mr. Patterson with- 
drew from the accounting firm of Pat- 
terson, Teele & Dennis to become asso- 
ciated with a bond house. In January, 
1912, he became associated with the 
Guaranty Trust Company in an advis- 
ory capacity. 

Fred Boeken has been appointed su- 
perintendent of the Municipal Railway, 
San Francisco, Cal., to succeed the late 
Thomas A. Cashin. Mr. Boeken has 
been assistant superintendent of the 
Municipal Railway since 1912. His 


first railway experience began in San 
Francisco as a gripman on the old Mar- 
ket Street Cable Railway. Later he 
became inspector with the Geary Street, 
Park & Ocean Railroad, and in 1906 
was made assistant superintendent of 
that company. This position he held 
until the line was taken over as part 
of the municipal system of San Fran- 

cisco in 1912. He was then appointed 
assistant to Mr. Cashin. Included in the 
Municipal Railway are 45 miles of line 
over which more than 190 cars are 

J. B. Stewart, Jr., whose promotion 
from the position of assistant to the 
general manager to assistant general 
manager of the Mahoning & Shenango 
Railway & Light Company, Youngs- 
town, Ohio, was noted in the Electric 
Railway Journal of Dec. 22, has been 


with the company since 1913, when he 
became safety and efficiency engineer 
and superintendent of freight. Subse- 
quently he was appointed superintend- 
ent of equipment and traffic and then 
was made assistant to Richard T. Sul- 
livan, general manager. Mr. Stewart 
was graduated from the high school at 
Newton, Mass., and the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology. His first em- 
ployment in the electric railway field 
was with the Middlesex & Boston 
Street Railway, Newtonville, Mass., as 
an engineer, whence he went to Erie, 
Pa., as assistant to the general man- 
ager of the Buffalo & Lake Erie Trac- 
tion Company. In 1910 he was en- 
gaged in the construction of the Corn- 
ing division of the Elmira, Corning & 
Waverly Railroad, Waverly, N. Y., and 
two years later became park manager 
and acted as assistant to the traffic 
manager of the Lehigh Valley Transit 
Company, Allentown, Pa. 

George A. Mills has been appointed 
electrical engineer of the Winnipeg 
(Man.) Electric Railway and subsidiary 
companies. Mr. Mills entered the engi- 
neering field after graduation from 
Iowa State College in 1909. The next 
fourteen months he spent with the 
Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Company 
at its Bullock works, as an electrical 
apprentice. In 1910 Mr. Mills became a 
member of the instructing staff of the 
University of Pennsylvania, where he 
remained one year. In June, 1911, he 
became connected with the Waterloo, 
Cedar Falls & Northern Railway, 
Waterloo, Iowa, as electrical engineer, 
for which he had charge of the electric 
design and construction of the Cedar 
Rapids extension. He also was active 
in rebuilding the power station and 
other lines of this company. 


George E. Baker, chief mechanical 
expert of the Eastern district of the 
Westinghouse Traction Brake Com- 
pany, died on Dec. 26 after an opera- 
tion. For a number of years he suffered 
very severely from rheumatism, but 
never lost his courage or cheerfulness. 
Mr. Baker was born in New Albany, 
Ind., in 1865, and after serving his ap- 
prenticeship became an expert machin- 
ist. Twenty-five years ago he entered 
the employ of the Gennett Air Brake 
Company, Chicago, the first to special- 
ize in electric railway air brakes, and 
continued in that line, joining the West- 
inghouse Company in 1901. Mr. Baker 
was widely known as dean of traction 
railway brake experts and was highly 
esteemed by all for his comprehensive 
understanding of his business and his 
unfailing kindliness. He is survived 
by his widow and daughter. 

Frank M. Mousseau, head bookkeeper 
in the auditing department of the Twin 
City Rapid Transit Company, Minne- 
apolis, Minn., died suddenly on Dec. 27. 
Mr. Mousseau was born in 1873 and 
entered railway work in Minneapolis 
as a water boy when the first lines were 
being built. For several years he was 
a station timekeeper and for fifteen 
years had been in the auditing depart- 
ment. His father, Mitchell Mousseau, 
was in the employ of the company for 
thirty-three years. He was one of the 
first superintendents in Minneapolis. 
An uncle, Henry Mousseau, forty years 
with the company, was the first horse- 
car driver in Minneapolis. One brother 
has worked for the company twenty 
years and another five years. Horace 
Lowry, president of the company, said 
that he felt the Mousseau family were 
one of the rocks on which the company 
had been built, typifying as they did a 
fine loyalty and unswerving devotion to 
duty under all circumstances. 

William H. Goble died suddenly on 
Dec. 25 while making a brief visit at 
the home of his youth in London, Ont. 
Mr. Goble left the farm in Canada in 
the earliest days of electrification of 
street railways and joined the car- 
equipping forces of the Thomson-Hous- 
ton Company, working in Brooklyn and 
Baltimore. In 1893 he was employed in 
Brooklyn, serving as foreman of various 
surface and elevated shops until 1901, 
when he became a member of the Chris- 
tensen Engineering Company's field 
force. He remained with the company 
and its successors, the National Brake 
& Electric Company, as sales engineer 
of its Philadelphia district until that 
company was taken over by the West- 
inghouse Traction Brake Company, and 
continued with them as mechanical ex- 
pert and salesman in his old territory 
until his death. Beloved by all for his 
great-heartedness, he and George E. 
Baker, his friend of many years, willf i 
sadly missed by all who knov r thd .. 
Mr. Goble is survived by his widow. 



Vol. 51, No. 1 

Construction News 

Construction News Notes are classified un- 
der each heading alphabetically by States. 

An asterisk (*) indicates a project not 
previously reported. 


Jacksonville, Fla. — The County Com- 
missioners have granted the Jackson- 
ville Traction Company permission to 
construct a line from Ortega to Camp 
Joseph E. Johnston. 

Cedar Rapids, Iowa. — The Board of 
Railroad Commissioners has granted 
the Iowa Railway & Light Company a 
franchise to construct and operate an 
electric transmission line along certain 
roads in Benton County for the trans- 
mission of electricity for lamps, heaters 
and motors. 

Pacific Electric Railway, Los Angeles, 
Cal. — This company is double-tracking 
its line between Baldwin Park and 
Hayes Station. 

Municipal Railways, San Francisco, 
Cal. — M. M. O'Shaughnessy, city engi- 
neer, has awarded contracts for the 
ties, steel rails and other material re- 
quired for the construction of the Park- 
side extension of the Twin Peaks tunnel 
system. Delivery will be made about 
Jan. 31 and it is expected that actual 
construction will be begun early in 
February. The line will be about 1 mile 
long and will extend from the west 
portal of the tunnel to Twentieth and 
Taraval Streets. 

Southern Pacific Railway, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. — Plans have been prepared 
by Alameda County and the Southern 
Pacific Railway for the erection of a 
bascule bridge over the inner harbor of 

Colorado Springs & Interurban Rail- 
way, Colorado Springs, Col. — This com- 
pany reports that during 1918 it will 
build 1 mile of new track and will re- 
construct 4 miles of track. 

Murphysboro & Southern Illinois 
Railway, Murphysboro, 111. — Application 
has been filed by the Murphysboro & 
Southern Illinois Railway with the Pub- 
lic Utilities Commission of Illinois for 
permission to issue $63,000 capital stock 
and $250,000 in bonds. The company is 
building a line between Murphysboro 
and Carbondale and the new capital is 
desired to extend the line from Carbon- 
dale to Carterville or to Herrin. A. B. 
Minton, Murphysboro, president. [June 
23, : 17.] 

Sioux City (Iowa) Service Company. 

— This company reports that it will re- 
construct 2y 2 miles of track in 1918. 

Wichita-Walnut Valley Interurban 
Railway, Wichita, Kan. — A contract has 
been awarded by the Wichita-Walnut 
Valley Interurban Railway to the Scott 
Construction Company, St. Louis, for 
the construction of its proposed line 
from Wichita to El Dorado and Augusta. 
It is probable that the line will leave the 
city east on Twenty-first Street to 
Andover, where a terminal will be 
built; thence one branch will lead to El 
Dorado and the other to Augusta. The 
El Dorado line will be built via An- 
dover, Benton and Towanda. This part 
of the line will then be built to Augusta, 
connecting the two large oil fields. As 
soon as the road from Wichita to El 
Dorado and Augusta is completed work 
on the construction of a line from 
Augusta to Douglass and Winfield will 
be begun. Charles Payne, secretary. 
[Dec. 8, '17.] 

South Covington & Cincinnati Street 
Railway, Covington, Ky. — During 1918 
this company will rebuild 2.4 miles of 

*New Orleans, La. — An interurban 
railway from New Orleans, La., to Mo- 
bile, Ala., is in prospect if the Missis- 
sippi Legislature sanctions a bill that 
has been drafted and is ready for sub- 
mission at the approaching session. 
The bill as it will be introduced pro- 
poses the authorization and empower- 
ment of municipalities in Mississippi to 
own, construct and operate electric 
railways. The measure would author- 
ize cities and towns to take over the 
Gulfport & Mississippi Coast Traction 
Company operating between Biloxi and 
Pass Christian at a fair valuation and 
extend it from New Orleans to the Gulf 
city. The bill is now in the hands of 
Mayor George M. Foot of Gulfport and 
will be presented early in the approach- 
ing session and rushed for passage. The 
purpose of the bill is to enable cities 
and towns in the State to combine and 
co-operate with each other in the 
ownership, construction and operation 
of the electric interurban railways. 
Supporters of the bill believe that, if 
passed, it will result in the construc- 
tion of several interurban railway sys- 
tems in Mississippi, especially in the 
sections where cities and towns are situ- 
ated close to others, thus making inter- 
urban lines profitable. 

Southern Traction & Utilities Com- 
pany, Thibodaux, La. — It is reported 
that the Southern Traction & Utilities 
Company will construct thz proposed 
line from Donaldsonville to Lockport, 
along the Bayou Lafourche, 56 miles. 
C. C. Barton, Albemarle, is president of 
the company, and others interested are 
Albert Boudreaux and L. C. Roger, Thi- 
bodaux; Walter Ohlmeyer, Plattenville; 
Dr. A. J. Price of the Lagarde Planting 
Company; Henry LeBlanc, Painscout- 
ville, and Harold Raymond, New Or- 
leans. Practically all the necessary 

right-of-way has been obtained. Sub- 
scriptions to $100,000 of the total capi' 
tal stock of $500,000 are sought from 
the people along the line, subscriptions 
for the other $400,000 being assured as 
soon as the necessary indorsement of 
the population to be served is obtained. 
[Nov. 17, '17 J 

Bay State Street Railway, Boston, 
Mass. — The new line extending on 
Quincy Street to the Fore River Ship- 
building Corporation has been opened 
for traffic. Washington Street, widened 
from 40 ft. to 66 ft. for a distance of 
2 miles, now has double tracKs, which 
connect with the double-tracked system 
in Hancock Street and run through 
Cleverly Court to the Fore River yard. 
The government will pay $300,000 of 
the cost of $350,000 and Quincy will pay 
the balance for land taking. 

Boston (Mass.) Elevated Railway. — 

The government has nearly completed 
the big Victory Bridge over the Nepon- 
set River. When the work is completed 
the Boston Elevated Railway will oper- 
ate cars direct to the Squantum works 
of the Fore River Shipbuilding Cor- 

Minneapolis, St. Paul, Rochester & 
Dubuque Electric Traction Company, 
Minneapolis, Minn. — Plans for the re- 
construction of the Minneapolis, St. 
Paul, Rochester & Dubuque Electric 
Traction Company's line from the Min- 
neapolis terminal at Seventh Street and 
Third Avenue, N., to Northfield and 
Faribault, at a cost of approximately 
$750,000 have been announced by C. T. 
Jaffray, president of the First & Secur- 
ity National Bank. C. T. Bratnober, 
who was receiver for the line, is in 
charge of the new plan. Mr. Jaffray 
and his associates on Dec. 19 bought 
that part of the line extending from 
a point near the Minnesota River to 
a junction with the Luce line near 
Glenwood Park for $100,000. If the 
plan goes through it will mean that 
the road will be electrified for freight 
and heavy traffic as well as for pas- 
senger travel, and Minneapolis will 
then have a heavy electric line direct 
into the heart of southern Minnesota. 

St. Cloud (Minn.) Public Service 
Company. — This company reports that 
it will build 1 mile of new track dur- 
ing 1918. 

St. Louis, Mo. — The Municipal Bridge 
Commission has decided that the pro- 
posed rental of 1 cent per passenger 
carried by interurban cars for the use 
of the free bridge and municipal loop 
shall be eliminated and it will recom- 
mend to the Board of Aldermen that 
the city build a loop and maintain the 
bridge and loop tracks for one year 
without charge to street cars, to en- 
courage interurban development. 

Interborough Rapid Transit Company, 
New York, N. Y. — Announcement has 
been made by the Public Service Com- 
mission for the First District of New 
York that it is hoped to have the 
Lexington Avenue subway and the 
Seventh Avenue subway in full oper- 
ation, in connection with the first 
subway, as soon after the first of 

January 5, 1918 



April as is possible. In the mean- 
time, according to Frank Hedley, vice- 
president and general manager of the 
Interborough Rapid Transit Company, 
which will operate these lines, the earli- 
est date at which partial operation may 
be expected is on or about March 1. 
The company plans to operate an alter- 
nate service of elevated and subway 
trains over both the Astoria and Corona 
extensions, beginning some time be- 
tween Jan. 1 and Jan. 15. The date on 
which this service will begin depends 
upon the completion of work on some 
safety switches now being installed at 
the plaza in Long Island City. 

Piedmo Ht & Northern Railway, Char- 
lotte, N. C- — An order has been placed 
by the Piedmont & Northern Railway 
with the Union Switch & Signal Com- 
pany, Swissvale, Pa., for two small 
temporary interlockings at the en- 
trances to the national cantonment at 
Camp Greene, Charlotte. Each plant 
includes a three-lever dwarf machine, 
and the signal indications will be con- 
trolled primarily by knife switches and 
selected over-circuit controllers on the 
levers of the machine. 

Portsmouth Street Railroad & Light 
Company, Portsmouth, Ohio. — During 
1918 this company will build 2 miles of 
new track between Portsmouth and 
Union Mills". 

Sandwich, Windsor & Amherstburg 
Railway, Windsor, Ont. — James Ander- 
son, manager of the Sandwich, Windsor 
& Amherstburg Railway, has announced 
that from $50,000 to $75,000 will be 
spent in the betterment of electric rail- 
way service in Windsor, providing the 
city will allow the company to construct 
the Ferry Avenue loop, which caused 
litigation extending over two years and 
resulted in the company being told by 
the courts that it could not build a loop 
without the consent of the ratepayers. 
The company's plan is to install a 
double curve at Sandwich Street and 
Ouellette Avenue, which would obviate 
the necessity of running belt line cars 
on the wrong side of Ouellette Avenue. 
Double tracks will also be laid on Ouel- 
lette Avenue from Park Street to 
Wyandotte Street. The proposal will 
be submitted to the Ontario Municipal 
& Railway Board, which will either 
order the work done or send recom- 
mendations to the City Council. 

Montgomery Transit Company, Nor- 
ristown, Pa. — A report from the Mont- 
gomery Transit Company states that 
during 1918 it will place in service 16.3 
miles of new track, consisting of an ex- 
tension from Harleysville to East 
Greenville, 12 miles, and from Harleys- 
ville to Souderton, 4.3 miles. The com- 
pany will reconstruct 10 miles of track. 

Johnstown-Somerset Traction Com- 
pany, Somerset, Pa. — This company, 
which is constructing a line from Johns- 
town to Jerome, 10 miles, reports that 
it will probably build a 6-mile extension 
to Boswell. 

Sioux Falls (S. D.) Traction Com- 
pany. — About 1 mile of track will be 
rebuilt by the Sioux Falls Traction 
Company in 1918. 

Dallas (Tex.) Railway Company. — 
Street car terminals will be constructed 
by the Dallas Railway at Fair Park to 
care for the heavy traffic incident to 
the Texas State Fair, formal approval 
of the plans of the company having 
been given by the Fair Park directors, 
the city park board, the supervisor of 
public utilities and the city commission- 
ers. The company will construct a stor- 
age track along the Second Avenue side 
of Gaston Park and will also build a 
double-track line on Second Avenue to 
be a part of the Second Avenue exten- 
sion. A crossover will be built through 
Gaston Park from Second Avenue to 
Exposition Avenue to take care of cars 
from the storage track to the loading 
station. The loading station will be. 
entered through pay-as-you-enter gates, 
which will greatly facilitate the handl- 
ing of large crowds. In return for these 
privileges, the Dallas Railway will deed 
to the City of Dallas the 30-ft. road- 
way extending from Gaston Park and 
Parry Avenue, known as Exposition 
Avenue, title to which is held in fee by 
the company. 

Southwestern Traction Company, 
Temple, Tex. — The property of the 
Southwestern Traction Company, which 
operates a line between Belton and 
Temple, has been sold under order of 
the United States Court to F. W. 
Downs, Temple. It is stated that the 
company will be reorganized and impor- 
tant improvements made to the prop- 

Seattle, Wash.— The Puget Sound 
Traction, Light & Power Company re- 
cently made application to the City 
Council of Seattle for a franchise for a 
line to extend across the new steel 
bridge spanning the Salmon Bay Water- 
way at Fifteenth Avenue, N. W., and 
a second application for the right to 
discontinue service on the streets lead- 
ing to the temporary bridge at Four- 
teenth Avenue, N. W., reach^ by the 
company over private righ< -of -way. 
The application for the brieve fran- 
chise was referred to the ut ; ities and 
franchise committees. The 1 ill grant- 
ing the company operating rights on 
the second temporary bridge across the 
west waterway at West Spokane Street 
was passed by the Council. This right 
is to be enforced until a permanent 
bridge across the waterway is con- 
structed, when the company will oper- 
ate under a franchise granted many 
years ago by King County, before the 
annexation of that territory to the city 
of Seattle. 

Seattle (Wash.) Municipal Railway. 
— The Street Department of the city of 
Seattle, Charles R. Case, Superinten- 
dent, has completed the grading for the 
Ballard extension of Division A of the 
Seattle Municipal Railway to the con- 
nection with the Loyal Heights Street 
Railway at Twenty-third Avenue North- 
west, and West Sixty-seventh Street, 
and has laid the track within one block 
of the Loyal Heights line. However, 
delay in getting the material for cross- 
overs will prevent operation of the line 
until the middle of January. The utili- 
ties and street department recently in- 

ventoried the property of the Loyal 
Heights Railway, and made a report to 
the Board of Public Works. The pur- 
chase and transfer of the property to 
the city has been authorized as soon as 
the corporation counsel passes upon a 
satisfactory title. Acceptance of the 
Loyal Heights line by the city of Seattle 
will make it possible for the residents 
of that district lying along the Loyal 
Heights line from Market Street to the 
city limits at Thirty-second Avenue, 
N. W., and West Eighty-fifth Street, 
to reach downtown without a transfer, 
with but one fare. 

Monongahela Valley Traction Com- 
pany, Fairmont, W. Va. — This company 
reports that it will construct 4 miles of 
new track in the city of Fairmont and 
will rebuild 1 mile of track during 1918. 

Shops and Buildings 

Saginaw-Bay City Railway, Saginaw, 
Mich. — Fire recently destroyed a large 
section of the carhouse and thirty-five 
cars of the Saginaw-Bay City Railway. 

Power Houses and 

Alabama Power Company, Anniston, 
Ala. — It is reported that the Alabama 
Power Company plans extensive im- 
provements and additions to its Warrior 
River electric plant to provide power 
for the operation of the new cyanamid 
plant now in course of construction for 
the Government. The work is esti- 
mated to cost about $3,000,000. 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Rail- 
way, Chicago, 111. — Plans have been pre- 
pared by the Chicago, Milwaukee & 
St. Paul Railway for the construction 
of a substation at Renton, together with 
three bungalows. 

Burlington Railway & Light Com- 
pany, Burlington, Iowa. — The erection 
of a transmission line from Burlington 
to Mediapolis, Morning Sun, Wapello 
and Winfield is contemplated by the 
Burlington Railway & Light Company. 
The company has asked the City Coun- 
cil of Morning Sun for a franchise to 
furnish electricity to that city. 

Public Service Railway, Newark, 
N. J.— The Board of Public Utility 
Commissioners of New Jersey has ap- 
proved the application of the Public 
Service Railway for permission to issue 
$1,250,000 of its capital stock at par to 
be used for extensions to its plant. 

Puget Sound Traction, Light & Power 
Company, Seattle, Wash. — The engi- 
neering department of the Puget Sound 
Traction, Light & Power Company is 
completing the installation of an addi- 
tional penstock at the White River hy- 
droelectric plant, which is about three- 
fourths completed. Foundations for the 
16,000-kva. generator and water wheel 
have been placed. The plant when com- 
pleted will cost about $750,000. 

Manufactures and the Markets 


Market Conditions of 1917 in Review 

Industry Reaches Lower Limit of Purchasing Ability, While Prices 
Showed a Marked Upward Tendency — Brighter 
Outlook for the New Year 

Within the year just closed manu- 
facturers and supply men generally ex- 
perienced the least electric railway buy- 
ing of any year during the past decade. 
Fare increases and better rates for 
money were held to be necessary to 
equipment expenditures. The former 
was slow and the latter did not ma- 

Less rolling stock was ordered dur- 
ing 1917 than in 1916 by some 38 per 
cent. The mileage of new electric rail- 
way trackage was less than in 191*5 
by a little over 40 per cent. Since so 
many other items depend on these two 
and since 1916 was also a particularly 
bad year, it can easily be appreciated 
te what extent the railway supply mar- 
ket has suffered. Many manufacturers 
in this line have been forced to take 
government munition contracts in order 
to keep their plants going. 

Where the manufacturers had other 
than street railway business to depend 
on an excellent business was handled. 

Electrical Trade $750,000,000 

Starting with a heritage from the 
previous year of a quarter of a billion 
of dollars of unfilled orders, the elec- 
trical manufacturing industry in 1917 
far exceeded the record set in 1916 both 
in buildings and bookings. Although the 
country was engaged in war nine out 
of the twelve months of the year, the 
industry has shown on the whole no 
diminution of output but rather a very 
considerable increase. Careful and 
conservative estimates place the 1917 
billings of electrical manufacturers in 
the near neighborhood of $750,000,000, 
while unfilled orders at the close of the 
year were certainly not less than $300,- 
000,000. Thus the 1917 electrical manu- 
facturing industry can be said to have 
passed the billion dollar mark. 

Turbine production for 1917 was 
early sold out, and by the first of June, 
1918 and 1919 production for large 
sizes had been booked, with orders run- 
ning in 1920. The largest single order 
on record, 200,000 kw. in turbines, was 
placed in May. 

Transformers and motors in large 
sizes were particularly hard to obtain 
after the middle of the year. Produc- 
tion has been booked far ahead. In 
the early fall it was estimated that 
manufacturers were 150,000 motors (of 
all kinds) behind orders. 

The second-hand market flourished 
as never before during the year. High 

prices prevailed. Dealers found it very 
difficult to secure equipment. Much of 
this equipment was ordered only until 
such time as new goods could be deliv- 
ered. In this way some machines were 
sold and resold many times in the year. 

One-Man Cars Popular 

In strictly electric railway material 
certain products did show a stimulus 
of sales. One-man cars, while by no 
means a new idea, grew considerably 
in popularity. They seemed to fit in 
well with economy of operation plans. 
Besides the sale of pay-as-you-pass 
cars grew considerably. Other equip- 
ment designed for repair work was in 
greater demand than ever before. 
Conditions were favorable to the sale 
of new fare collection devices in which 
there was particular progress. 

Prices, except for certain raw ma- 
terials, had an upward tendency 
throughout the year, but not to such a 
marked degree as in 1916. Glass and 
porcelain products increased, as did 
many other staples. As the year closed 
announcement was made of the first in- 
crease in the price of incandescent 
lamps. On the other hand, certain 
products, including wire, were lower in 
price as the year came to a close. Rails 
advanced considerably during the year, 
as did practically all car, track and 
line hardware. 

Metal Prices Lower 

In the raw-materials market the 
government price-fixing program, 
which found expression in September 
in lowering the price of copper and 
steel products, has been the dominat- 
ing factor. Metal prices, except for 
tin and nickel, were much lower in De- 
cember than in January. Following is 
a comparison of metal prices in New 
York during the first and last weeks 
of the year: 


London, standard spot 

Prime Lake 



Wire base 

Lead, trust price 

Nickel, ingot 

Sheet zinc, f.o.b. smelter.... 

Spelter, spot 

Tin, Straits 

Aluminum, 98 to 99 per cent. 

Heavy copper and wire 

Brass, heavy 

Brass, light 

Lead, heavy 

Zinc, old scrap 

*Nominal. fNone offering. 

Two of the greatest difficulties that 
the trade has had to contend with dur- 
ing the past year have been labor 
shortage and transportation congestion. 
Both have handicapped production and 
deliveries. In the manufacturing in- 
dustry there were fewer strikes and 
less serious ones than during 1916. 
Labor, however, was still roving. There 
was a serious shortage throughout the 
year in mechanics and similar skilled 
labor and in unskilled labor. Of the 
other large class of labor, however, sta- 
tistics show a growing percentage of 
unemployed. After the war broke out 
the labor situation became worse. 
First, the army and navy took a large 
percentage of the male labor in the 
manufacturing industry, and second, 
the government, through cantonment 
construction and the shipyards, put a 
severe strain on labor by offering an 
opportunity to earn the largest wages 
on record in the United States for 
that kind of labor. In addition, the 
female labor supply apparently became 

A large amount of female labor is 
employed in electrical manufacturing, 
and the scarcity has hampered pro- 
duction considerably. Higher wages 
were paid during the year and high- 
cost-of-living bonuses were given by 
manufacturers rather generally. 

The only ray of hope in the labor 
market came in the winter months 
early in the year, when the closing of 
plants that had completed war con- 
tracts for Russia and other warring 
nations released large numbers of 
skilled workmen. The entrance of the 
United States into the war, however, 
made the demand for this kind of labor 
more acute than ever. 

On Sept. 1 the child-labor law guar- 
antee was demanded of dealers as well 
as manufacturers. 

Transportation Difficulties 

Transportation congestion as the 
year opened was very bad, growing 
worse until the Eastern seaboard in 
March was in an almost hopeless con- 
dition. This was a great handicap to 

Jan. 3, 1917 — , 

, Dec. 24, 1917— 

£ s a 

£ s Mf% 

113 10 


29.00 to 29.50* 

Govt, price 23.50 

28.00 to 29.00* 

Govt, price 23.50 

27.00 to 28.00* 

Govt, price 23.50 

36.00 to 38.00 








9.67V. to 9.92% 

7.67V 2 



55.00 to 58.00* 

34.00 to 36.00 

24.00 to 25.00* 

22.00 to 22.50 

14.50 to 15.50* 

14.00 to 15.00 

10.50 to 11.00* 

9.50 to 10.50 

6.50 to 6.62V* 

5.75 to 5.87 

6.00 to 6.25* 

5.00 to 5.50 

January 5, 1918 



both buyers and sellers in deliveries al- 
ready very long. Embargoes were 
placed on freight for export shipment 
and a lot of other material eastward 
bound. The lack Of tonnage for export 
caused docks and warehouses to be 
tilled to capacity, rendering the re- 
moval of goods still more difficult. Dur- 
ing the summer months, however, the 
shortage in freight cars was decreased 
by about a third, but by September it 
was worse than ever. The transporta- 
tion situation became still more serious 
until the government, feeling that pri- 
vate operation could not solve the prob- 
lem, even with transportation priority 
orders, stepped in a few days prior to 
the end of the year and took over the 
control of all roads under Secretai-y 


Standardization was urged during 
the year by both purchasing agents and 
supply men. A large amount of 
thought has been given to this subject 
in past years, but owing to the discon- 
tinuance of convention work by the 
American Electric Railway Engineer- 
ing Association, no actual progress 
during the year, so far as the formal 
adoption of standards is concerned, can 
be reported. Informally, however, per- 
haps more progress in car standards 
was made during 1917 than in any 
previous year, because of the general 
acceptance by one-man safety car users 
of the Birney design. 

The outlook for the new year, how- 
ever, is considerably brighter. Prices, 
generally, seem to have gone about as 
high as they will go. Buying is ex- 
pected to increase considerably. Roads 
have deferred purchases to the extent 
where they must of necessity be made 

Condition of Copper Wire 
Supply and Demand 

Anticipated That the New Government 
Price on Copper Will Not Affect 
Price of Wire 

Following the conference of the Board 
of War Industries with the producers of 
copper Dec. 14, it was surmised that a 
change in the price established several 
months ago might follow. As yet no 
change has occurred, and there is a 
division of opinion among authorities 
on the subject whether a revision will 
be made Jan. 1. One of the best in- 
formed experts is of the opinion that 
if a new price is announced it will be a 
higher one. Should this be so it will 
not affect the market on wire. Base 
remains at 32 cents to 34 cents. 

There is a large demand for armored 
cable on order of the government for 
the submarines, and therefore it can 
only be promptly and efficiently met 
by the manufacturers direct. Code wire 
used in building construction, which is 
almost negligible, is also selling heavily 
for governmental work. Hard-drawn 
wire for leading-in wire and copper-clad 
for telephone and regular signal wire 
are being called for. Copper-clad is 
being used more than hard-drawn. Un- 
derground cable, made of oiled cambric 

and lead-covered — power cables and 
feeders — is also in special demand, with 
heavy sales reported. 

Deliveries are spoken of as fairly 
satisfactory, code going out of stock in 
large quantities. On steel-tape cable 
shipments can be made in from six to 
eight weeks, provided that the steel can 
be had. No positive promises can be 
made on these goods, delays being occa- 
sioned by the quantity and size desig- 
nated. Primary hands are under the 
impression that not much wire is in the 
jobbers' stocks or with the distributing 
houses. It is believed that the copper 
situation is not so trying as it threat- 
ened to be a few weeks back. One 
jobber said that wire had loosened up 
and dropped a few points in price, and 
that deliveries were almost normal. 

Supply Men Expect Freer 

Retrenchment Policy Has Been in Effect 
So Long That the Need for New 
Equipment Becomes More 
Urgent Daily 

For a long period the accessories and 
supplies people have looked forward to 
a time when the railways would again 
be in the market. This state of affairs 
has not materialized, though there are 
indications of better buying than has 
been noted. The improvement, slight 
as it is, brings the thought to the front 
that it will be of a progressive nature, 
gaining momentum as it develops. That 
the railway companies have curtailed 
orders for new rolling stock, track 
maintenance and equipment in general 
to almost the vanishing point, is more 
than a twice-told tale. So far has this 
retrenching policy been carried, say the 
sales agents, that more than a few 
roads are now most inadequately sup- 
plied with equipment. 

The supply branch of the trade is 
firmly of the opinion that purchases 
on a considerable scale must soon begin 
again. This thought has for its basis 
three conditions. The first is the largely 
increased traffic which most roads are 
reporting. The second is that a pur- 
chase not made is simply a purchase 
delayed and that in the meantime both 
track and cars are wearing out. In 
the third place, the supply men hope 
and believe that in general the pending 
applications for increased fare will be 
granted. This will mean that the roads 
will have the money, or the credit, 
which they have long needed to buy new 
equipment. Of course, prices are now 
high, but that is necessarily not a 
deterrent to purchases if there is no 
immediate prospect that the prices will 
go lower. There does not seem to be 
any immediate prospect of this. 

Western companies are buying more 
freely of rolling stock than the Eastern 
roads. A "break" is looked for, and 
on this account, as much as anything 
else, an effort is being made to keep 
prices at the present level. The argu- 
ment advanced is if the railways are 
not buying now, a further advance in 
price would certainly not be an induce- 
ment to bring them into the market. 

Manufacturers Working 
Closer to Government 

Possibility Exists, Should Volume of 
Orders Greatly Increase, of Allo- 
cating Work According to 
Factory Conditions 

By working closer to the government 
through the electrical division of the 
War Industries Board the electrical 
manufacturers have been better able to 
know the government's needs and to 
take care of them. At present the 
manufacturers will receive lists of gov- 
ernment requirements daily. However, 
should the demand become large in 
volume, it is contemplated that weekly 
allocations of orders shall be made. 

Similar action was taken earlier in 
the year on a number of electrical sup- 
plies by manufacturers' committees. 
The results accomplished were much 
more satisfactory to the government 
and to the manufacturers than the 
previous method of awarding govern- 
ment contracts. Now there is a possi- 
bility of extending this plan to the en- 
tire industry. Through this procedure 
the government can obtain its require- 
ments in the minimum time and at the 
minimum cost. Furthermore, no manu- 
facturer is unduly loaded up with gov- 
ernment work. 

To buyers other than the govern- 
ment the results are desirable, for de- 
liveries, while longer perhaps through- 
out the entire field, are nevertheless 

The demand for electrical goods for 
war purposes is increasing. Still, there 
appears to be an electrical manufactur- 
ing capacity in excess of direct govern- 
ment needs. Manufacturers are being 
asked by the War Industries Board 
whether the indirect demands from sec- 
ondary sources will absorb the avail- 
able capacity. 

Freight Handling Opening 
Up on Pacific Coast 

Smaller Roads Expected to Purchase 
Special Equipment Before Long 

The steadily increasing possibilities 
in the freight business have opened 
up a profitable field for the electric rail- 
ways of the Pacific Coast which has 
materially improved the outlook. It is 
as yet too early to expect orders for 
special equipment for freight purposes 
but at the present rate of freight busi- 
ness increase this can be expected from 
the smaller roads before long. The 
Pacific Electric Railway in southern 
California territory has developed the 
largest volume of freight business and 
the shops of this company have been 
busily at work on freight-handling 
rolling stock. Some smaller lines have 
practically all the freight business they 
can handle. This has developed still 
more rapidly since the gondola car em- 
bargo went into effect, particularly in 
agricultural districts. The heavy crops 
that have been gathered in most all 
lines this year are helping materially 
to swell the freight traffic. 



Vol. 51, No. 1 

New Jersey and Pennsylvania Trac- 
tion Company, Trenton, N. J., is re- 
ported as contemplating buying some 
new cars. It has already inquired for 
part of the equipment. 

Saginaw-Bay City Railway, Saginaw, 
Mich., by fire had destroyed thirty-five 
cars together with a large section of 
the carhouse. The loss is placed at 
$200,000. Street car traffic was para- 
lyzed for several hours following the 

Southern Public Utilities Company, 
Charlotte, N. C, and the Montgomery 
Light & Traction Company, Montgom- 
ery, Ala., have recently changed a num- 
ber of their open-end cars to the pre- 
payment type. The work was done in 
the shops of Perley A. Thomas, High 
Point, N. C. 

Tacoma Railway & Power Company, 
Tacoma, Wash., is reported as having 
purchased ten motor cars, costing 
$3,000 each, f.o.b. Tacoma. The cars 
have 57 hp. each and will seat fifty- 
two passengers. Additional cars of the 
same type will be acquired for the 
Tacoma Municipal Railway, known as 
the "Tideflats" line. 

Moscow (Russia) Tramway Com- 
pany, through an agent now in New 
York, N. Y., is negotiating for brakes 
with the Westinghouse Traction Brake 
Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., for fifty 
motor cars. The cars are to be built 
by a Japanese company at Darien, 
South Manchuria, China, the agent here 
only placing orders for trucks, motors 
and air-brakes. 

Cleveland (Ohio) Railway is reported 
as having bought twenty-five new all- 
steel cars, costing $8,000 each. They 
weigh 31,900 lb. as against the 45,000 
lb. of the half-steel, half-wood cars 
now in use. The cars of the new roll- 
ing stock are 50 ft. long, seating fifty- 
three persons, with front entrance and 
side exit. Larger and plainer signs 
are also fixtures. The purchase was 
authorized by the City Council some 
time ago. These are the first all-steel 
cars to be introduced in Cleveland. 

Union Railway, New York, N. Y., 
which operates in the Borough of the 

Bronx, and is controlled by the Third 
Avenue Railway Company, in order to 
comply with the recommendation of the 
Public Service Commission of the First 
District, is reported as being obliged 
to build its own snowplows. The com- 
mission suggested light new efficient 
plows be provided by the company, to 
properly combat the winter storms, 
but as the snowplow manufacturers 
are in no position to make early, let 
alone immediate, delivery, it is obliged 
to construct, out of rolling stock on 
hand, plows that will answer the pur- 
pose temporarily. 

Trade Notes 

New Advertising Literature 

Poole Engineering & Machine Com- 
pany, Baltimore, Md. : The company is 
distributing its bulletin No. 100, de- 
scriptive of its turbo gear. 

Walter A. Zelnicker Supply Company, 
St. Louis, Mo.: Bulletin No. 232 lists 
the company's latest offerings of en- 
gines, boilers and general supplies. 

De La Vergne Machine Company, 
New York, N. Y. : Large practical calen- 
dar for 1918, has accompanying illus- 
trations of the company's products, ar- 
ranged in striking form. 

Titanium Bronze Company, Inc., 
Niagara Falls, N. Y.: A pamphlet, 
"Phosphor Bronze Castings," describ- 
ing and illustrating its products in this 
line and its experience in the compound- 
ing of brass and bronze alloys. 

Rubber Insulated Metal Corporation, 
Plainfield, N. J.: Illustrated four-page 
circular, dealing with the company's 
Rimco rubber insulated pliers, which 
it states were tested and passed for 
10,000 volts by the Electrical Testing 
Laboratories of New York, N. Y. 

Youngstown Sheet & Tube Company, 
Youngstown, Ohio: The company is dis- 
tributing a very attractive calendar for 
1918. It is featured by twelve large 
two-color illustrations of as many dif- 
ferent operations in the manufacture of 
iron and steel. The plates were made 
from photographs taken in the works of 
the company and are both handsome 
and instructive. The calendar will be 
sent to any address on receipt of 4 cents 
in stamps to pay cost of mailing. 

Perley A. Thomas, formerly chief 
engineer of the Southern Car Company, 
has now established a business for him- 
self in High Point, N. C. Mr. Thomas 
has had many years experience in car 
work of all kinds. 

Ridgway Dynamo & Engine Company, 
Ridgway,. Pa., announces the appoint- 
ment of the Blake Electric Manufactur- 
ing Company, No. 1 Rowe's Wharf, 
Boston, as its sales representative for 
the New England states. 

Blaw-Knox Company has closed its 
Philadelphia office for the present and 
Mr. Pulis, who has been in charge, is 
transferred to its San Francisco office, 
to take the place of Mr. Burrows, who 
is going into the service of the govern- 

W. C. Carter has been placed in 
charge of the sales office at Grand 
Rapids, Mich., of the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company for 
the handling of western Michigan busi- 
ness. This office is under direction of 
the company's Detroit office. 

Brown Company, Portland, Me., for- 
merly the Berlin Mills Company, has 
acquired the property and business of 
the Burgess Sulphite Fiber Company. 
The new company will be carried on. 
under the same control and manage- 
ment as heretofore, dealing in, among 
other things, a line of fiber conduit. 

Electric Storage Battery Company, 
Philadelphia, Pa., has recently com- 
pleted an eight-story reinforced con- 
crete building. The buildings contain 
more than 20 acres of floor space. The 
yard space covers an area of 4 acres, 
and tracks from two railroad lines run 
directly into the yards of the works. 

W. G. Lawrence has opened an office 
in the Spitzer Building, Toledo, Ohio, to 
engage in electrical engineering, and 
will make a specialty of power plant 
designing, steel lighting and supervision 
of construction and electrical installa- 
tions. One of the associates of Mr. 
Lawrence is H. A. Seward, who recently 
came to Toledo from Chicago to join 
this firm. Mr. Lawrence, also a Chicago 
engineer, established himself in Toledo- 
several years ago. 


Dec. 24 Jan. 3 

Rubber-covered wire base. New York, cents lb. 32.34 30 

Wire, weatherproof, cents per lb., New York. 34 1 / 4-38 34 1 / 4-38 

Wire, weatherproof, cents per lb., Chicago. .. 38-38.35 38-38.35 

Rails, heavy, Bessemer, Pittsburgh $38.00 $38.00 

Rails, heavy, O. H. Pittsburgh, per gross ton. $40.00 $40.00 

Wire nails, Pittsburgh, per 100 lb $3.50 $3.50 

Railroad spikes, 9/16 in., Pittsburgh, per' 

100 lb $3.90 $3.90 

Steel bars, Pittsburgh, per 100 lb $4.50 $5.00 

Sheet iron, black (24 gage) , Pittsburgh, 100 lb. $5.80 $5.80 

Sheet iron, galv. (24 gage), Pittsburgh. 100 1b. $4.85 $4.85 

Galvanized barbed wire, Pittsburgh, cents lb.. $4.35 $4.35 

Galvanized wire, ordinary, Pittsburgh, cents lb. $3.95 $3.95 

Cement (carload lots), New York, per bbl.. $2.22 $2.22 

Cement (carload lots), Chicago, per bbl $2.31 $2.31 

Cement (carload lots), Seattle, per bbl $2.65 $2.65 

Linseed oil (raw, 5 bbl. lots), New York, gal. $1.26 $1.26 

Linseed oil (boiled, 5 bbl. lots), New York, gal. $1.27 $1.27 

White lead ( 700 lb. keg) , New York, cents gal. 10 10 

Turpentine (bbl. lots), New York, cents gal. . 47% 48% 



Dec. 24 Jan. 3 

Copper, ingot '• 23 % 23% 

Lead, cents per lb *>% 

Nickel, cents per lb 50 „„„,, 5 2^,,, 

Spelter, cents per lb 6.35 7.82%-7.92%, 

Tin, Straits, cents per lb *85.50 *85.50 

Aluminum, 98 to 99 per cent, cents per lb 36 36 


Heavy copper, cents per lb 

Light copper, cents per lb 

Red brass, cents per lb 

Yellow brass, cents per lb 

Lead, heavy, cents per lb 

Zinc, cents per lb 

Steel car axles, Chicago, per net ton 

Old car wheels, Chicago, per gross ton 

Steel rails (scrap), Chicago, per gross ton.. 
Steel rails (relaying), Chicago, per gross ton. 
Machine shop turnings, Chicago, per net ton. . 

Dec. 24 

Jan. 3 







14 y 4 

14 Vi 















Consolidation of Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 

Volume 51 

New York, Saturday, January 12, 1918 

Number 2 

The Zone System 

Deserves a Fair Trial 

THE zone system of fares proposed by the Massa- 
chusetts Public Service Commission for the Holyoke 
Street Railway, although novel in a number of its 
features, is not a revolutionary move in urban trans- 
portation. Other urban zone systems exist in this coun- 
try, and the plan is growing in popularity for suburban 
and interurban service, one particularly successful ap- 
plication being that on the Shore Line Electric Rail- 
way, as described in this issue. The authorization of 
such a system for Holyoke has 
a peculiar significance at 
this time, when the question 
of the best method of increas- 
ing fares is so acute, and the 
comments of the Massachu- 
setts Public Service Commis- 
sion in approving the com- 
pany's preference should be 
carefully noted. This body 
does not find the results of 
6-cent fares in Massachusetts 
especially encouraging, and it 
is impressed with the pos- 
sible usefulness of a zone 
system with a central 5-cent 
area for some localities. Find- 
ing Holyoke a proper subject, 
it applies such a remedy, 
without binding itself to the 
same treatment for future 
patients. Its attitude is 
summed up in words which 
amount substantially to these : 
"This treatment should have 
a fair trial." With this we 
agree most heartily. With- 
out casting any aspersions 
upon companies that are ex-, 
perimenting with 6-cent fares 
— nor do we think the commission intended so to do — 
we feel that it is to the interests of the industry that 
the zone system of charging be tried more widely, in 
spite of any difficult study necessary, in order to es- 
tablish the conditions of successful operation. The 
railways have much to learn about rate-making, but a 
one-sided experimentation might only injure them. 
Perhaps all the different methods of increasing reve- 
nues will prove their usefulness under varying condi- 
tions. In any case prompt and thorough trials are 
needed for future guidance. The industry should take 
the lead in this matter, at least as far as it can, and not 
leave the initiative to the commissions. 


The First Condition of Peace 

DID you notice particularly the first 
item in President Wilson's most ad- 
mirable summary of the Allied peace 
aims? "Open covenants of peace, openly 
arrived at" . . . "No private interna- 
tional understandings" . . . "Diplomacy 
always frank and in the public view" — why. 
that is simply free and frank PUBLICITY! 

President Wilson knows what publicity 
in diplomacy will prevent, and what it will 
accomplish. The powers of darkness can- 
not avail in the full light of day. The public 
gives its support only to what it under- 
stands. Hence our leader places publicity 
as the cornerstone for the beautiful edifice 
of a world made safe for democracy. 

This has a meaning to those in public 
utility service as well. The age is one of 
publicity. When the last stronghold of 
secrecy and intrigue in the Old World is 
falling, there is no place for it in the New. 

Does it seem trite to urge publicity after 
to much ink has been used on this subject? 
Not when the following can occur: 

Installation of a higher fare without a 
word of explanation to the public. 

Adoption of a new fare-collection sys- 
tem, leaving the rider to guess where he 
gets on or off (to speak literally). 
Wake up — the world has moved, and this 
is the day when the public must know. 

Line Losses Are Not 
All in the Wires 

N TRANSMISSION lines operating at very high 
voltages, 60,000 or higher, losses over the insulators 
and through the atmosphere assume formidable propor- 
tions. These losses, or rather the costs of mitigating 
them, form a considerable factor in limiting the volt- 
age. Anyone who has observed a high-voltage line on 
a dark night has noted the blue corona around the 
insulators and possibly on the wires also. This repre- 
sents power loss, the air being heated thereby. At high 
altitudes the loss is very seri- 
ous, due to the rarefaction of 
the air, which loses its insu- 
lating properties at low pres- 
sure. The so-called vacuum 
tube illustrates this phenome- 
non, for such a tube contains 
air or other gas at a pressure 
of a few millimeters of mer- 
cury, and is a fair conductor. 
A true vacuum is, of course, 
a perfect insulator. Data on 
the subject of line losses are 
fairly plentiful but accessible 
mainly to the specialist be- 
cause embedded in technical 
language. In this issue is an 
article by Professor D. D. 
Ewing giving in more popular 
style the results of some 
studies conducted on an elec- 
tric railway line in the Mid- 
dle West. To make his article 
complete he has had to use 
some geometrical diagrams 
which will naturally appeal 
only to electrical engineers, 
but aside from these there is 
much of general value and in- 
terest in the article. With 
the comparatively low voltage of 33,000 used on the 
line tested the leakage losses are not serious, but the 
results clearly illustrate the principles involved. Owing 
to the fact that the routine of electric railway opera- 
tion leaves little time for research work except that 
directly necessitated by the exigencies of the hour, wa 
must depend upon outsiders to obtain data like those 
given in the present article. The technical departments 
of universities located near railway lines are well 
equipped to make necessary tests; all that is needed is 
that the railway men formulate their research prob- 
lems and submit them to the college laboratories for 



Vol. 51, No. 2 

Don't Let Them Forget 
About Daylight Saving 

IN ALL the zeal of carrying on campaigns for higher 
fares and co-operating with the government in the 
various suggested ways for the conserving of fuel, it 
should not be forgotten that one desired innovation has 
not yet been effected — daylight saving. A bill to turn 
back the clock one hour during the warm months was 
passed by the Senate at the last session but was held up 
in the House. This matter should now be enacted into 
law. Daylight saving would be a boon to the nation's 
workers, and the inertia of conservatism, the only op- 
ponent, should be overcome. It may be quite proper 
not to be the first to cast the old aside, but it is just as 
fitting not to be the last by whom the new is tried. In 
daylight saving we have already lagged behind Euro- 
pean nations too much. This is something the War 
Board would do well to keep before the authorities in 

Standardization and Other Points 
Shown by the Car Statistics 

THE table of car statistics published last week pre- 
sents a number of interesting facts, besides giving 
a record of the total number of cars ordered or built 
during the year for electric railway purposes. One of 
these facts is very gratifying as indicating a real ap- 
proach toward that standardization of car design which 
has been the ideal for so many years. 

Last year was the first in the history of electric 
railroading when scores of cities bought exactly the 
same car, in this case the Birney safety type. This 
fact at least disposes of the contention that "local con- 
ditions" have a controlling influence in determining the 
exact length, to the fraction of an inch, of a car which 
can be operated on the streets of any particular city. 
But if railways have been able to standardize on safety 
cars, there does not seem to be any particular reason 
why they should not be able to standardize also on cars 
of greater length, at least to the extent of not requiring 
the car builder to get out an entirely new set of draw- 
ings so that a car may be a few inches longer, or 
shorter, than the one he has just built. 

On questions of the style of car there may be greater 
differences of opinion, but even here local conditions, 
we believe, if analyzed carefully, will not infrequently 
be found to be "local prejudices." Incidentally, among 
the larger cars ordered in 1917, there was an evident 
tendency to use the Peter Witt pay-as-you-pass car, 
although we do not think that the chief benefits to be 
derived from car standardization necessarily require 
the same arrangement of interior or fare payment sys- 
tem on all cars affected. These are details compared 
with features which concern the construction of the 
car body. 

The table of car statistics also discloses the fact that, 
although the car builders were far from busy during 
the year, an unusually large number of railways built 
their own cars. This condition could not have been 
brought about in all cases by the desire to reduce the 
cost of transportation from factory to railway, because 
in some cases the railway was located in the same town 
as a large car builder. 

In all, five electric railway companies reported hav- 

ing built during the year forty or more passenger cars 
each. There were also twenty companies reporting as 
building from one to five cars, although most of these 
home-built cars were service or freight cars. 

Where a company attempts to build anything so elab- 
orate as a passenger car, in our opinion it is very 
doubtful if any money is saved thereby. Work of this, 
kind is sometimes planned because a company hopes 
thereby to keep in employment some of its repair men 
when work of other kinds at the shops is scarce. But 
even under such circumstances there is a tendency to 
disregard the overhead costs of the car building as well 
as to overbuild new shops to take care of this work. 

Both Discouragement and Encouragement 
in the Statistics of the Year 

THE statistics for 1917 on track, cars built or ordered, 
receiverships and foreclosures, published in the last 
issue of this paper, certainly do not reflect a very flour- 
ishing condition of the industry. Exclusive of elec- 
trified steam railroads and the new rapid transit lines 
in New York, the new electric railway track of the 
country reported is only about 300 miles, or less than 
three-quarters of 1 per cent of the total number at 
the beginning of the year. 

An examination of the individual reports is probably 
even more illuminating. It shows that this new mileage 
is made up almost entirely of very short sections, evi- 
dently connections put in purely for operating conveni- 
ence. Real extensions of lines are rare. Large indus- 
trial states, like Connecticut and Indiana, report less 
than 3 and 5 miles, each respectively, of new track 
built, while New York State during the year added 
only 11 miles of surface electric railway trackage. 

The rolling stock table tells a like story. Briefly it i3 
that the new rolling stock ordered during 1917 is the 
lowest recorded since 1907, when this paper began the 
compilation of its statistics. This means that 1917 had 
probably the lowest number of cars bought during any 
year since the general adoption of electrfcity. 

The third table published last week, that of receiver- 
ships and foreclosures, was the only one of the three 
to show an increase. 

There is no use blinking the facts. The industry is 
sore beset, and it would require more than a Pollyanna 
to become an optimist on the conditions shown by these 
tables. Nevertheless, there are encouraging signs, if 
the industry will only take heed and avail itself of 

Of course, the principal basis for optimism and con- 
fidence in the electric railway industry is the essential 
nature of the service rendered. In spite of past compe- 
tition of all kinds, the electric railway has remained 
and must remain the only means of local transportation 
which is available to the great majority of the people 
in any community. In other words, the electric railways 
must continue to run because the people cannot get along 
without them. Moreover, as the population of the coun- 
try increases, the need for more and better local trans- 
portation will increase in an even greater ratio than the 
population. Hence the railways must not only continue 
to give service but must improve and extend that service 
as the needs of the community require. 

Now, while there is nothing particularly new in this 

January 12, 1918 



truth, the fact remains that there is greater popular 
recognition of it than ever before. The attitude of 
the regulatory bodies as a whole is more sympa- 
thetic, as was shown during the past year by a greater 
willingness to grant fare increases as well as to help 
in other ways. The public also is understanding to a 
better degree the problems of the roads. 

This is the proper time for the roads to take advan- 
tage of this condition. Let each explain to its public, 
if it has not already done so, why its cost of operation 
has risen and why higher fares are necessary. The 
public should also be told how it can help the companies 
in other ways to improve the car service. It is very 
important that the betterment of public relations should 
not lag just at the time when the greatest good can 
come from an intelligent application of its fundamental 

Organized Labor 

Should Not Profiteer 

FAITH in the union-labor movement, which has been 
fostered during recent months under the sane lead- 
ership of President Gompers, is due for a setback in 
the public mind through such actions as the attempt to 
force wage increases on companies whose old contracts 
have not expired. In Cleveland and in Toledo efforts 
are being made to advance the interests of the employees 
through unfair pressure, notwithstanding the fact that 
written agreements as to wages and working conditions 
are still in force. Organized labor has been strong in 
its condemnation of war profiteering on the part of 
capital. A fair-minded public must put into the same 
classification such a movement on the part of trainmen 
who would take advantage of war conditions to promote 
their own welfare to the serious detriment of the utility 
which is affected. 

Even in those cases where the wage scale fixed 
by agreement a year or two ago does not meet the 
present cost of living, labor leaders must remember that 
their employers have also to contend- against the in- 
creased cost of materials and diminishing receipts. Vol- 
untary raises in pay have been given by many com- 
panies to the extent that they can stand the extra bur- 
den. Other companies will have to take their chances 
with boards of arbitration when the present contracts 
expire. But to stir up public feeling by threats of strike 
or appeals to the federal government to compel a change 
in the agreement, is an act which should brand the 
agitators as poor sportsmen, and should not win for their 
appeal a popular indorsement. 

Another view was taken in Chicago some months ago 
where unionism, under patriotic leadership, negotiated 
an agreement which showed a proper recognition of 
the exigencies of war times. In accepting a wage scale 
which was a compromise, the union employees bound 
themselves for a three-year period, and pledged them- 
selves to do all they could to promote mutual interests, 
"keenly recognizing and appreciating the situation now 
confronting our government." This is the spirit which 
should govern all employees who are bound by contracts 
for a definite period. They should bury their cupidity 
and prejudices and bide their time. Better still, let their 
organization help to gain a flexible fare for their employ- 
ers, and thus provide a basis which will meet fluctuating 

Rehabilitating the 
Power System 

THE coal and labor shortage has forced into the 
limelight some unwelcome facts regarding power 
generation. Many power plants are using too much 
coal for their output. Even in peace times the older 
plants, many of them far from worn out, were being 
r elegated to the scrap pile. The present conditions will 
hasten their progress in that direction. 

A pound of good steam coal contains 12,000 B.t.u. 
more or less, that is, enough heat to raise 12,000 lb. of 
water 1 deg. Fahr. Converted entirely into electrical en- 
ergy this would be almost exactly 3V 2 kw-hr. In 
other words, except for conversion losses a kilowatt- 
hour of energy could be produced f rom less than a third 
of a pound of good coal! Some plants consume fifteen 
times, and the best of them burn nearly five times, this 

Unfortunately, unless new methods of transforming 
the chemical energy of coal into mechanical energy are 
discovered we must put up with a loss of at least 75 
per cent in the chimney, the boiler, the engine or tur- 
bine, the condenser, the piping, the generator and the 

The situation outlined above explains the general 
rehabilitation of power plants, substations and trans- 
mission lines which is general in this country, Canada 
and elsewhere. These pages have contained many ex- 
amples of the process. 

This week we begin a series of three articles on the 
very interesting and typical work which is going on 
in Montreal, and which is as nearly completed as such 
a mutable thing as a power system can ever be said 
to be. In studying this account the reader must re- 
member that it is a remodeling that is pictured, not 
the building of a new system from the ground up. 
Hence existing equipment has been repaired where it 
is cheaper to keep it than to throw it out. Of two steam 
plants still retained, one will seldom be used except as 
a substation. The other will be operated only on peak 
loads and as an emergency reserve. The surrounding 
abundant water power will be used to the limit as it 
should be. The redesign of the main steam plant, how- 
ever, has received scrupulous attention, so that when 
it is running it will give the best possible account of 
itself. The distributing lines and substations are also 
being brought strictly up to date. 

A feature of this remodeling at Montreal which il- 
lustrates the importance of standardization is the pro- 
vision for shifting substation equipment from one part 
of the distribution system to another as needed. A 
company may have a transformer and converting equip- 
ment of aggregate capacity sufficient for its needs, but 
if this is not properly distributed there will be over- 
loading at some points and underloading at others. One 
condition involves excessive energy loss, deterioration 
of apparatus and poor voltage regulation; the other is 
accompanied by operating inefficiency. Ability to move 
a unit as required will obviate this unbalancing. It 
might be argued that power needs can be anticipated if 
the growth characteristics of a community are properly 
understood, but the fallacy of this argument is proved 
by experience. It is best to be prepared for the un- 
expected. Mobility of equipment can well be con- 
sidered as a factor of such preparation. 



Vol. 51, No. 2 

Electric Railway Power 
at Montreal 

Montreal Tramways Is Com- 
pleting Program of Power 
Generation and Distribution 
Rehabilitation — Principal De- 
pendence for Power Is Upon 
Hydraulic Plants — This Intro- 
ductory Article Explains the 
General Plan 


THE power generation and distribution system of 
the Montreal (Quebec) Tramways is unusually 
worthy of study at this time because a train of 
circumstances has brought about a fairly complete re- 
modeling of the main power plants, the substation 
layout and the transmission and distribution lines. 
Ever since the three original electric railway lines in 
the city were developed, about 1892, there has been a 
struggle to keep the power supply abreast of the ex- 
pansion of the railway system, which has coincided with 
that of the city. In recent years the growth of the city 
has been very rapid until now the population is in the 
neighborhood of 800,000. In addition to the city itself 
the Tramways supplies transportation to Westmount, 
Outremont, Verdun, Maisonneuve and Mount Royal, 
which form an integral part of the community. The 
Tramways now has more than 260 miles of track and 
more than 1000 cars in service. 

The principal source of power for the Tramways has 
been the water power, in which the neighborhood 
abounds. Upward of 500,000 hp. is developed within 
easy reach of Montreal, so that steam power is required 
by the Tramways only for reserve and to control the 
peaks of the load, thus limiting the service charge for 
power. Two steam plants are in operation, the old 
William Street station, now used practically entirely 
as a substation, and the more modern Hochelaga plant, 
which is the principal steam reserve. The Hochelaga 
plant is in course of remodeling, the details of which 
process will be covered in a later article. 

Power from the hydraulic plants is transformed in 
several substations containing motor-generator sets. 
One of these, the St. Denis substation, has been entirely 
remodeled this year, and a new substation at Pointe aux 
Trembles is now receiving the finishing touches. One 
motor-generator set is in operation here and a second 
is about ready to be started up. In the early days, 
before the local hydraulic development had progressed 
very far, steam power was depended upon very largely 
for the Tramways' supply, but for nearly twenty years 
an increasing proportion of water power has been util- 
ized. Of late years the tendency seems to have been 
to keep the steam power about 20 per cent of the total, 
and generating equipment has been added from time to> 
time to maintain this average. 

Facts Precedent to Present Power Situation 

Going back to the year 1900 we find that the first 
contract for water power was with the Montreal Light, 
Heat & Power Company for 5000 hp. delivered at the 
William Street power house. By this time the Tram- 
ways was approaching the limit of the steam capacity,, 
the output being about 13,000 hp., as compared with a 
possible output of 17,000 hp. 

In an article published in the Street Railway 
Journal for June 6, 1903, page 833, Ralph D. Mershon, 
consulting engineer to the company, described the equip- 
ment which had been installed to receive and transform 
the hydraulically produced power, the equipment being 
for the time rather unique. The power was received' 

January 12, 1918 



in the form of quarter-phase current at 66 cycles and 
2200 volts over seven circuits. Six induction motor- 
generator sets and one synchronous motor-generator 
set were installed, of a combined rating of 5000 hp. 
continuous output, and a relay capacity of 15 per cent 
more than this. When installed these sets, which are 
still in operation, were said to be among the largest 
built up to that time, although individually not the 
largest. The total capacity, however, was probably 
larger than that of any group of induction motors in 
the world assembled under one roof. 

One of the most novel features of the installation 
was provision for pumping power back into the line 
when needed, using the direct-current machine as a 
motor and the induction machine as a generator. This 
was probably the first commercial use of the induction 
generator, although the regenerating ability of the in- 
duction machine when supplied with polyphase exciting 
current was known long before. 

In choosing motor-generator sets rather than rotary 
converters for the William Street substation the en- 
gineers had the following considerations in mind: 
First it was desirable to have machines that could be 
operated with the minimum of care, attention and 
skill. The induction motor had been highly developed 
and the rotary converter had not by any means at- 
tained the perfection which has since been achieved. 
In the second place it was desired to interfere as little 
as possible with operating conditions on the power com- 
pany's transmission system, and it was felt that induc- 
tion motors, brought up to speed from the direct- 
current end of the sets, would meet the requirements 
in this particular. Moreover, started in this way, the 
motors could be built with practically no resistance in 
the squirrel-cage secondaries and hence with excellent 
speed-regulating qualities. 

The next increase in power supply came about through 
a contract made with the Shawinigan Water & Powsr 
Company for 3000 hp. delivered at a local substation of 
the Shawinigan Company. This is in the Hochelaga 

ward of the city, a section in which the demand for 
power was rapidly increasing. Also at this time a con- 
tract was made with the Montreal Light, Heat & Power 
Company for 4000 hp., and to utilize this power two 
1000-hp. motor-generator substations were built, one on 
Glen Avenue near St. James Street, opposite the St. 
Henry carhouses, and the second on Bellechasse Street, 
west of St. Denis Street. The railway company spent 
about $500,000 on this expansion. The contract still 
stands with respect to power furnished through the St. 
Henry and St. Denis substations, the latter of which 
has just been entirely rebuilt, and the last 2000 hp. 
taken from the Montreal Light, Heat & Power Com- 
pany on above contract. 

At present 12,000 hp. of hydraulic power is being 
taken under the Montreal Light, Heat & Power Com- 
pany and Shawinigan Water & Power Company con- 
tracts. This is purchased at the rate of $25 per horse- 
power-year for the hydraulic power, with $4 for con- 
version on the 3000 hp. taken from Shawinigan only. 
The rate is based on a 70 per cent load factor. 

Soon after the provision for distributing Shawinigan 
power in the eastern section of the city had been com 
pleted, the company felt the need for a steam reserve 
in this section, and in 1906 a standby station along 
then-approved lines was built. This contained two 
1000-kw. and one 2000-kw. marine type compound 
Mcintosh & Seymour engines driving direct-current 
generators. A few years later this equipment was 
supplemented with a 2000-kw. alternating-current 
turbo-generator unit with a large rotary converter. 
This was put in as a temporary expedient to provide 
greatly needed additional reserve, and the equipment 
was selected because it provided a more economical gen- 
erating unit than the older machines. The turbine, the 
rotary and the engines are still in use. The station as a 
whole, however, is being entirely remodeled. 

A new source of water power was utilized in 1912 
when the Tramways company began to buy hydraulic 
power through the Montreal Public Service Corpora- 





Vol. 51, No. 2 

tion, additional substations being installed from time 
to time. The corporation is the distributing company 
for the Canadian Light & Power Company. The latter 
is a subsidiary of the Montreal Tramways & Power 
Company, of which the Tramways company is also a 

The corporation furnishes power on a meter basis in 
three phase form at 13,200 volts to a total of 10,000 hp. 
Of this 4000 hp. is delivered at the old William Street 
plant, where two 1500-kw. synchronous motor-generator 
sets serve to convert it into direct-current form. 

The 1916-1917 Rehabilitation 

With this outline of the development of the power 
situation in Montreal in mind it is possible to appre- 
ciate the circumstances leading up to the present re- 
habilitation. It has been seen that the company made 


arrangements for power supply in different sections of 
the city to the best possible advantage for the time 
being, but with a growing need for a unification of the 
whole system, last year the Tramways company began 
the execution of a comprehensive plan for the purpose. 

The decision to overhaul the distribution system at 
this time was brought about by a number of causes. 
In the first place on account of the limited number of 
distribution points it was difficult to distribute power 
at the low direct-current voltage of 600 without exces- 
sive loss. In connection with this was the insecurity of 
,the power supply at any point, as it was difficult for 
one part of the system to help out another. 

Another factor in the matter was the necessity for 
putting the feeders and transmission line underground. 
This was not only in accord with the trend of the times 
in large cities, but the movement was accelerated by 
act of legislature. Obviously in placing the circuits 
underground it would be most economical to use high 
voltage wherever possible. 

It was therefore decided first to increase the number 
of distribution points by. adding substations; second, 
to install a comprehensive high-voltage alternating- 
current transmission system, and third, to interconnect 
the substations so that power will be available at any 
part of the system. 

Investigation showed that the instantaneous power 
demand as a whole on all of the power houses and sub- 
stations of the company, prior to the amplification of 
the system, was less than 80 per cent of the sum of 
the individual instantaneous demands. In view of the 

large extent to which power is purchased it is evident 
that a very considerable saving would be brought about 
by tying the whole system together. This saving, cap- 
italized, would provide for a very considerable invest- 
ment in underground cables and still leave a margin of 
profit. A further saving was possible through the use 
of more centralized energy generation operated accord- 
ing to modern scientific methods. 

As a logical part of the development it became neces- 
sary to introduce large alternating-current generating 
units in place of the direct current units in use. By" 
means of the interconnected system the power gene- 
rated by these units would then be available at any 
point when needed to supplement the hydraulic power. 

Improvements at Hochelaga 

In improving its power generating facilities the 
company naturally selected the Hochelaga power plant 
as the logical one for improvement because it is located 
conveniently with respect to water and to land for 
the storage of coal. In looking to the future it was 
considered desirable to plan for the possible ultimate 
installation of four turbo-generator units of 15,630- 
kva. capacity each. One of these has been installed and 
a second is on order for delivery in April, 1918. The 
completion of the plans will involve the abandoning of 
the three vertical units and the 2000-hp. steam turbine 
now in place. However, two turbines will take care of 
the requirements for some time to come and the ver- 
tical units will be retained for the time being. 

The installation of the turbine units made an in- 
crease in boiler capacity necessary, and four 1100-hp. 
P>. & W. marine type boilers, with superheaters and 


economizers, were added. These were provided with 
ejector draft fans, motor-driven. The boilei house was 
further modernized by the addition of such devices as 
steam flow meters and draft gages, by the elaboration 
of the coal-handling system, etc. Under way also are 
changes in the old boiler furnaces for the purpose of 
increasing the boiler outputs. Taylor stokers with in- 
dependent draft fans will replace the chain grates pre- 
viously used. 

Even more important than the changes in the power 
plant have been those in substations and the distribut- 
ing system. The St. Denis substation has been re- 
vamped at a cost of nearly $225,000, and a beautiful 
substation has been built at Pointe aux Trembles. The 
latter is designed as a model for future development, 

January 12, 1918 electric railway journal 75 

Effects of War Conditions on Cost and Quality of 

Public Utility Service 

Extra Operating Expense of $116,500,000 per Year Should Be 
Considered by Commissions in Modifying Rates for Electric Service 

THE effects of war conditions on public utilities 
are explained in considerable detail in a paper by 
Lynn S. Goodman and Williarr B. Jackson pre- 
sented before the American Institute of Electrical En- 
gineers at New York on Jan. 11. This paper deals par- 
ticularly with the effects upon electric light and power 
business, but the same general principles are also ap- 
plicable to electric railway service. These effects are 
placed under two general heads, namely, those mani- 
fest in the heavy increases in operating cost and those 
causing the extraordinary increases in cost for new 
plant required to care for added business. 

During the past years individual salaries and wages 
have been gradually increasing, while the labor cost 
per unit of service has been decreasing. War condi- 
tions, however, have greatly affected this situation, and 
the growing scarcity of labor in the ordinary occupa- 
tions of peace tends to increase wage and salary scales. 
Employment of women has placed an additional class of 
labor at the service of the electric utilities, but more 
women employees are required than the number of 
men replaced, and war conditions tend to exhaust even 
this class of labor by offering wider fields of employ- 

An analysis of the United States Census statistics 
shows that the increase in the average wages per em- 
ployee, not including general officers, managers and 
superintendents, during the ten years from 1902 to 1912 
was 11 per cent. Since the beginning of the war sala- 
ries of officers, managers and general superintendents 
have not greatly increased, but the wages in the oper- 

(Coyicluded from Page 74) 

both with respect to architectural arrangement and 
machinery and control layout, in a ^arge part of the 
territory the high-tension lines have been put under- 
ground in the company's own conduits in accordance 
with a standard plan. The low-tension cables are being 
drawn into the municipal conduits. The substations 
will be made the subject of a separate article, but their 
general appearance is shown in the accompanying pho- 
tographs. All of the substations are being tied in 
with the Hochelaga power plant on a ring system, so 
that the reserve steam power can be promptly supplied 
. at any point where it may be needed. 

In the substations the plan is to use larger units than 
formerly, eventually practically standardizing on 1500 
or 2000 kw. as the size. Previous to 1912 the tendency 
was toward units of about 500 kw. In remodeling the 
buildings the engineers have given special attention to 
improvements in lighting and ventilating conditions, 
with a result that delightful surroundings are provided. 
By the use of fireproof construction everywhere the 
fire insurance premiums have been reduced to a 

ating departments have increased from 15 to 50 per 
cent, and it is estimated that 25 per cent may be taken 
as the average increase thus far occasioned by the war. 
The total salaries and wages paid to employees of elec- 
tric companies throughout the United States make up 
about one-third of the total operating expense. With 
normal growth from 1912, at the rate indicated by the 
growth during the previous ten years, the salary and 
wage disbursements of electric companies for the year 
1917 would have amounted to $90,000,000, of which one- 
seventh would have been for general officers, managers 
and superintendents' salaries and six-sevenths for 
wages. The increase in wages of 25 per cent, therefore, 
means an outlay on the part of electric companies of 
$19,000,000 for the year. 

Increase in the Cost of Fuel 

Estimates based upon the United States Census re- 
ports show that the cost of fuel has an extremely im- 
portant bearing upon the total cost of electric service. 
This item of expense for all the electric companies in 
the United States would have reached $50,000,000 for 
the year 1917 under normal conditions and would have 
amounted to about 60 to 65 per cent of the normal gen- 
erating expense. On the average, the cost per ton of 
coal to electric companies has increased a little more 
than 100 per cent on account of war conditions, making 
the increase of total cost due to the increased price per 
ton of fuel $50,000,000. A conservative figure for the 
increase in tonnage due to lower quality and non-uni- 
formity of grade is estimated at 10 per cent, which 
means an added increase of $10,000,000, making the 
total increase $60,000,000. 

The output which might have been expected for 1917 
under normal conditions for steam-driven electric sta- 
tions is 13,000,000 kw.-hr., and an average requirement 
of 3 lb. of coal per kilowatt-hour of output shows that 
the fuel requirements would amount to not more than 
20,000,000 net tons. This is approximately 3 per cent 
of the estimated output from the mines for 1917. Thus 
a relatively large reserve supply of coal in the hands of 
every electric company would tie up but a very small 
part of the coal supply of the country and this supply 
would be widely distributed over the country, and to a 
certain extent would be in proportion to the population 
and industrial importance of the several sections of the 

The normal cost of materials and supplies other than 
fuel used in operation and current maintenance of elec- 
tric properties makes up probably a little more than 15 
per cent of the total annual operating expense. The 
increase in the cost of such materials and supplies due 
to war conditions have been as much as 75 per cent. 
Such an increase in this expense means an increase in 
expenditures in the neighborhood of $30,000,000 over 
normal expense for 1917. 



Vol. 51, No. 2 

Measures which include the development and main- 
tenance of protective structures and lighting systems, 
as well as special policing, must be taken to protect 
properties from interference by enemy agents. The 
government action in restricting the activities of the 
alien enemy population is an important safeguard, but 
the necessity for direct protective measures adds hun- 
dreds of thousands of dollars to the normal expense ac- 
count of individual large electric corporations and 
amounts to at least $2,000,000 or $3,000,000 in the total 
cost of service throughout the country. 

Increase from Tax on Net Income 

According to the United States Census returns, the 
1917 taxes paid by electric companies might normally 
have reached $25,000,000. The proportion of gross 
revenue required for taxes has been increasing year by 
year, having been slightly more than 3 per cent in 1902, 
a little more than 3 x /2 per cent in 1907 and nearly 4% 
per cent in 1912. Taxes on net income made up a very 
small proportion of the total tax in former years, but 
this form of income taxation has had growing favor 
in legislative circles. An estimate of the amount of the 
expense which may be expected to be added to the cost 
of electric service throughout the country by the op- 
eration of the net income tax law will lie between 
$5,000,000 and $10,000,000 for the year 1917. 

The extra expense now imposed on electric companies 
on account of war conditions, as shown by the forego- 
ing amounts, equals the immense aggregate of $116,- 
500,000 per year. This is a quarter of the normal esti- 
mated gross revenue for 1917 of all the electric com- 
panies, and it wipes out two-thirds of the sum that 
would have been available for return and surplus. 

In addition to the above expenses there are the addi- 
tional expenses caused by the difficulty of retaining 
trained operators, the cost of protecting properties 
against malicious interference and the possible decrease 
of consumption of electric power, the magnitude of 
which it is impossible to estimate. 

Extraordinary Increase in Cost of 
New Plant 

The effect of war conditions in the matter of ex- 
traordinary increases of cost for new plant required to 
care for added business appears in several forms. The 
increased cost of new plant per unit of capacity mani- 
festly affects the cost of service not only for the period 
of the war, but for the life of such plant. Many elec- 
tric companies are now confronted with the necessity 
of caring for large demands for power arising from the 
increasing expansion in the manufacture of material 
for war purposes. 

The economical power generating station is the 
proper medium for the supply of large power require- 
ments arising on account of the war. The purchase of 
power leaves the manufacturers of munitions and other 
war materials free to devote their energy to the devel- 
opment and operation of the manufacturing plants 
without diverting any of their energy to the develop- 
ment of power plants or their operation. These advan- 
tages are so great that it is advisable that the govern- 
ment should use every reasonable means to encourage 
the power companies. 

Extension of the totals shown in the United States 
Census of central stations for past years to the year 

1917 show that under normal growth the total revenues 
in 1917 would have reached $475,000,000 and the oper- 
ating expenses $290,000,000, making a total income of 
$185,000,000. Estimating the cost of construction and 
equipment at $3,500,000,000, the income would repre- 
sent 5.3 per cent of this cost of construction and equip- 
ment. If no other factors entered into the problem be- 
sides increases in cost of operation, the fuel expense 
would have increased $60,000,000 for 1917, other sup- 
plies $30,000,000, labor expense $19,000,000 and taxes 
$7,500,000, representing an aggregate increase of op- 
erating expenses for these items of $116,500,000. This 
is an increase of 40 per cent in operating expenses, and 
it reduces the divisible income to $68,500,000, which 
amount is equivalent to less than 2 per cent on the cost 
of construction and equipment. 

Current expense accounts may be reduced by post- 
ponement of planned repairs which would normally be 
made at once, but it is well to recognize that the longer 
repairs are put off the more they cost. While current 
expenses may for a time be lower, the cost in the long 
run will doubtless be increased. The net results of such 
economies might amount to as much as 10 to 15 per cent 
of the normal operating revenue of the electric com- 
panies, but they are offset by increases in expense 
which have not been included in the amounts named, 
such as expenses for obtaining new employees, the low- 
ered efficiency of such employees, special policing, etc. 

Decrease in Consumption of 
Electric Power 

Principal consideration has been given to the effect 
of war conditions as increasing the demands for service. 
In England the danger from air raids and the necessity 
for conserving coal have materially decreased, and in 
some cases almost wiped out, the street lighting service 
furnished by many companies, and the domestic and 
commercial lighting loads have been very materially 
reduced. There has, however, been quite a universal 
increase in rates, in some cases flat percentage in- 
creases of the same amount for light and power, in 
other cases differing percentage increases for light and 
power, and in still others increases depending upon 
changes in cost of fuel. The flat percentage increases 
have varied from less than 10 per cent to as high as 50 
per cent over the rates in effect prior to the war, Lon- 
don rates having been increased 50 per cent. 

From the foregoing it is evident that increased ex- 
pense for service arises in every department of the 
business, in operating labor and supplies and taxes, in 
protection of the property, and in cost for extensions of 
plant. The latter is affected not only by abnormal first 
cost for equipment and its installation, but also by the 
present difficulty in obtaining money for such purposes 
at other than exorbitant rates as compared with normal. 
The increases of cost of electric service on account of 
war conditions are so great that rates for service which 
were equitable at the beginning of the war are in some 
cases now not covering the operating expense. Where 
companies are being loaded with war business, the new 
business in many cases may become a serious menace to 
the company, which can only be overcome by taking into 
account the war conditions in determining the rates to 
be charged. It seems proper that regulatory bodies 
should take into account these considerations in their 
requirements for electric service during the war. 

January 12, 1918 



Zone System Approved for Holyoke Company 

Massachusetts Commission Decides That Zone System with Central Five-Cent 
Area Is Best Suited to Local Situation — Decision Not a Binding Precedent for 
Other Cases, but Commission Says Such Zone Plan Should Have Fair Trial — 
Experience with Six-Cent Fare on City Lines Not Especially Encouraging So Far 

THE so-called zone system which permits city elec- 
tric railways to raise their fares without increas- 
ing the 5-cent rate in the central district should 
receive a fair trial — this is the point of the fare de- 
cision just made by the Massachusetts Public Service 
Commission in the Holyoke Street Railway case. With- 
out establishing any precedent which must be followed 
in other cases, the commission holds that such a zone 
system is well adapted to the Holyoke situation and is 
likely to produce the most satisfactory results for all 
concerned. In its opinion, the experience thus far in 
Massachusetts with a 6- 
cent unit of fare for city 
lines has not been espe- 
cially encouraging. 

The Holyoke Street 
Railway had asked the 
commission to select the 
method, from among 
several suggested, by 
which the road could ob- 
tain more revenue. No 
new schedule of rates 
was filed, but it was pro- 
posed to establish a zone 
system, increase rates, 
or do both. The com- 
mission's decision now 
authorizes the general 
zone plan proposed by 
the company, with a few 
modifications in details. 
Complete relief, it is 
said, should not be ex- 
pected in these war 

According to evidence 
submitted to the com- 
mission, the company op- 
erates about 72 miles of 

track, the lines in general radiating from the City Hall 
in Holyoke to Springfield, Northampton and other towns. 
The population of the territory served increased from 
60,374 in 1890 to 104,296 in 1915. Between Springfield, 
Holyoke and Northampton the company is in competition 
with the Boston & Maine Railroad, upon which fares at 
lower than the normal rate are charged because of the 
competition. The permanent investment per mile of 
main track in 1916 was $44,914. 

The old fare unit was 5 cents, except on the Amherst 
and Sunderland division, where it was 6 cents. No 
workingmen's or other reduced rate tickets were sold 
except the legally required half-fare tickets for school 
children. Few changes in fares had been made since 
the beginning of electric operation. The distance which 



might be traveled for 5 cents was comparatively long 
in certain cases, ranging from 7.26 to 10.06 miles in 
twelve instances. Possible rides of more than 6 miles 
were frequent. 

Until recently, the road had been one of the best pay- 
ing in Massachusetts. From 1892 to 1915 it paid regu- 
lar dividends of 8 per cent. In the fiscal year 1916 it 
paid 6 per cent, and in the succeeding year, 4V2 P er 
cent. In all but five years these dividends appear to 
have been fully earned, and only slight drafts upon 
surplus were made. Since much of the stock was 

issued at a premium, the 
actual return was less 
than the rate of divi- 
dend. From 1908 to 1917 
inclusive the percentage 
earned on the invest- 
ment ranged from 4.32 
to 8.60; the investment 
from $1,938,334 to $2,- 
953,017, and the income 
from $119,719 to $155,- 
675. The total perma- 
nent assets on June 30, 
1917, were $3,051,478. 
The operating revenue 
in 1917 was $711,374, 
and operating expenses 

The inspection depart- 
ment of the commission 
found that the track and 
roadbed had been well 
maintained and are now 
in fair condition. Dur- 
ing the next five years, 
it is estimated, about 20 
miles of track should be 

relaid and about 95,000 

ties renewed, at a total 
cost of about $244,000. In addition, about $144,000 
should be expended for renewals and repairs of special 
work, overhead system, telephones and signals. 

The company has 139 passenger cars, average age 
fifteen years. Thirteen of the sixty-six closed cars are 
of the semi convertible type. Eight were purchased 
in 1916, and five in 1913. None of the other cars are 
really modern. Many car replacements should be made 
in the near future. The single-truck cars have for the 
most part outlived their usefulness. In this matter the 
commission's finding says: 

"It is desirable that the company should gradually 
abandon the larger part of its present equipment and 
substitute semi-convertible cars which can be used the 
year around. While the management feels that the 







Vol. 51, No. 2 

<pen cars attract traffic during the summer months, 
properly designed semi-convertible equipment is in some 
respects more attractive, and the present double equip- 
ment unquestionably adds materially to expense of op- 
eration. On certain lines one-man cars can probably be 
used to advantage." 

Out of 384 motors, 186 are of good type and 130 are 
less efficient but still serviceable. The remainder, in 
the opinion of the inspection department of the com- 
mission, are unprofitable to operate and should be sold 
before junk values recede. In 1914 the company con- 
structed, at a cost of about $225,000, a modern car- 
house, shop and office building in Holyoke. The de- 
partment reports it to be one of the best of its kind 
in the State. It has decreased maintenance, car stor- 
age and inspection costs. The department, however, 
believes that better results can be secured if the mile- 
age per car per day is furnished to the master me- 
chanic and inspections made on this basis. About 
$250,000 was expended in power plant improvements in 
1914, and the plant is now in good condition and rea- 
sonably efficient. The voltage throughout the system is 
reasonably good except on the Westfield line, where 
new feeders are needed. The company, it is said, has 
always been regarded as well managed and furnishing 
good service. 

Rising Costs and Depreciation Require 
Increased Earnings 

In support of its petition for increased revenue, the 
company held (1) that in the year ended June 30, 1917, 
it did not feel the full effect of prevailing high prices of 
coal, steel, copper and supplies in general, and these 
prices will materially increase the cost of operation for 
some time to come and, in conjunction with certain 
other factors, decrease net income; and (2) that the 
company did not in this year make sufficient provision 
for depreciation. 

The coal now being used costs $8.45 per ton delivered, 
and the increased price for 1918 consumption is ex- 
pected to total $21,500. Early in 1916 the company an- 
ticipated the rise in the material market and purchased 
a comparatively large stock. The management esti- 
mates that if current prices had been paid for ma- 
terials used in repairs and renewals in 1917, the cost 
would have been about $13,000 greater. 

The commission feels that there is little reason to 
anticipate lower prices until some time after the war, 
and it says: "The company may reasonably expect in 
the immediate future, in our judgment, an increase in 
operating expenses, as compared with the year ended 
June 30, 1917, of at least $35,000 per year and probably 
a greater sum, owing to increased prices of fuel and 
other supplies without allowing for any greater use." 

Expert testimony was introduced by the company to 
prove that greater provision for depreciation should be 
made, the lives of the various classes of property being 
estimated as follows: Rolling stock and equipment, 
twenty years; track and electric line construction, six- 
teen and two-thirds years; buildings, thirty-three and 
one-third years; power plant and equipment, twenty- 
five years ; park property, excluding land, twenty years. 
The composite life of all depreciable property was 
twenty-one and three-quarters years. From these life 
estimates the amount which ought to have been ex- 
pended or set aside in 1916 was determined, the totai 

being $144,501. The maintenance expenditures were 
then analyzed to ascertain the portion used for re- 
newals which might properly have been charged against 
a depreciation reserve, and the unprovided-for deprecia- 
tion was found to be about $100,000. 

The commission in its finding agrees that insufficient 
depreciation has been set aside, noting as an example 
the need of new cars to replace those which, while not 
worn out, are not efficient according to modern stand- 
ards. Old power plants outside Holyoke have not been 
adequately charged off. No depreciation account exists 
to cover certain track and line renewals now overdue. 
The commission points out that while changes in the 
art may at any time upset life calculations, estimates 
must be made, for depreciation is certain and ought to 
be systematically provided for. It has been urged by 
certain experts that no depreciation reserve is neces- 
sary in the case of a large electric railway which has 
been gradually built up, since renewals tend to strike 
a yearly average if made regularly and seasonably. 
This, the commission concedes, may be true on a large 
system, but not on a property the size of that in Holyoke, 
In any case, life calculations are an important check 
upon yearly expenditures. 

The commission is inclined to believe the property 
lives assigned by the company low, but it concludes 
that $100,000 per year is needed to put the property 
into first-class shape within the next five years, besides 
at least $35,000 per year, or probably double that 
amount, for increased operating expenses and at least 
$50,000 per year for current depreciation. With nec- 
essary rehabilitation included, from $185,000 to $220,- 
000 per year will be required. 

Maximum Return Not to Be Expected in 
War Time 

The commission is of the opinion that while the 
stockholders have already been called upon for a sac- 
rifice of a reasonable return and ought, in justice, to be 
able to look forward to a day in the not remote future 
when dividends will be restored to the normal rate, 
they ought not to expect for the present a rate higher 
than 6 per cent. This would mean substantially less 
than 6 per cent on the entire investment. In determin- 
ing what action is now just and reasonable, the com- 
mission gives weight to the following points : 

1. The burden of high prices from which the company 
is suffering is caused by the war, which is falling with 
equal weight upon most individuals in the community. It 
is not a time when maximum returns ought reasonably to 
be expected. 

2. Present prices of fuel and materials are clearly ab- 
normal, and it ought not to be assumed that they will con- 
tinue indefinitely. It is reasonable to suppose that relief 
will come soon after the war ends, and it is possible that 
it may come sooner through governmental regulation. So 
long as these excessive prices continue, it would be unwise 
to establish a scale of fares for the purpose of making a 
provision now for past and future depreciation which is 
theoretically sound but far in excess of any provision which 
this company and electric railways generally have been 
making in the past. 

3. Under present abnormal conditions it is doubtful 
whether any extensive process of rehabilitation could be 
or ought to be undertaken. Even if funds could be ob- 
tained, the necessary construction materials and equipment 
could be secured, if at all, with great difficulty and only 
at excessive prices. 

4. While the rehabilitation suggested is desirable, the 
property is in sufficiently good condition to furnish service 
of fair quality without it. 

January 12, 1918 



Under the conditions, therefore, it appears to the 
commission that it would be just at present to establish 
a new scale of fares estimated to produce about $110,000 
in additional yearly revenue. If this were obtained, 
though as a rule it is the experience of electric rail- 
ways that the actual results from fare increases fall 
below previous estimates, it would enable the company, 
unless conditions change for the worse, to meet in- 
creased expenses, pay moderate dividends and make a 
substantial provision for depreciation. 

"No one," says the finding, "can accurately foretell 
the results which may come from any advance in rates, 
and electric railway managers themselves are in doubt 
as to the best method of increasing revenue. Several 
methods are now on trial in the Commonwealth. The 
future course of prices, of wages and of traffic are just 
as uncertain, and it is also possible that new legislation 
during the year may modify the situation. 

"Furthermore, an engineering and operating survey 
of the property is very desirable and ought to be made 
by the company. This should furnish full information 
as to the ages of all important items of existing prop- 
erty; renewals provided for in recent years from the 
maintenance account ; economies likely to result from 
changes in rolling stock, track, line and shops ; methods 
of track construction ; use of power by motormen ; rout- 
ing of cars; layovers, and development of trolley freight 
and express service, in which last the company has made 
little progress." 

Methods Proposed for Increasing Revenues 

Three methods of increasing fares were suggested by 
the company. Two were similar, based upon an appli- 
cation of the so-called "zone system." They preserved 
the 5-cent fare within the thickly-settled part of Holy- 
oke, but reduced the distance which might be travelled, 
thus creating an outer zone to and from which an extra 
fare would be charged. The third method was based 
upon the substitution of a 6-cent fare and a 2-cent 
transfer charge for the present 5-cent fare. All three 
provided for a 7-cent fare on the Amherst and Sunder- 
land division instead of the 6-cent rate existing at the 
present time. 

Under the first zone plan the inner circle would in- 
clude the thickly-settled portion of Holyoke and also' 
the villages of South Hadley Falls and Willimansett. In 
no case would the limit of the inner circle be placed 
at a point within the congested territory unless the 
line terminated within that area. The zones and dis- 
tances from the Holyoke City Hall are shown in the 
accompanying diagram. Under this plan it was pro- 
posed to charge 5 cents between all points within the 
inner circle and 5 cents between points in the outer 
circle located on the same line; 10 cents between any 
point in the inner circle and any point in the outer 
circle, and 15 cents between points in the outer circle 
located on different lines. Tickets would be sold at the 
rate of four for 30 cents, good between South Hadley 
Center, Fairview, Chicopee Street, Chicopee Falls or 
West Springfield town line and the Holyoke City Hall. 
A charge of 1 cent would be made for each transfer, 
but this penny would be redeemed if the transfer were 
presented within the indicated time limit. No transfers 
would be issued in connection with the 7 ] /2-cent tickets. 

The second zone plan provided for the same inner 
and outer circles, but a somewhat different system of 

charging. Instead of providing for the sale of 7^-cent 
tickets, good between the City Hall and the points 
above mentioned, it substituted a 7-cent cash fare, with 
transfer privileges at the City Hall, except that no 
transfers would be given from the South Hadley Center, 
Chicopee, Chicopee Falls or West Springfield routes to 
or from Mountain Park. In all cases, both for through 
routes and for rides within the inner circle, 1 cent would 
be charged for transfers, without redemption. Between 
Fairview and Chicopee Street, or Chicopee Falls, spe- 
cial tickets would be sold, making the fare 10 instead of 
15 cents. The first zone plan was estimated to yield 
$145,000 additional revenue a year; the second, $132,000, 
and the 6-cent unit fare alone, $140,000. 

Commission Favors Zone System for Holyoke 

At the hearings the company expressed a preference 
for a zone system with a 5-cent unit in the thickly 
settled district. The communities in general favored 
a 6-cent unit without change in fare limits. In reaching 
a decision, however, the commission was guided by its 
best judgment as to the plan which, taken as a whole, 
would produce the best results for all concerned. It is 
difficult, the commission says, to gage public sentiment 
accurately in advance of actual trial. 

It is the commission's belief that experience so far 
in Massachusetts with a 6-cent unit on city lines has 
not been especially encouraging. It is an awkward fare, 
hard to collect, either with the old register system or 
with the prepayment fare box. In the latter case it 
lends itself readily to fraud. It has a further and per- 
haps more serious disadvantage in that it discourages 
short-haul riding and encourages jitney competition. 
There is, the commission states, an undercurrent of 
feeling in electric railway circles in favor of main- 
taining a maximum fare of 5 cents in compact metro- 
politan centers. Short-haul riding is the most profit- 
able, and the best minds in the industry are now at 
work on the problem of attracting and holding this kind 
of traffic. 

The point is well illustrated in the present case. In 
a city like Holyoke, where a number of lines radiate 
from a common center, the opportunities for securing 
short-haul traffic are at a maximum. For example, 
in the case of the lines which extend to Elmwood, North 
Pleasant Street and South Hadley Falls, none is more 
than 2 miles long, and in one case the distance is less 
than IV2 miles. A 6-cent fare on such lines would, in all 
probability, lead many present riders to walk and would 
thus open up an inviting field for jitney competi- 
tion at the 5-cent rate. It is on such short city routes 
that jitney operations have proved most profitable. On 
the other hand, if a 5-cent fare can be preserved on 
such lines and a regular and a frequent service provided, 
present service being doubled by the introduction of 
one-man cars if necessary, opportunities for attracting 
traffic are great. 

To the commission's mind there is equity also in keep- 
ing the 5-cent unit within the congested district, for it 
is this which gives strength to the system. Over two- 
thirds of the people served live in Holyoke and the adja- 
cent settlements across the Connecticut River, and they 
have really furnished the prosperity which the company 
has enjoyed in the past. It has been urged on grounds 
of social welfare that the zone system ought not to be 
introduced, because it will further congest the central 



Vol. 51, No. 2 

district and prevent families from living in more com- 
fortable surroundings in the suburban territory. Cer- 
tain observers, however, are of ihe opinion that the 
benefit of a low fare in suburban territory is received 
by the landowner rather than by the tenant. In other 
words, where a low fare exists, land values and rents 
increase, while, if the fare is high, they remain at a low 
level. The net result, as far as the cost of maintaining 
a home is concerned, is much the same in either case, 
in the view of these observers, the difference being ab- 
sorbed by real estate values. 

Zone System with Five-Cent Central Area 
Should Have Fair Trial 

If a 6-cent fare were adopted and failed to produce 
the desired financial result, the tendency would be to- 
ward a still higher unit or toward a zone system with 
6 cents as the minimum fare. It is easier to increase 
the minimum than to reduce it. When a company is in 
need of additional revenue, it hesitates to try a lower 
rate, and it is doubtful how far the commission may 
have power to compel such a trial to be made. On the 
other hand, if the zone system were now adopted, with 
5 cents as the minimum, it would be a comparatively 
simple matter, if the results proved unfavorable, to 
change back to the present plan and try a uniform 
6-cent unit. 

In short, the commission remarks, the methods of 
increasing electric railway fares are now admittedly in 
their experimental stage. Rates of 6 cents, 7 cents and 
8 cents and a mileage system of charging are all on 
trial in Massachusetts at present. Without in any way 
committing itself to any method which must necessarily 
be followed in other cases, the commission believes that 
the so-called zone system of charging which permits 
city systems to increase fares without raising the 5-cent 
rate in the central district ought to have a fair trial, 
and that, on present evidence, this method is especially 
well adapted to the Holyoke situation and likely to 
produce the most satisfactory results for all concerned. 

First Zone Plan Is Modified 

The general scheme for such a zone system which was 
suggested by the company is said to seem on the whole 
well-devised. The limits of the inner circle include the 
compact, densely-settled central district and appear to 
have been logically located. The two zone plans are 
very similar, and either one may be used as a basis. 
In taking the first plan, however, in the judgment of 
the commission, the following modifications should be 
made : 

1. Tickets good for rides between points in the inner 
circle and points in the outer circle located on the West 
Springfield, Chicopee Falls, Chicopee Street, Fairview and 
South Hadley Center lines should be freely sold, both at 
convenient outside agencies and on the cars, at the rate of 
six for 40 cents, and the fact that such tickets are available 
should be advertised by conspicuous notices on the cars. 

2. Provision should be made, either by ticket sale or 
otherwise, for a rate of 7% cents for local rides between 
points in the inner circle and Smiths Ferry or intermediate 
points on the Northampton line, and between points in the 
inner circle and the city boundary or intermediate points on 
the Westfield line. On the latter line, the company may, if 
it desires, limit this local fare to the hours when working- 
men are going to or from work. 

3. Lap-overs should be provided for the South Hadley 
Falls and Willimsett districts, so that passengers may ride 

between South Hadley Falls and South Hadley Center and 
between Willimsett and other parts of Chicopee for a 
5-cent fare. This can, in the commission's judgment, be 
done without great inconvenience to the company. 

4. Special tickets should be sold at the rate of five for 
50 cents good between points on the Fairview line and the 
city of Chicopee and points on the Chicopee Street and 
Chicopee Falls line in the same city. 

5. Free transfers should be given at the City Hall to all 
points within the inner circle, and these should be avail- 
able to passengers using tickets as well as to those paying 
cash fares. 

The commission indicates no change in the case of 
the 7-cent fares proposed on the Amherst and Sunder- 
land line, for the operation of this division has been 
unprofitable, and the company is fairly entitled to addi- 
tional revenue if it can be secured. The commission, 
however, suggests that the company, in its own interest, 
might well consider the adoption of some plan, either 
by the sale of tickets or otherwise, whereby local rides 
could be secured for reasonable distances within the 
town limits of Amherst at a rate not in excess of 6 

It is possible that the 7-cent fare on this di- 
vision may not result in the anticipated improvement, 
and the company, the commission says, should keep a 
careful record, so that its effect may accurately be deter- 
mined with a view to possible modifications in the 

This should also be done in the case of the plan as a 
whole. It should be clearly understood that the plan is 
subject to review at the end of one year with a view 
to possible modifications in the light of experience 
gained during that period and of the additional infor- 
mation which the company should in the meantime 
secure by an intensive study. 

Courtesy and Safety 

THE National Safety Council finds that there is a 
relation between handling complaints and in- 
suring safety to passengers. The recent poster repro- 
duced herewith tells its own story. 


"I Take My Pen in Hand—" 

Letter from a Peeved Citizen 

Mister Manager: 

Von talk about your conductors werking hard and being certeus. They do 
nothing nine tens of the day but stand around and view the passing seenery. My 
wife with her child went down town the other day and the child is heavy to carry. 
When she got on the car did the conductor show sum of your famus certesy and 
help her? He did not. Did the motorman start the car easy? He did not. Then 
when the car got down town did the conductor help my wife and child which was 
heavy to get off? Hellno. Your conductors are loafers who are afreade to do a 
little certesy for feer H will strane there back. What are you going to do about it? 


It Is Not Entirely a Matter of Courtesy— But One of Safety 

January 12, 1918 


8 J 

Railroad Electrification as a War Measure 

The Author Shows that It Will Be Profitable 
in Spite of the High Cost of Labor and Materials 


Engineer Railway Section, General Engineering Division, 
Westinghouse Electric &. Manufacturing Company, East Pittsburgh, Pa. 

TRANSPORTATION, whether by rail, water or 
highways, is a most vital factor in prosecuting the 
war. The service demanded of the railroads of the 
United States by the present immense volume of traffic, 
largely due to the requirements of war, has demon- 
strated very clearly the inadequacy of our existing rail- 
road facilities. Among the urgent necessities of the 
situation are larger and better arranged terminals, 
greater track capacity, increased train loads, higher 
speeds, more efficient motive power, and the conserva- 
tion of fuel, materials and men. The practical patriot- 
ism which the railroads have displayed in combining 
management, facilities and equipment for the period of 
the war is accomplishing wonderful results of incalcula- 
ble value. However, as the situation becomes more 
acute, through consumption of men and materials, other 
means may be necessary to secure the essential result. 

The Bulletin of the National City Bank of New York, 
for November, 1917, on "Economic Conditions," con- 
tains the following comment: 

There is naturally a feeling of uncertainty and appre- 
hension as to industrial conditions after the war. The 
demand for war materials will fall off, the supply of labor 
on the market will be greatly increased, and it is a question 
whether all of this labor can be promptly placed in em- 
ployment. It will be the most stupendous reorganization 
of industry ever known, and it is going to be a great social 
problem to accomplish this change without confusion, loss 
of confidence and a period of stagnation. It is important 
that plans be laid on a large scale to take up the slack, and 
other countries are laying them. In this country, ready 
at hand, is the task of equipping the railroads, and other 
industries where practicable, to operate by electric power. 
. . . The amount of work in sight, if a general scheme of 
electrification was undertaken, would be sufficient to relieve 
the business community of its fears as to idleness and poor 
trade for some years to come, and would thus encourage 
other enterprises to go ahead. 

The danger will be in a pervasive feeling of uncertainty, 
causing men to wait with their own plans until they can 
discern the general trend, and waiting of itself slows down 
business. Large plans for the employment of labor which 
can be brought definitely forward at the critical time will 
serve to inspire confidence and support the whole situation. 

It seems pertinent at this time, therefore, to con- 
sider seriously what electrification is capable of doing 
for the railroads now, at the same time bearing in mind 
the desirability of making definite plans for electrifica- 
tion when peace is finally secured. Conservation of fuel 
is highly important, not only in order to meet the ex- 
traordinary demands of our government and the indus- 
tries and for export to our Allies, but also because every 
reduction in fuel movement for domestic purposes adds 
to the equipment and track capacity available for mov- 
ing export shipments. Electric operation lends itself to 
fuel conservation in two ways; either water power is 
substituted for steam power, or the necessary steam 
power is produced in a central power plant more eco- 
nomically than by burning fuel on locomotives. In the 
first case, all of the fuel used for train propulsion, fuel 

handling and haulage (which may be as high as 10 per 
cent of the propulsion fuel), water pumping, etc., is' 
saved for other purposes. In the second case, approxi- 
mately one-half of the fuel is conserved, it being a 
well-established fact that 1 lb. of coal burned in a mod- 
ern electric power house will produce as much trans- 
portation as 2 lb. burned in steam locomotives. 

The government requirements for fuel oil are enor- 
mous and the supply is restricted on account of the re- 
duced output from domestic fields, Mexican conditions 
and the fact that the Roumanian fields are in the pos- 
session of the Central Powers. Railroad electrification 
could relieve this situation considerably and water 
powers are already available or may readily be devel- 
oped for the electric operation of many of the most 
difficult sections of the railroads now using oil-burning 
locomotives. However, the smaller fuel consumption 
now obtainable by the use of steam-driven stations is 
equally as important as the utilization of water powers, 
because the densest railroad traffic and the greatest 
congestion is in territory within easy range of the best 
coal fields, but where water power is scarce or ex- 
tremely costly to develop. 

Electrification a Conservation Measure 

At first glance, electrification may seem not to tend 
toward the conservation of materials. The construction 
of overhead lines, substations and possibly power sta- 
tions calls for a large amount of material, a considera- 
ble proportion of which is copper and steel. On the 
other hand, fewer electric locomotives than steam loco- 
motives are required to produce the same quantity of 
service. Where congestion is becoming unendurable 
electric operation will give relief which, with the con- 
tinuance of steam power, could be obtained only by 
building additional tracks and greatly increasing the 
steam motive-power equipment. The steam locomotives 
released by electrification and the cars relieved from 
hauling railroad fuel take the place of new locomotives 
and cars for increasing the capacity of unelectrified 
divisions. It is apparent, therefore, that these features 
indicate the conservation of materials by means of elec- 
tric operation. 

Diverting millions of men from peaceful pursuits to 
war activities impose upon those remaining the duty of 
working more efficiently. To this end, machinery must 
replace and release men to a greater extent than hereto- 
fore. Railroad electrification helps to conserve man 
power both directly and indirectly. Since it has been 
proved practicable to build, and operate with one en- 
gine crew, electric locomotives more powerful than 
steam locomotives, fewer enginemen are required to 
handle a given traffic electrically.. Not only can larger 
trains be operated at higher speeds, but delays on the 



Vol. 51, No. 2 

road are mateiially reduced and there is less overtime 
and little conflict with the sixteen-hour law. The oper- 
ation of larger trains at higher speeds also decreases 
the number of train crews for a given traffic. Material 
reduction in the roundhouse and shop labor of caring 
for and repairing motive power is found with electric 
locomotives. This is effected largely by the elimination 
of the boiler, firebox and tender which are essentials of 
the steam locomotive and by the longer time possible 
between "shoppings." 

The combination of engine divisions, together with 
more exact and more reliable movement of trains with 
electric power, makes possible a further conservation of 
man power by reducing the number of dispatchers re- 
quired to operate a given trackage. The indirect reduc- 
tion in men comes chiefly through the fuel reduction or 
elimination. This releases men from mining coal or pro- 
ducing oil, from handling this fuel, and from operating 
and maintaining equipment in railroad fuel service, so 
that they are available for performing similar or other 
service in producing fuel and transportation for the 
needs of our government, industries and Allies. Of 
course, all of the man power thus conserved is not a 
net gain, because the maintenance and operation of 
power house, substations, transmission and distribution 
systems require the time and energies of some men not 
employed in the operation of a steam railroad. How- 
ever, in any case, the net reduction in men required is 
great and increases more rapidly than in proportion to 
the extent of the electrification. 

Savings from Increased Track Capacity 

One of the greatest benefits derived from electri- 
fication is the increase in track capacity without laying 
additional rails. Probably there are few places where, 
under steam operation, the capacity of existing track 
could not be increased by the use of larger, more effi- 
cient locomotives, changes in train make-up, increased 
car-loading and modified operating conditions such as 
the "sailing dates" for l.c.l. freight recently introduced 
on certain railroads. All such improvements can be 
secured equaly well with electric operation, and in addi- 
tion still larger trains may be operated at higher speeds 
with greater safety and reliability and fewer delays. 
These results are obtained through the ability to con- 
centrate in an electric locomotive greater power than in 
a single steam locomotive, to operate locomotives in 
multiple, and in the electric locomotive's smoothness 
of control, its greater availability for service, the 
greater mileage between overhauling periods, the re- 
duction in railroad fuel handled, the less serious nature 
of road failures, the elimination of intermediate engine 
terminals, and the definite speed of operation on the 

The movement of trains at higher speeds with fewer 
delays and less damage enables greater mileage to be 
secured from cars in a given time. This saves time in 
furnishing any quantity of transportation service and 
the time thus conserved is equivalent to increasing 
the number of cars available for service. In fact, it 
is more than equivalent, for there is less likelihood of* 
congestion in handling a certain traffic with 1000 cars 
than if 1200 cars are required to accommodate the 
same traffic. 

The National City Bank Bulletin for December, 1917, 
contains the following: 

The industries cannot expand beyond the limits fixed by 
the supply of pig iron, coal and railway service. If gov- 
ernment funds can be used to remedy this situation it will 
be the most effective use to which, at this time, they can 
be applied. Here is the narrow place in the road, and if 
it can be widened the energies of the country will produce 
immensely greater results. 

Electrification is admirably adapted to "widening 
the narrow places" in the railroads. The greatest con- 
gestion, aside from terminals, occurs on roads handling 
ore, fuel, grain and munitions. The suggested us3 of 
government funds (where necessary) to assist in re- 
lieving this congestion appears to be both legitimate and 
logical. Government assistance might be secured in get- 
ting priority of manufacture also, since the apparatus 
to be built would be utilized to improve transportation 
facilities largely for government business. The manu- 
facture of a number of electric locomotives would re- 
lease a much larger number of stearh locomotives and 
take some of the present burden from the steam locomo- 
tive factories by reducing the number of boilers, ten- 
ders, engine frames and running gears which such fac- 
tories would have to build for a given amount of relief. 

Not only must maximum capacity of existing facili- 
ties be secured but increased facilities at the weak 
points of our transportation systems should be provided 
with the utmost speed. Labor should be diverted from 
non-essential channels to the construction of these ad- 
ditional facilities. The diversified character of the ma- 
terials and apparatus used and the greater service ob- 
tained from equal weight of material in electrical serv- 
ice make it practicable to -secure a definite increase of 
railroad facilities with electrification more readily than 
by building additional tracks, widening tunnels and 
bridges and building additional steam locomotives. In- 
cidentally, in many cases, electrification is economically 
the best method of securing such increase in track ca- 
pacity. It appears, therefore, that intelligent consider- 
ation of the present situation, the probable duration of 
the war and the future of the country, carried on jointly 
by our government and the railroads, should lead to 
some electrification immediately and to the greater use 
of electric power by railroads when peace comes. 

"Looking Backward" 

THE Rhode Island Company, Providence, R. I., at a 
recent souvenir dinner of the "Town Criers" did a 
little advertising stunt that created considerable com- 

\ I C/ >« FARE 

\ s Providence 

/ t 17 


ment. At each plate it caused to be put a little "his- 
torical" souvenir (1% in. x 3 in.), showing a fac-simile 
of the car fare used in Providence "away back" in 1917. 
The idea seemed to make a hit with the diners. 

Januaiy 12, 1918 electric railway journal 

Reasonable Rate of Return Has Advanced 

At Recent Milwaukee Fare Hearing Mr. Mortimer Discussed Hazards and 
Needs of Electric Railway Industry — Fundamentals of Proper Wage Basis 
Outlined — Need Emphasized of City Co-operation in Effecting Economies 

AT A HEARING before the Wisconsin Railroad 
Commission on Dec. 20, on the application of the 
Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Company and 
the Milwaukee Light, Heat & Traction Company for re- 
vision of rates of fare, filed on Nov. 6, 1915, J. D. Mor- 
timer, president of the petitioning companies, testified 
as to additional revenue requirements, efforts in econ- 
omy and efficiency, and prevailing rates of return on 
public utility investments. A synopsis of Mr. Mor- 
timer's remarks is given in subsequent paragraphs. 

How the Investment Has Grown 

The original cost of the railway property of the Mil- 
waukee Electric Railway & Light Company on Dec. 31, 

1916, was $19,972,896, amounting to $4.33 of invest- 
ment per $1 of annual operating revenue. The cor- 
responding ratio for the year ended Dec. 31, 1911, was 
$4.18 of investment per $1 of annual operating revenue. 
The increase in investment per $1 of corresponding 
operating revenue during the five-year period was $5.25. 

The original cost of the Milwaukee Light, Heat & 
Traction railway property on Dec. 31, 1916, was $9,204,- 
441. This investment was $9.13 per $1 of annual oper- 
ating revenue. The investment ratio was much higher 
in the case of this company, with its suburban and in- 
terurban business, than in the case of the Milwaukee 
Electric Railway & Light Company, serving the city 
business, due to the difference between the annual 
earnings per mile of track. 

The ratio of operating expenses, including deprecia- 
tion, to operating revenues for the twelve months ended 
Oct. 30, 1917, in the single-fare area was 82.7 per cent. 
To produce an 8 per cent rate upon the property would 
have required an operating ratio of 68 per cent, and it 
would have been necessary to increase revenues $723,- 
377 to achieve this ratio. The ratio of utility capital to 
operating revenue would then have been reduced to 

1918 Will See Higher Costs 

These figures, Mr. Mortimer said, summarize condi- 
tions as they obtained during the twelve months ended 
Oct. 31, 1917, and do not cover increased operating ex- 
penses which will be experienced during the ensuing 
year. The largest single item of expense is the wages of 
the trainmen, and it is believed that these should be in- 
creased at least 15 cents per man-hour. Such an in- 
crease when applied to the city and suburban zones 
would amount to $660,000. 

Another item of increase is the cost of power. For 
the twelve months ended Oct. 30, 1917, this amounted 
to $566,193. Coal cost $3.67 per ton. For October coal 
cost an average of $4.35 per ton, while effective Nov. 1, 

1917, there was a further increase in price of coal of 
45 cents per ton. In view of the possible further in- 
creases in cost of coal at mines, increase in freight 
rates, war tax on freight and increase in storage and 

handling costs, it is reasonable to predict that the cost 
during the ensuing year will be increased an additional 
75 cents per ton. Substantial necessary increases are 
also scheduled for labor in power plants and substa- 
tions. The total increase in power cost will amount 
for all railway departments to $253,200, of which $223,- 
000 is applicable to the city and suburban fare zones. 

Maintenance of equipment costs are similarly esti- 
mated to increase $110,000, of which $96,700 is appor- 
tionable to the Milwaukee city and suburban system. 
Maintenance of way and structures expenses are antici- 
pated to increase $106,300 for the entire system, $75,- 
400 for the urban and suburban business. Wages of 
miscellaneous car-service employees, carhouse em- 
ployees, car cleaners, telephone operators and miscel- 
laneous transportation expenses are likewise estimated 
to increase $88,756 for the system as a whole, of which 
$82,100 would be chargeable against the Milwaukee 
city and suburban zone. Mr. Mortimer also pointed out 
that many of the items of general expenses, undis- 
tributed expenses and taxes will sustain important in- 
creases, estimated at $184,100 for the entire system 
and $167,000 for the Milwaukee city and suburban 
zones. Summarizing the probable increases in operat- 
ing cost, Mr. Mortimer stated that these were estimated 
at $1,471,550 for the entire railway department and 
$1,304,200 for the city and suburban business. 

Reasonable Return To-day Higher Than Years Ago 

Mr. Mortimer then noted important changes that 
have taken place in the returns demanded by investors 
in electric railway securities. The capital invested in 
public utilities is planted and must be considered as in- 
vested in perpetuity. The problem of determining a 
reasonable rate of return is necessarily one of the 
future. The investor considers the actual return which 
his money will earn in good years and bad, and the pros- 
pects for future increase. No investor will knowingly 
put money into an enterprise where prospects are they 
will suffer loss. The prospects for future increases 
either in rate of return or in margin of safety are very 
important considerations in inducing investors to part 
with their savings. 

In Mr. Mortimer's opinion, the great mistake made 
by regulation in many states is that its calculations 
have been based entirely on past records without fore- 
cast of future conditions. When, about ten years ago, 
commissions announced that a return of 7 3 /2 to 8 per 
cent, made up of 6 per cent for interest or pure cost of 
money and V ^ to 2 per cent as profit of the proprietor, 
would be allowed on capital invested in public utilities, 
investors assumed that these returns would be assured 
in bad as well as good years. Such a policy had a 
tendency to stabilize investment values. The failure 
of such returns to materialize during periods of depres- 
sion has now placed public utility investments in a semi- 
hazardous class. 



Vol. 51, No. 2 

Investors expected that all new investments made 
since the beginning of regulation would be allowed at 
least the announced rates of return. They did not an- 
ticipate that these investments would be subjected to 
valuation at amounts considerably below the actual in- 
vestment. It was also not anticipated that the rise in 
commodity prices and in rates of wages would outrun 
any possible economies which could be effected, nor was 
the full effect of additional burdens through the exer- 
cise of municipal police powers and by the imposition 
of service orders by regulating commissions appreciated 
either by the investors or by the commissions. Re- 
turns have accordingly not been stable. 

At the present time the enormous government bor- 
rowings running far beyond anything in this country's 
experience, and paying much higher than the usual rate 
of interest of borrowers in pre-war days, have con- 
tributed to a rapid rise in the old interest plane. The 
problem of reasonable return to-day is accordingly a 
very different one from what it was nine years ago 
when interest rates were on a much lower level than is 
now the case. Returns of 7% to 8 per cent are to-day 
wholly inadequate for the purpose of securing addi- 
tional capital to flow into the business. A return of 
10 per cent to 12 per cent might accomplish such a re- 
sult, but this is not at all certain. 

Shortly after April, and for a few months during the 
summer, it was possible for public utilities to finance 
themselves temporarily by the sale of short-term notes 
secured by bonds, but the interest-rate cost to the 
issuing company was 8 per cent per annum or more. 
This figure is higher than public utilities are earning, 
but even then the amount of money that could be se- 
cured by this means was comparatively small. It is a 
well-established economic fact that there is a marked 
tendency for security values to depreciate as the prices 
of commodities rise — that is, the interest yields in- 
crease with an increase in commodity prices. Hence, 
Mr. Mortimer said, it would appear that in the ideal 
system of regulation there should be some advance in 
the reasonable rate of return as commodity prices in- 
crease in order to parallel as far as practicable the in- 
creasing cost of money and the other factors that go to 
measure a reasonable return from time to time. 

Hazards of the Electric Railway Business 

The hazards of the electric railway business are very 
important considerations in determining whether or 
not it is a good business for a man to engage in as an 
employee or wage earner, and as a business in which to 
invest money. The particular hazards of the business 
enumerated by Mr. Mortimer are variation in gross 
earnings arising from fluctuation in business condi- 
tions, competition with other forms of transportation, 
small rate of growth of earnings, the general rise of 
the wage level and cost of materials, higher service 
standards, increased wages, unproductive investments 
required by municipal enactment ( such as paving 
within the track zone, placing wires underground, grade 
crossing separation and abandonment of existing lines 
before the normal useful life of the utility property 
has expired) and uncertainties of valuation arising out 
of lack of agreement on fundamental principles. 

The rate of return upon the bare cost of reproduction 
of the physical property used and useful in the single- 
fare and suburban areas amounted to 4.52 per cent for 

the year ended June 30, 1914; 3.28 per cent for the year 
ended June 30, 1915; 4.23 per cent for the year ended 
June 30, 1916; 4.79 per cent for the year ended June 
30, 1917, and 4.20 per cent for the year ended Oct. 31. 
1917. The basis upon which these returns are com- 
puted does not include working capital, stores, or going 
value. The cost of money can be reduced and the rate 
of return stabilized by contractural guarantees on the 
part of the municipality. This method will go some 
distance in reducing the cost of capital and the cost of 

Rate Regulation Should Be Automatic 

In Mr. Mortimer's opinion, regulation of rates of 
fare or lengths of haul should be automatic. It should 
not be necessary that the commission be required to 
hear a case on a petition initiated by some party every 
time the rate of return increases or decreases one-half 
of 1 per cent. It is entirely conceivable that the com- 
mission can establish fundamental factors upon which 
the rates of fare are to be computed or the distance 
traveled for the same fare and have the same modified 
automatically at three or six months intervals as the 
conditions of the time demand. 

What Constitutes a Proper Wage? 

With respect to the wage policy of the company, Mr. 
Mortimer pointed out that public utility employment 
should be the most stable and best paid in the com- 
munity. Economy can only be obtained with competent 
employees, and the greatest competency can only be ob- 
tained by stable service. Stable service requires most 
favorable working conditions, such as the eight-hour 
day and the highest rate of wages. It is believed that 
the public desires well-paid employees. 

The index number of the cost of living indicates a 
substantial increase in living cost. If the year 1914 
is taken as a reference wage basis, the relative cost 
of living may be taken as 146. The relative average 
for the year 1916 would then be 176 and for the year 
ended Oct. 31, 1917, it would be 259. The cost of living 
for November, 1917, alone shows an increase of 90 per 
cent over that obtaining in 1914. 

The management of the Milwaukee companies believes 
that the proper wage should consist of three elements: 

(1) a component that would measure the cost of the 
necessaries of life and vary at six months intervals 
with some reliable index number of commodity prices; 

(2) an amount determined by individual or group effi- 
ciency according to reference standards, and (3) an 
amount determined as the employees' share of surplus 
profits. The company has numerous profit-sharing 
plans in operation, but it has been unable to include in 
these the sharing of surplus profits since such profits 
did not exist. 

It is expected that during the continuation of the 
war there can be no additions to the electric railway 
system. Such a policy is in the interest of the nation, 
in order that all money, materials and labor may be 
available for the use of the government as far as prac- 

Economies Possible with Municipal Co-operation 

As affecting the increased costs of operation, how- 
ever, Mr. Mortimer averred that there are opportuni- 
ties for economy through a policy of co-operation with 

January 12, 1918 



the municipal authorities. An increase in schedule 
speed by introducing alternate stops would permit a 
reduction of about 8 per cent in car-hours for the same 
number of car-miles. The number of car-miles operated 
can be further reduced by modifying service standards 
to conform to wartime conditions. Economy can also 
be effected by modification of present ordinances relat- 
ing to car heating. There are substantial opportuni- 
ties for economy in relief from such unnecessary bur- 
dens as sprinkling streets, removing snow and ice, pav- 
ing within track zone and changing track grades. 

A hostile municipal administration increases the haz- 
ards in the business and increases the rate of return, 
by not less than 1 or 2 per cent, which investors have a 
right to demand as reasonable before placing their 
capital at the disposal of the public. The advantages of 
open municipal co-operation are readily evident, and no 
municipal or state official is performing his sworn duty 
when his official acts are hostile to the public utilities 
serving the district in which he acts. 

In conclusion, Mr. Mortimer stated that the present 
methods of regulation are much too ponderous and slow 
to meet the requirements of the times. Near-bank- 
ruptcy must be shown in order to procure adjustments 
of fares, hauls and service. 

Parcel Freight Plan for Chicago 

Tentative Ordinance to Be Prepared — Conference Be- 
tween Aldermen and Companies Brings Out Impor- 
tant Points Regarding Freight Possibilities 

REVIVAL of a plan to permit the elevated and sur- 
face lines in Chicago to carry package freight was 
initiated on Jan. 4 at a meeting of the local transpor- 
tation committee of the City Council. The discussion 
resulted in a request on the Corporation Counsel to pro- 
vide the companies with a draft of a proposed ordinance 
to be worked out by them in a form satisfactory to all 

Representatives of both systems agreed to hurry up 
the presentation of a tentative ordinance. The alder- 
men conceded that the public probably would not object 
to the hauling of freight cars if there was no interfer- 
ence with passenger transportation. It is thought that 
an ordinance can be drafted which will specify certain 
classes of freight to be handled and will permit the cars 
to be operated during all except the rush hours. 

No Heavy Investment for Short-Term Use 

An important point brought out by the traction rep- 
resentatives, John E. Wilkie for the surface roads and 
G. T. Seeley for the elevated lines, was that the rail- 
ways should not be required to make an investment in 
switch tracks, sidings, elevators and connections be- 
tween the two systems under a short-term arrangement. 
Such changes would require a heavy investment, and 
there was no assurance that the plan would be accepted 
if its operation were only for the war period. 

General Hauling and Two-Way Business Desired 

For some years past there has been discussed at in- 
tervals a plan to haul market produce on the tracks of 
both systems. The surface lines already haul garbage 
cars under an arrangement with the city, which provides 
a safe margin of profit. There is also a limited handling 
of small freight over one of the city lines by cars of 

the Kankakee Interurban, reaching to Sixty-third 
Street, a point about 7 miles from the downtown dis- 
trict. All this business, however, is confined to a few 
hours after midnight. 

The electric lines contend, however, that an increase 
of such business would not be worth while unless the 
period for freight handling is extended to cover all 
hours of the day other than the rush hours. Another 
contention is that any ordinance to be favorably con- 
sidered should provide for the hauling of such classes 
of freight as would give a two-way business. 

The elevated roads are in a favorable position at the 
present time to handle considerable merchandise if 
satisfactory arrangements can be made for connections 
with the Great Lakes Naval Training Station, Fort 
Sheridan and Camp Grant. 

The surface lines, of course, cannot compete for such 
business. One handicap under which they labor is the 
type of rail, which will not permit the use of the 
ordinary interurban car wheels. It has been suggested, 
however, that a wheel design could be worked out for 
freight cars of the surface and elevated lines, which 
could be used by both. 

Possibility of Department Store Traffic 

The management of the Chicago Surface Lines some- 
time ago endeavored to interest the large department 
stores in a proposition to take merchandise from the 
downtown stores to outlying distributing stations owned 
by these stores. This would have meant the handling 
of such business after midnight. The department store 
officials were somewhat interested, but they said that 
a large portion of their purchases must be delivered 
the same day. It is thought, however, that the patriotic 
spirit inspired by war times might bring about such a 
change in public sentiment as would permit the delay 
of such shipments for a possible twenty-four hours. 
This would give the stores and the companies an oppor- 
tunity to get together on the night-handling of such 

Another objection made by the stores was that they 
have a large investment in motor vehicles, which could 
not be used for another purpose. They also contended 
that they would lose a certain amount of advertising 
by the removal of such motor trucks from the street. 
Some aldermen, however, have gone on record as favor- 
ing a reduction in the number of such trucks, because 
of their noisy operation and their wear and tear on 

Question of Milk Distribution Important 

The question of milk distribution also enters largely 
into the present discussion. The Aurora, Elgin & Chi- 
cago Railroad, which operates to the city's center, is 
permitted to haul freight cars only to a point about 7 
miles distant from the downtown district. 

Mr. Seeley referred to the handling of freight in De- 
troit, Boston and Philadelphia. He said that in Detroit 
the company handles about 90 per cent of the milk enter- 
ing that city. 

According to the Manchester Dispatch the Germans 
have built a large number of trackless trolley lines as a 
substitute for motor bus transportation. This is be- 
cause of the scarcity in Germany of gasoline as well a? 
rubber for pneumatic tires. 



Vol. 51, No. 2 

The Zone System in Practice 

Experience With the Zone System Lasting Several 
Years on the City and Interurban Lines of the Shore 
Line Electric Railway Proves Its Desirability. The 
Zone Rate Has Been Raised 50 per Cent in This 
Time Without Adding to the Difficulties of Fare 

By R. W. Perkins 

President Shore Line Electric Railway 

THE Shore Line Electric Railway consists of 240 
miles of track in eastern Connecticut, including the 
city systems in New London and Norwich. These 
cities have a population respectively of about 18,000 and 
22,000, but Norwich really should be considered to in- 
clude in its area the town of Norwich, which would 
make its population more than 30,000. 

This system was made up of a number of independ- 
ent properties, all operating on a 5-cent zone system. 
When they were consolidated there were a number of 
troublesome questions involved in the matter of trans- 
fer from one line to another, and many of the divisions 
lacked sufficient revenue. 

To increase the revenue, the first proposition was 
to increase to 6 cents per zone, and approval of this 
change was voted by the board of directors, but after 
more mature consideration, it was felt that this simply 
emphasized the faults of the old nickel-zone system, 
and the officers went into a very careful study of the 
property with an idea of adopting some more modern 
method of charging for passenger transportation. 

A plan of the property was made and the exact 
mileage determined to every white pole stop. Then 
each particular community received careful considera- 
tion with regard to the direction in which the people 
most often traveled. The location of the new zone ter- 
minals was then determined upon. These zones vary in 
length according to density of population and volume 
of business. 

The shortest zone on our line is about %-mile 
in length, and the longest one 2.4 miles, and in each of 
these zones we are charging 3 cents with a minimum 
charge of 5 cents for a single zone; 7 cents in two 
zones ; 9 cents in three zones and so on in multiples of 
three, except that within the city areas of Norwich and 
New London we permit a ride of two zones for a nickel. 
This, in some instances, calls for the issue of a trans- 
fer, although on the main-line cars this would mean a 
ride into or through two zones without a transfer, the 
long-distance rider paying 3 cents a zone in these same 

The application of the zone system calls for a good 
deal of study, and I think that is what has restrained 
many of the railway managers from adopting it. There 
is a certain amount of opposition on the part of the 
operatives to a change of any kind where they have 
been using the nickel register, but after our men be- 
came familiar with the system I think the majority 
felt that they would oppose the idea of going back to 
the old 5-cent zone, where it meant going through the 
car four or five times, and in some instances as many 
as thirteen times on a trip.' 

According to the present plan, when the conductor 





NORWICH '(Franklin Square) 

f ^ y- City Lines 

Formerly a 5 cent fare 
with transfer included a 
ride practically anywhere 
within the two inner cir- 
cles. This is now limited, 
as follows : 

A 5 cent fare covers a 
ride from Franklin Square 
to the outer edge of the 
first circle and, by use of 
transfer, a ride anywhere 
within the inner circle but 
not outside the city line. 

The fare from Franklin 
Square to any point in the 
second circle is 7 cents 
and from Franklin Square 
to any point in the 
third circle it is i» cents. 
The fare then continues 
at the rate of 3 cents a 
zone to New London, 
Westerly, Willimantic or 
Central Village. These 
points are suggested by 
the broken lines. 

A 3 cent zone rate ap- 
plies for riders through 
the city of Norwich. For 
instance, from Yantic to 
Franklin Square, with a / 
transfer at that point to 

Taftville, is now four zones. Again, a ride from Yantic to 
Backus Hospital, Backus Hospital to Franklin Square, Franklin 
Square to St. Marys and then to Tart's Station would be tnrough 
four zones or 12 cents. This ride was formerly 5 cents. 

goes through his car the first time he rings up all the 
nickel fares on the register and issues an identification 
check punched to destination to each passenger paying 
more than 5 cents. 

We find one marked advantage in retaining the 
nickel. Our city rider is not affected by the increase, 
and we do not lose patronage from the people who can 
most easily get on without us; that is, the very short 
rider. In fact, the division of our property in which 
our city zones appear shows a much larger increase in 
gross than is apparently the experience of those sys- 
tems that have changed to the higher unit of 6 or 7 
cents. As an example, take our so-called New London 
division, which includes the cities of Norwich and New 
London. Our change of rate went into effect on Oct. 
4, and for the following month we showed a gain in 
receipts of 17.46 per cent. 

There is one great advantage, it seems to me, in 
the adoption of the zone system, namely, that it places 
the sale of transportation upon a basis that is right. 
Consequently the rate per zone can be readily varied 
from time to time, according to the cost of producing 
the service. In other words, if a road has a rate 
of 2 cents a zone and finds that this is not sufficient, 
the rate can be increased to 2 1 / 4, 2V2, 2% or 3 
cents with no more difficulty than the steam railroads 
change from one rate per mile to another, except that 
the local fares often involve the use of the fraction of 
a cent, calling for a charge of the next higher unit. 
We changed our interurban fares from 2 to 3 cents a 
zone, which represents about 2.7 cents per mile. 

We believe absolutely in the need of using a zone 
varying in length, or the so-called flexible zone, to meet 
the varying conditions of a property that covers both 
city and interurban service and the study necessary to 
make the length of zones equitable is the greatest diffi- 
culty in connection with the system. Our patrons also 
consider the plan a fair one. 

Jan nary 12, 1918 



How Use of Fuel Will Be Economized 

Fuel Administration Schedules Public Utilities for 
100 Per Cent Supply for 1918 

THE United States Fuel Administration has madt 
public the method adopted for supplying coal and 
other power-producing fuel to the industries of the 
country classed as not absolutely necessary to the con- 
duct of the war. The method is called the "coal-budget 

Committees representing the large industries not en- 
gaged in war work, more than one hundred in all, will 
be called into conference with the officials of the Fuel 
Administration. They will be shown the amount of 
coal available for all purposes, the amount required for 
war purposes and domestic consumers and the total 
curtailment of the use of coal which must be effected 
to satisfy these demands. They will be asked on pa- 
triotic grounds, as well as for their own future in- 
terests, to volunteer in behalf of their respective indus- 
tries a reduction of the coal consumption for the year 
1918. They will be asked to show the Fuel Administra- 
tion the best method of accomplishing this curtailment. 
They will also be asked to advise the Fuel Administra- 
tion as to how to arrange these restrictions so as to 
affect only the less essential portions of their own lines 
of business, if possible. 

When an agreement is thus reached as to the quan- 
tity of coal to be conserved in each industry the Fuel 
Administration order will be issued, making this agree- 
ment effective as regards the total industry involved. 

The voluntary annual saving shown by the first 
dozen industries called into conference promises to be 
between 15,000,000 and 20,000,000 tons. The total offer- 
ing, from all non-war industries, will be between 36,000,- 
000 and 50,000,000 tons for the year 1918. 

One of the striking instances of curtailment is in the 
brewing industry. Representatives of the American 
Brewers' Association and others affiliated with the in- 
dustry, after a conference with the Fuel Administra- 
tion, volunteered a reduction of 700,000 tons annually. 
Other industries whose representatives have been to 
Washington already are paint and varnish, wall paper, 
confectionery, artificial ice, boxboard and glassware. 
The voluntary reduction of one day's running per week 
on the part of the boxboard manufacturers amounts to 
1,000,000 tons a year and will take 30,000 carloads of 
merchandise freight off the congested railroads. The 
Fuel Administration asks that other industries affected 
get in touch with Washington without waiting for for- 
mal notice. 

It is believed that the operation of this plan of vol- 
untary conservation on the part of non-war industries 
will forever lay the ghost of the "cut-off-the-non-essen- 
tial-industries" agitation, which has been going on since 
the United States entered the war, and automatically 
will balance the relation between the production and 
consumption of coal and prevent any repetition of the 
present coal shortage. 

It is not the least of the merits of this plan, accord- 
ing to the Fuel Administration, that it is simple. Per- 
haps its greatest merit lies in that fact that such 
restrictions on fuel consumption as are absolutely 
necessary to keep the budget balanced will be arranged 
by the industries restricted and will be volunteered by 

them. The Fuel Administration merely comes in at 
the end with an order to make the voluntary curtail- 
ment fully effective. 

Fuel needed in 1918 for army and navy purposes, 
for munition works, for public utilities, for domestic 
consumers, and for factories working on war material 
is scheduled in the budget for 100 per cent fulfillment. 
With this figure, and the estimated production of coal 
during 1918 as a basis, a subtraction shows the amount 
of fuel left for non-war industries. 

The percentage of reduction asked of the different 
industries by the Fuel Administration will, of course, 
vary, partly upon advice of the leaders of each industry 
as to what is practicable and safe shrinkage as com- 
pared with the great business activity of 1917; partly, 
also, it will vary with the character of the business. 
In proportion as an industry contributes less to the 
war of domestic necessities, it will naturally increase 
its contribution of self-limitation. 

One advantage of the plan is elasticity. The total 
curtailment of coal consumption when completed will 
theoretically equalize the coal demand of the country 
with the coal supply for 1918. If later it turns out 
there is still a prospect of scarcity, a slight increase of 
the voluntary curtailment can be arranged instantly 
and without confusion. Every industry through this 
first order will be in touch with the government and its 
requirements. It can put into effect a still further cur- 
tailment if necessary, or it can quickly increase its ac- 
tivity if notified by the government at a later date that 
the curtailment already arranged appears to be exces- 

This plan, if completely successful, will quickly solve 
the fuel problem and will introduce a new and valuable 
principle into the settlement of many difficult war prob- 
lems. First: Advantage is taken of the unquestioned 
patriotism of a large majority of business men to devise 
with their aid an intelligent program of curtailment, 
sufficient for government purposes but not destructively 
exaggerated. Second: An order of the Fuel Adminis- 
tration backed by the authority and penalties of the 
Lever law will compel an equal compliance by every 
member of each industry and thus assure those who 
would gladly make their share of the sacrifice that no 
advantage will be taken of their patriotism by unscrupu- 
lous competitors. 

New York Fuel Conservation Committee 
Holds Meeting 

THE fuel conservation committee for the electric- 
railways of the Second Public Service District held 
a meeting at Rochester on Jan. 10. In addition to the 
members whose names were printed as members of this 
committee last week, W. J. Harvie, president Syracuse 
& Suburban Railroad, is a member. H. B. Weatherwax, 
vice president United Traction Company, Albany, is 
chairman of the committee. 

After a week's shutdown at the Fern Hill coal mines 
outside of Owensboro, Ky., due to the blocking of 
railway tracks by snow, the Owensboro Street Railway 
finally prevailed on the miners to get to work and clear 
the track. 




Vol. 51, No. 2 

Loading Surface Cars at 400 Passen- 
gers Per Minute in Detroit 

Through Co-operation with the Ford Motor Company 
Detroit United Transports 30,000 Employees 
in Seventy-five Minutes 

By W. E. Cann 

Assistant to the General Manager Detroit United Railway 

THE transportation of the employees of the Ford 
Motor Company has presented problems of no small 
difficulty to the transportation department of the De- 
troit United Railway. In spite of the company's best 
efforts it found great difficulty in handling crowds of 
10,000 to 20,000 men, all anxious to get home on the 
first car. There was so much crowding that many fares 
were missed, intending passengers even climbing into 
the cars through the windows. After some months of 
this experience and without being able, even with the 

both the motor car and the trailer are stationed em- 
ployees of the railway company, the man at the motor 
car being a car starter who dispatches the cars at 
regular intervals. During the rush-hour peaks in the 
evening this interval is about thirty seconds. The em- 
ployees form in two lines, the line nearer the track en- 
tering the front car and the other the trailer. When 
the starter decides that a car is to leave he steps in 
behind the last passenger on the steps, the man at the 
trailer car door, who is watching for this move, doing 
the same. These two men see that the car doors are 
closed and the car starts on its trip. 

For the first" week or two of this operation there were 
some difficulties in keeping the men in line, but after 
the Ford Company had discharged some of the most 
obstreperous of its men, the employees began to rea- 
lize that it was to their advantage to line up and to 
board the cars in an orderly fashion and in their proper 



assistance of special police officers and carhouse em- 
ployees, to develop any semblance of order, the com- 
pany appealed to the Ford Motor Company for co-opera- 
tion. As a result a plan has been put into effect which 
has given very satisfactory results. The operation of 
the plan is shown in the accompanying photographs. 

Now between the hours of 3.30 p. m. and 4.45 p. m. 
there are handled at the Ford plant approximately 30,- 
000 to 40,000 employees of the plant, and this with good 
order and dispatch. The benefits of a systematic and 
just loading plan are now so apparent to the men them- 
selves that they would hesitate before going back to 
the old way even if given the opportunity. The pic- 
tures show the loading only on Woodward Avenue, but 
the same arrangement is in effect at four or five other 
points on the streets and on the company's own prop- 
erty in the vicinity. 

The plan is simply this: At the entrance doors of 

turn. They insisted that the last men to arrive should 
always be forced to fall in at the tail end of the line. 

Under the present arrangement cars leave the Ford 
works, generally speaking, with something less than a 
seated load, thus allowing the crews to pick up pas- 
sengers on the way downtown. It might seem at first 
that it would be difficult to overcome the objections of 
men to being stopped from boarding a particular car 
when there is still room inside. Fortunately the jus- 
tice of leaving some space for passengers who may wish 
to board later appeals to the men, and now any dispute 
is stopped by them by the simple expedient of pulling 
an objector out of the line and forcing him to the rear. 

A committee of prominent railway men from the 
East who visited Detroit recently to study the opera- 
tion of this loading plan stated that they considered as 
no less than remarkable the way in which co-operation 
had been secured. 

January 12, 1918 



"Credit System" of Wage Payments in Chicago 

A Novel Plan for Encouraging Long Service Has Been Introduced by the Chicago 
Motor Bus Company — Each Employee's Earnings Are Based Upon the Length and 
Character of His Work, the Older Employees Sharing Also in the Profits of the Company 

A NOVEL system of wage payments has been 
adopted by the Chicago Motor Bus Company, 
whereby each employee's earnings are dependent 
upon a "rating" that is established by the length and 
the character of his services. The new plan, which 
has been called the "Credit System" by its originator, 
Harold B. Weaver, vice-president of the company, ap- 
plies to all drivers, conductors, starters, inspectors and 
others occupying comparable positions. Its application 
is effected by means of "credits" which are given for 
each month's service and entered upon each employee's 
record, certain "discounts" being deducted from the 
total in case the employee violates rules of the com- 
pany. Older employees who, by their long service have 
acquired a very large total number of credits, partici- 
pate to a certain extent in the company's earnings 
through "employees' dividends," these being declared 
as a percentage of the employees' annual earnings at 
the same percentage rate as is paid upon the company'^ 

Credits and Discounts 

There are three kinds of credits, as follows: Regu- 
lar credits, which are given for one month's service; 
Extra credits, which are given for continued perfect 
service; Bonus credits, which may be given in the dis- 
cretion of the company for extraordinary services or 
on a competitive basis under prescribed conditions. 

Regular credits are given at the rate of twenty-five 
for each month that an employee remains in the com- 
pany's service, regardless of his capacity. Extra cred- 
its are given after any three consecutive calendar 
months of perfect service, that is to say, three calen- 
dar months during which no discounts have been im- 
posed. Such employees receive five extra credits per 
month from the fourth to the ninth month (inclusive) 
of continued perfect service, and thereafter are given 
ten extra credits from the tenth to the twenty-first 
month (inclusive), subsequently being given fifteen ex- 
tra credits per month so long as perfect service is con- 
tinued. Bonus credits may be given at any time for 
extraordinary services or unusually efficient work, upon 
the recommendation of a superior officer and with the 
approval of a board of employees of the same rank as 
the recipient. 

In the case of violation of any of the rules, there 
shall be charged to the record of an employee a number 
of discounts ranging from one to fifty, according to a 
printed schedule of discounts. These discounts are im- 
posed only by the heads of departments or general com- 
pany officers, and their application cannot be remitted 
in case infractions of discipline have actually taken 
place. Neither can there be imposed any greater num- 
ber of discounts than fifty for any particular offense. 

The record of each employee's credits and discounts 
are kept by the company, and each employee has the 
right of access at any time to his own record, but not 

to the record of any other employee. The total number 
of credits obtained from all sources and total number 
of discounts imposed for all reasons are totaled at the 
end of each calendar month, and the total number of 
discounts subtracted from the total number of credits. 
The balance of credits represents the "rating" of each 
employee, and this rating is used as the means for de- 
termining his rate of wage and, subject to certain con- 
ditions, his right of preference as to work and promo- 

Whenever discounts are charged against the record 
of an employee, written notification is submitted to him, 










6 Months 


8 Months 



$23 00 






$22 00 
$23 00 

$24 OO 

1 Yur 

— 1 Year 6 M«'i — 

11 " 

- 1 Year 4 Mo's — 


$23 00 

%2C 00 

1 " 8 " 




$25 00 

2 Years 

- 2 Years 4 " 





$25 60 

4 •* 

2 M 11 " 

3 " 7 " = 



3 8C 




Wages of Class A And 1 Unit 
ot Employe* Dividend 

5 ■■ 5 " 

7 4 " 



Wjges of Class A and 2 Unit* 
ol Employes Dividend 

9 " 2 " 

gallon in 


Wages of Class A and 3 Units 
of Employes Dividend 

11 " 


11 " 1 " 



Wages of Class 
of Employe 

A and 4 Units 
s Dividend 

17 " 

'eriod ol 


Wages of Class A and S Units 
of Employes Dividend 



and in the event that an employee believes a charge of 
discount to be unjust or otherwise in error, he has the 
right of appeal by signing his name in the space pro- 
vided on the notification for that purpose. Such ap- 
peals are heard before a board appointed by the presi- 
dent of the company from among officials equal or supe- 
rior in rank to the one imposing the discount. Wit- 
nesses in such hearings may be called by either side, 
and these are paid their regular rate of wage for the 
time thus occupied. 

Effect of Discontinuance of Service 

In the event that an employee resigns or is laid off 
through reduction of force, or if for any other reason 
not reflecting upon his record he leaves the service of 
the company, he is given a certificate of honorable dis- 
charge which shows his rating at the time. If he 
again enters the service of the company he starts to 
work with all of the credits that he possessed at the 
time he left the service and is entitled to whatever rate 
of compensation this rating brings. 

In the event that an employee again enters the serv- 



Vol. 51, No. 2 

ice of the company after he has been discharged for 
cause, he has to start on his duties without any credit 
whatsoever. Dishonorable discharge is brought about 
by a failure to perform work assigned to an employee, 
thus automatically forfeiting all credit acquired up to 
that time. Discharge is also brought about by the estab- 
lishment, on an employee's record at the end of his first 
two months of service, of more discounts than credits. 
Also, any employee who has been with the company 
for a period in excess of four months and who for any 
period of three consecutive months averages less than 
fifteen credits per month, or for any period of six con- 
secutive months averages less than eighteen credits 
per month, or for any period of one year averages less 
than twenty credits per month, is subject to discharge. 

Demotion without dischaz-ge may be applied at the 
discretion of the company, but such demotions do not 
affect an employee's rating nor do they suspend his 
right to extra credits. 

Credits continue to accrue to the benefit of an em- 
ployee while on a regular vacation, but in case an em- 
ployee obtains an extended leave of absence from work 
the accumulation of regular credits during the period 
of absence is in the discretion of the company, and 
extra credits for continuous good service do not ac- 

Effect of Rating on Wage 

In the schedule of wages seven different classes are 
provided for, these differing from each other by incre- 
ments of 1 cent per hour, each class including employees 
whose ratings, or net total of credits for each month 
have upper limits amounting respectively to 150, 300, 
450, 600, 900, 1200 and 1500. The rates of wage apply- 
ing to each one of these classes are more or less arbi- 
trarily fixed and may be revised from time to time, the 
operation of the system being independent of the actual 
rates of pay by the various classes. Thus if the rate 
of wage for conductors in Class G (the lowest of the 
seven classes) is 26 cents, all conductors with ratings 
of less than 150 will get 26 cents per hour. When a 
conductor accumulates more than 150 credits he moves 
up into Class F and is paid 27 cents per hour. 

For employees having ratings that are in excess of 
1500 credits, there are provided five grades, and these 
employees, in addition to Class A wages, participate in 
the company's earnings through an "Employees' Divi- 
dend." This is declared at a rate which, if possible, is 
to be equal to the dividend declared on the stock of the 
company for the same period, but in no case is the em- 
ployees' dividend to be less than at the rate of 3 per 
cent per annum. This dividend is to be based on tha 
total amount of money paid during the period involved, 
as wages to each of the employees participating in the 

All employees in the five grades that have, during the 
period covered, earned an average of not less than 
twenty credits per month are to be entitled to partici- 
pate in this dividend. Each of those in the lowest 
grade is entitled to an amount equal to the declared 
percentage applied to his total earnings during the 
period covered. For each employee in the next higher 
grade, the amount of the dividend is based on the same 
percentage as in the lowest grade, but this percentage 
is applied to twice his total earnings during the period 
covered. For the three higher grades the amount is 

based respectively on three times, four times and five 
times the employee's total earnings during the period 
covered. Thus, if employees' dividend is 6 per cent, the 
employees in the highest grade receive bonuses equal to 
30 per cent of their earnings during the previous year. 

In general, it may be said that this system permits 
employees to enjoy an income which increases over a 
long period of time and is an inducement for them to 
remain in the service of the company. Long service 
not only produces individually efficient work, but also 
efficiency of the all-important character that co-operates 
v/ith other members of the organization and is thus of 
special value to the company. The company recognizes 
that each employee who remains in its service has, in a 
sense, an investment value in the company. This is 
the investment of years of service which, except for 
general experience gleaned, is of no value to him in the 
service of another company. Naturally, such a princi- 
ple points to an eventual participation in earnings by 
employees, but inasmuch as it is continuous service that 
is of value to the company, and since it is continuous 
service alone that is an investment by the employee, 
any participation must be purchased not with money 
but with time. In brief, the right to participate in 
earnings does not accrue to an employee who has not 
earned this privilege by a cartain length and charac- 
ter of service. 

Commutation Ticket Book for Interurban 
Railway Lines 

THE New York State Railways and the Salt Lake & 
Utah Electric Railroad are using a form of commuta- 
tion ticket book devised and patented by B. E. Wilson, 
general traffic and freight agent of the first-mentioned 
road. The feature is that all of the tickets are punched 
at one time to indicate the points between which the 
holder has purchased transportation. 


* A * 

* « * * s 


31 30 



- - * 

... Oct 

\ j i |i 












s '1 


. •»" 

• . ♦ • • ' 












! '? - 

** T> T V 

punched i » I and > 

il ! ? f If 

rl«Jifl<j pqtlraf Ion data l<<dlulod 

: 1 ;sV;l lo 










it * * * * 


* *'* *'* -n 




The punching is an easy matter and a punch suitable 
for the purpose can be had at a cost not to exceed $1. 
On the New York State Railways a round hole about 
1/16 in. in diameter is punched. This company uses a 
ticket 2% in. x 4% in. in size and a weight of paper such 
that the thickness of a fifty-six-ticket book, including 
both covers, is about 3/16 in. The Utah line ticket is 
2% in. x 4% in., and it is on much lighter paper. The 
proper size and weight of ticket is a compromise of cost 
and of convenience in carrying the books and handling 
the coupons. 

January 12, 1918 



Letter to the Editor 

Fundamentals of Successful Transportation 

Board of Public Utility Commissioners 

Newark, N. J., Jan. 8, 1918. 

To the Editors : 

In response to a notice on advertising page 20 of 
the Electric Railway Journal for Dec. 22, under the 
title "Have You Got the Goods?" I am inclosing a state- 
ment relative to the handling of passengers at greater 
speed, but with greater safety and comfort. While these 
suggestions are probably not entirely new to operating 
officials in general, yet their arrangement and group- 
ing may place them before officials and others who may 
be interested in such a manner as will be conducive to 
a more intelligent, practical application of some or all 
of them where practicable. 

Four Fundamentals to Be Considered 

To handle passengers with a maximum degree of 
speed, safety and comfort in connection with cars 
operated on surface lines, certain factors should be 
taken into consideration as follows: (1) Type of car. 
(2) Character of platform employees. (3) Character 
and distribution of traffic employees. (4) Education of 
the traveling public. 

1. In designing cars with these objects primarily in 
view the following points should be observed: (a) 
Type, arrangement and location of entrance and exit. 
(6) Seating arrangement; width of aisle, (c) Height 
and type of step. ( d ) Type and arrangement of doors. 

2. In selecting employees, especially conductors, ob- 
serve the following: (a) Disposition. (6) Age. (c) 

3. As regards distribution and character of traffic 
employees consider: (a) Transfer intersections, (6) 
Other points of heavy loading or unloading, (c) Dis- 
position of employees. 

4. In educating the public, note the following: (a) 
Best method of advertising within the cars. (6) Best 
method of general advertising. 

la. — Entrance and Exit. — The rear-entrance and 
front-exit type, especially for urban and suburban ser- 
vice, furnishes the best type for speed, safety and com- 
fort. For interurban service with few stops the rear 
entrance and exit will be found satisfactory, although 
the front exit in such cases is also recommended. 

Design of Car 

16. — Seating Arrangement. — For all urban and for 
short suburban service, longitudinal seats with ample 
aisle space should be adopted. For long suburban and 
for interurban service, cross seats with a reasonably 
wide aisle is advisable. 

lc. — Steps. — Low steps should be adopted on cars for 
all classes of service. Height should not exceed 15 in. 
from rail to first step, 14. in. from step to step or step 
to platform, and 8 in. from platform to car floor. 
Shorter dimensions should be adopted wherever pos- 
sible. Platform and car floor should preferably be on 
the same level on cars operating in all classes of ser- 

vice. Steps should be of the folding type in all cases, 
except, possibly, for interurban service. 

Id. — Doors. — Doors should be of the folding type, 
preferably manually operated. In the case of suburban 
service particularly, bulkhead doors and the bulkhead 
itself should be eliminated. 

Character of Platform Employees 

2a. — Disposition of Employees. — One good-natured, 
even-tempered platform man, using good judgment, 
can accomplish more in the matters under consideration 
than a dozen men of other types. 

2b. — Age. — Young men, and also many men of middle 
age, are best adapted for most efficient service. 

2c. — Training. — Much can be accomplished in the 
proper training of employees in habits of courtesy, ex- 
ercise of good judgment, etc., who without such train- 
ing would be totally unfitted for the job. 

Distribution of Traffic Employees 

3a. — Transfer Points. — Inspectors should be sta- 
tioned during periods of heavy traffic at all heavy trans- 
fer intersections. Their primary duty at such local- 
ities should be to facilitate and regulate the loading 
of cars and the dispatching of the same. 

36. — Other Heavy Loading Points. — Inspectors or 
other traffic men should also be located, during periods 
of heavy traffic, at all points of heavy loading other 
than transfer intersections. Their duties should be the 
same as mentioned in 3a. 

3c. — Disposition of Traffic Employees. — Inspectors 
and other traffic employees should be men of good judg- 
ment and even disposition. They should be selected 
from among such platform men as have proved them- 
selves most efficient in handling passengers. 

Education of Public 

4a. — Advertising in the Cars. — Notices posted promi- 
nently and attractively in the cars requesting passen- 
gers to "Leave by the Front Door," "Move Up For- 
ward," "Step Lively," "Put Yourself in the Other Fel- 
low's Place," etc., materially aid in accomplishing the 
objects desired. 

46. — General Publicity. — Periodical publicity cam- 
paigns carried on through the local newspapers and 
other advertising mediums invariably bring about good 
results. Such notices or advertisements should be care- 
fully worded and should demonstrate the many methods 
whereby patrons of the road may aid in promoting 
speed, safety and comfort of themselves, as well as of 
their fellow travelers. 

General Conclusions 

It is, of course, realized that all of the herein men- 
tioned suggestions are not practically applicable in 
their entirety in all cases, or possibly in any one case, 
especially in the present period of abnormal conditions. 
These suggestions are submitted, however, as approach- 
ing what are believed to be ideal conditions for accom- 
plishing the results desired. Any step in the directions 
suggested which has not been already adopted will be a 
further approach to the ideal conditions as set forth. 

H. C. Eddy, 

Senior Inspector of Traffic, Board of Public Utility 
Commissioners, State of New Jersey. 



Vol. 51, No. 2 

Council of National Defense Issues 
Extensive Report 

More Than 400 Persons Were Engaged Continuously 
During the Past Year in This Work which Is 
Elaborately Organized 

IN INTRODUCING a report of its work from incep 
tion to the end of the fiscal year closing June 30, 1917, 
Director W. S. Gifford of the Council of National De- 
fense outlines the scope and purposes of the work of 
the Council. He states that the effort has been to make 
available to the United States the best thought and 
effort of American industrial and professional life for 
the successful prosecution of the war. The organiza- 
tion of the Council has endeavored to hold itself in 
readiness to meet new demands caused by the swift 
changes in strategy and rapid improvement in war 

The several fields covered by the Council's work have 
been as follows: 

1. Supervising co-ordination of purchases for the ex- 
ecutive departments of the government, including the 
development of new sources of supply for both raw ma- 
terials and finished products. 

2. Standardization of specifications for tools and im- 
plements used in the manufacture of munitions. 

3. Co-operative organization of transportation and 
electric communication for war service. 

4. Inauguration with the government departments of 
an aircraft program and assistance in rendering this 
program an industrial possibility. 

5. Organization for war of the medical profession. 

6. Conducting a campaign to assist commercial busi- 
ness in meeting the demands made upon it by the war, 
and aiding establishments to make available for the 
needs of the government men, supplies, and equipments 
without impairing the essential service of trade and 
without imposing unnecessary hardship upon the people 
at large. 

7. Development and stimulation of motor transporta- 
tion facilities for government use. 

8. Organization for common counsel of the leaders of 
the American labor movement, joined with representa- 
tive employers and persons prominent in civic and in- 
dustrial life, for the effective enlistment of the labor 
forces of the country for the conduct of the war. 

9. Bringing together and concentration on war work 
of the engineering and educational professions, includ- 
ing the promotion of scientific research for the benefit 
of the national defense. 

10. Effective centralization and direction of the ef- 
forts of American women on assistance in the conduct 
of the war. 

11. Organization of the coal industry for more effec- 
tive production and distribution of fuel. 

12. Centralized direction of the activities of the sev- 
eral states in their effort to aid in war. 

At the end of the fiscal year, the report states, there 
were 408 persons engaged on continuous work for the 
Council. Of this number 168 were receiving compensa- 
tion and most of these were clerks and stenographers. 
This summary does not take into account the large 
number of additional volunteers who were devoting part 
of their time to the Council's work, whether in Wash- 
ington or elsewhere. 

Coal Shortage and Electric Railway 

There Was No Material Change in Conditions During 
the Past Week— They Are Still Critical 
in All Sections 

ALTHOUGH the United States Geological Survey re- 
ports a recovery from the recent "slump" in soft 
coal production, there is no evidence of adequate in- 
crease in production. December was the leanest month 
since April. The production was at the annual rate 
of about 545,000,000 tons, an increase of 8.3 per cent 
over 1916. 

Lightless Nights Save Coal for Kansas City 

After a few days of mild weather at Kansas City, 
returning cold put gas usage out of the question. The 
new year found consumers using unusual means to econ- 
omize in the use of coal to enable the Kansas City 
Railways to keep street-car service as nearly normal 
as possible and at the same time furnish a normal sup- 
ply of current to the Kansas City Light & Power Com- 
pany for distribution to homes, and industries. 

The advent of lightless nights makes an estimated 
saving of 150 tons of coal per week for the railway 
company. However, officials of the lighting company 
say that the success of the lightless nights depends 
more upon the patriotism of the average citizen than 
upon the big industries. More strenuous methods must 
be used, it is believed, to cause smaller consumers to 
economize on lights during the fuel shortage. 

A propaganda is being started by Missouri officials 
to cause consumers of coal to purchase early next spring 
for use the following winter. State Fuel Administra- 
tor Crossley was in Kansas City on Dec. 30 for the pur- 
pose of instigating such co-operation on the part of 
consumers to guard against a repetition of this winter's 

Ohio Utilities in Better Condition 

While electric-railway operation was far from normal 
in Ohio last week the actual danger of suspension had 
passed for the time because of the arrival of fuel suffi- 
cient to last until further expected shipments can be 

It is hoped that the pooling plan devised by the coal 
operators, and the supervision of railroads by the gov- 
ernment, will have the effect of furnishing a steady, 
if not a plentiful, supply hereafter. 

Normal street-car, power and light service at Colum- 
bus depends in part on the transportation of coal from 
a mine in West Virginia in which the Columbus Rail- 
way, Power & Light Company purchased an interest 
last fall. Its contract provided for half of the output 
of 1500 tons daily, which should have increased the 
company's coal protection by 500 per cent for the win- 
ter. The government, however, commandeered the out- 
put for Eastern shipment early in the winter, and the 
company was left to do the best it could. This coal is 
now available, and the supply depends only upon the 
ability of the railroads to haul it. The company owns 
rights in slack piles in the Hocking Valley district, 
but transportation facilities are just as bad there. At 
present it is receiving a supply from day to day. 

Construction, Maintenance and 



Empire State Shop Notes 

Large Interurban Car Remodeling Job Just Com- 
pleted — Sheet Steel Pilot a Feature 

WHEN J. C. Nelson took over the general manager- 
ship of the recently organized Empire State Rail- 
road Corporation, a part of the former Beebe system 
centering at Syracuse, N. Y., he was in doubt as to the 
extent to which the federal government would require 
transportation for soldiers between points on the system 
and the temporary encampment located near the com- 
pany's shops at Lake Shore Junction. Therefore, to be 
safe he decided to remodel six long interurban trail cars, 
built originally for summer traffic, by making motor 
cars of them and inclosing them for winter service. 
This job has been going through the Lakeland shops 
during the fall and early winter under the direction of 
A. B. Metcalfe, master mechanic, and the cars are now 
giving excellent service on short runs on the line be- 
tween Syracuse and Oswego. 

The cars formerly had low side sheathing with cor- 
respondingly deep windows. The sheathing has now 
been brought up to standard height, the line of the 
original sheathing and the added height being clearly 
discernible in the accompanying photograph of the 
complete car. 

In accordance with the new color standards adopted 
by the company these cars have been painted a Penn- 
sylvania Railroad red and varnished. They are striped 
in black and lettered in gold. 

The bodies are mounted on light trucks, equipped with 
four 40-hp. Westinghouse 101-B motors, gear ratio 
22 to 62. This power is ample, as the line is practically 
level. The truck frame carries a special sheet-steel 
pilot made in the company's shops. This weighs 150 
lb. and is of No. 10 gage sheet. The pilot forms an ex- 
cellent snowplow as well. As it is attached to the 
truck frame rather than the car body, its motion with 



Decreasing Governor Maintenance 

By James W. Brown 

Superintendent of Shops Wilkes-Barre & Hazleton Railway, 
West Hazleton, Pa. 

THE accompanying illustration shows a Westinghouse 
G.I. A. governor changed from a double to a single 
contact. This company has ten equipments of G.I. A. 
governors, now twelve years old. Up to five years ago 
we had a great deal of trouble with this governor due to 
the contacts burning off, the average length of time in 
service being about three months. They run now from 



shopping to shopping, which means from eighteen to 
twenty-four months, and during the time since the 
change we have had no failures. This change was 
brought about by our air-brake inspector, Dave Kauff- 
man. We put a long sliding contact on the coil side 
of the governor. This contact is a piece of tobin bronze 
3% in. long, % in. wide and *4 in. thick, with about 3- 
lb. tension on the contact and only charged when the 
governor cuts in. 

We made a sliding contact out of tobin bronze on ac- 
count of its superiority over copper, as we found that 
two sliding contacts of copper do not wear smooth and 
soon cut, resulting in a sluggish governor, whereas 
tobin bronze with a copper contact sliding on it wears 
very smooth. 



Vol. 51, No. 2 

Experiences with Interurban 
Car Axles 

The Author Gives the Results of Experiments with 
Several Kinds of Steel — Wheel Fit Was Increased 
from 6 In. to 7 In. with Good Results 

By A. B. Metcalfe 

Master Mechanic Empire State Railroad Corporation, 
Syracuse, N. Y. 

[Note. — In view of the present interest in improving the 
quality of car axles and knowing that the mechanical de- 
partment of the former Beebe Lines had made extensive 
studies of the subject as related to interurban car opera- 
tion, we asked Mr. Metcalfe, formerly connected with the 
Beebe System, to give our readers a brief summary of his 
observations. This article is the result. — EDITORS.] 

ON the lines of the Beebe System, of which this rail- 
way formerly was a part, we tried out a number of 
different grades of material for car axles, with varying 
results. Until the last year or two all of our axle de- 
fects occurred at a point between the hub of the gear 
and the hub of the wheel on the gear end of the axle. 
On our equipments the gear was mounted close to the 
wheel. Recently, however, we have had some failures 
at a different part of the axle, namely, on the motor 
axle bearing seat. We have not as yet been able to de- 
termine the cause of this. At one time we thought that 
it was due to hot motor axle bearings, but we have 
had at least one case of breakage at this point without 
previously having had any hot axle bearings. Curiously 
enough, this occurred on a hard vanadium steel axle. 
At one time we had about come to the conclusion that 

(Concluded from page 93) 


respect to the track is very small, hence it can be set 
quite close to the track. 

For classification markers on these cars two bull's- 
eyes are set into the letterboard just under the vesti- 
bule hood and lighted through colored glass slides. 
Between the lamp and the lens is a frame in which is 
a two-color slide by means of which the color can be 
changed very quickly. 

These cars weigh, equipped, about 56,000 lb., and the 
seating capacity is sixty. The rattan-covered cross 
seats give the interior the appearance of an unusually 
long city car. There is no separation into general and 
smoking compartments. 

mounting the axle gear on an extension of the wheel 
hub was the solution of the breakage problem, but this 
scheme proved to be impracticable in the case of rolled 
steel wheels on account of the expense of making the 
wheels. To test out the matter, however, we purchased 
some chrome nickel sleeves, on which the* wheel and 
gear were pressed, and the sleeve was then pressed onto 
the axle. Bearing was provided, however, only for the 
length of the wheel hub, the sleeve being counterbored 
about 1/16 in. larger than the axle, under the gear. The 
idea was that the point of greatest stress in the axle 
would be inside the sleeve, and in the case of a break 
in service the longer piece of the axle holding the motor 
could not drop down because it would project 6 in. or 
more into the sleeve. 

To prove that the use of this sleeve removed the 
danger resulting from an axle breaking in service, we 
cut an old axle into two pieces, the cut being about 
where they nearly always broke, and mounted the sleeve, 
gear and wheel on the short end. We ran a car equipped 
with this axle all around the shop tracks, curves and 
switches, and out on the road, the only indication that 
the axle was in two pieces being that on a quick accel- 
eration the end on which the gear was mounted would 
spin, while the other end moved only as fast as the car. 
These sleeves are still in service and have given very 
high mileage, but the shop operations involved in apply- 
ing them made their extensive use, we thought, imprac- 
ticable. The sleeves, also, were expensive to make. One 
fine feature about them, however, was that we were 
never afraid to operate the axles fitted with these 
sleeves. Later to reinforce the axle at the weak point 
we increased the diameter of the wheel fit from 6 in. 
to 7 in. As the gear seat was originally 7 in., this 
made the axle 7 in. in diameter at the point where prac- 
tically all the cracks had developed. None of the axles 
which have a 7-in. diameter wheel and gear fit has de- 
veloped cracks at this point, which tends to prove that 
the previous axles were weak here. Cracks developed at 
the other end close to and inside the wheel hub. 

When we first started operation the cars were 
equipped with open-hearth untreated steel axles, most of 
which developed cracks in the first 250,000 miles, but 
others are still in service. Some of these have made 
between 600,000 and 700,000 miles. Next we got some 
heat-treated carbon steel axles, but these were found at 
first to be too hard and gave trouble in less than 100,000 
miles. Lower carbon steel was procured and has given 
very good service. We tried some low carbon and nickel 
steel axles, specially treated. These were very soft and 
the elastic limit low, and they gave very low mileage 
before developing defects requiring them to be dis- 
carded. The axles which have given the best results 
are of vanadium steel, with wheel and gear fit 1 in. 
larger in diameter than the main body of the axle. 

Our method of inspection is to take a very fine cut 
with a sharp lathe tool over the section where the crack 
is liable to develop, and if the axle has the least crack 
in it the operator can see it with a naked eye. We had 
scrapped more than 200 axles from fifty cars in the 
last seven years. All of the cracks were discovered in 
the above-mentioned method of inspection. The cracks 
have varied in dpeth from 3/32 in. to 7 S in. We believe 
that a test piece should be taken from each end of each 
axle made, and that a report of a test made by the man- 
facturer should be furnished to the customer. 

January 12, J 918 



Determining Stray Power of a 
Transmission Line 

The Author Presents Data Taken in a Test on a 
115-Mile Railway Transmission Line in the 
Middle West 

By D. D. Ewing 

Associate Professor of Electric Railway Engineering, 
Purdue University, Lafayette, [nd. 

THE data presented in this article were taken in a 
test made under the writer's direction for the pur- 
pose of studying the operating conditions existing 
on the transmission line of the Fort Wayne & Northern 
Indiana Traction Company. This line extends from 
Fort Wayne to Lafayette, Ind., a distance of 115.4 miles, 
measured along the line. It connects the power plants 
of the company located at the two places. The system 
is three phase, with a line-to-line voltage of 33,000 and 
a frequency of 25 cycles. The line consists of three 
No. 2 B. & S., hard-drawn copper wires, arranged to 
form an equilateral triangle, and with a spacing which 
varies from 36 in. to 72 in. The average spacing was 
estimated to be 60 in. The wires are supported on pin 
insulators mounted on wood poles spaced 100 ft. apart. 
Some of the crossarms are of wood and some are of 
steel, the former predominating. Air-break sectionaliz- 
ing switches are located at each of the ten railway sub- 

Table Giving Lengths of Line Sections 

Length, Total Distance, 

Section Miles Miles 

1 9.50 9.50 

2 S.71 IS. 21 

3 10.66 28.87 

4 11.03 39.90 

5 11.28 51.18 

6 12.52 63.70 

7 1 1.56 75.26 

8 14.12 89.38 

9 S.82 98.20 
10 17.20 115.40 

stations. The lengths of the several sections between 
substations, starting at the Lafayette end, are as given 
in the accompanying table. 

In the Lafayette station the high-tension lines are 
connected to the 370-volt buses through three step-up 
transformers, having an aggregate capacity of 1125 kva., 
connected delta-delta. The measured ratio of transfor- 
mation was 88.8. At Fort Wayne the transforming ap- 
paratus consists of two banks of transformers connected 
in parallel, each bank being of the same rating as those 
at Lafayette. 

The measuring instruments were connected in on the 
low-tension side of the step-up transformers at the 
Lafayette power house. Power was measured by the 
two-wattmeter method. Voltage readings were taken 
for all three phases, and the current in two lines was 

Preparatory to making the test all transformers were 
disconnected and the line was sectionalized. With the 
step-up transformers at the Lafayette station connected 
to the busbars, readings were taken of power, current 
and voltage. The first section of the line was then con- 
nected to the high-tension side of the transformers, and 
readings were again taken. This process was repeated 
by connecting on section after section until the end of 
the line was reached. During the test the voltage at 
the generating station was maintained as nearly as pos- 
sible at 370 volts. 

The amperes per line, corrected and adjusted to 370 
volts, are recorded in Fig. 1. The figure gives the 

graphical average of the currents in the two lines in 
which meters were placed. The current shown by the 
graph as corresponding to a certain distance from the 
power station is not the current in the line at that point, 
but is the current input to a line of length indicated by 
the abscissa of the point. The current at zero length 
is the exciting current of the step-up transformers, 
The numerical value of this .current is 68.3 amp., and, 
of course, has a large lagging component. As the sec- 
tions of the line were connected on successively, the 

10 2J :I0 40 50 80 70 SO 'JO 100 110 120 

Le.&gtb of Line, Miles 



leading current — due to the electrostatic capacity of the 
Kne — neutralized the lagging component until a line 
length was reached at which the power factor was 
unity. Beyond this point the current input increased 
rather rapidly, the power factor with the last section 
connected being 10.4 per cent leading. The drop shown 
at the end of the graph was occasioned by the exciting 
current of the Fort Wayne transformers when they 
ware connected to the line with their low-tension wind- 
ings on an open circuit. 

The power readings, corrected for scale errors and 
phase-angle displacements, and adjusted to 370 volts, 
when plotted gave the straight line AC in Fig. 2. On the 
basis of constant loss in the step-up transformers the 
intercepts between the lines AC and AB are the leakage 
losses of lines corresponding in length to the abscissas 
at which the intercepts were taken. The input indi- 
cated by the point A is the no-load loss of the Lafayette 
transformers. At first thought it might seem that 
the line CD would represent the corresponding no-load 

Ui i0 


10 20 30 40 50 CO 70 SO 90 100 110 120 
Length of Line. Miles 



input to the Fort Wayne transformers. It will be shown 
later, however, that this is not quite correct. 

The assumption of constant transformer loss in draw- 
ing the line AB is not much in error, since any increase 
in losses must be due to copper losses. These, even 
with the whole line connected, will not be great, as the 
charging current of the line is only about 25 per cent 
of the current rating of the transformers. In this case 
the increase would be of the order of 0.6 kw. 

The actual charging current for different lengths of 



Vol. 51, No. 2 

line can be found by subtracting vectorially the exciting 
current of the transformers from the current input 
to a given length of line. The graphical solution of this 
problem is illustrated by the vector diagram, Fig. 3. 
The vector OO is the exciting current of the transform- 
ers, and 01, 02, etc., are the current vector for lines of 
the several lengths. The vector differences between these 
vectors, 01, 02, etc., are the charging currents for the 
different lengths of line referred to the vector for the 
voltage of the Lafayette station. The horizontal projec- 
tions of these vectors, O'l', 0'2', etc., are the quadrature 

as 0.864 ohm per mile. Using this resistance and the 
actual currents in the high-tension line for different 
line lengths, the ordinates for the copper-loss curve in 
Fig. 5 were computed. Subtracting this loss for a given 
line length from the corresponding intercept in Fig. 2 
gave as remainder the line leakage loss for the given 
length of line. These losses were plotted to give the 
leakage-loss curve, Fig. 5, which represents the average 
of 0.106 kw. per mile for the entire line. This loss obvi- 
ously is independent of any load on the line. 

The copper losses in the line are not the same with 

400 375 350 325 300 275 250 225 200 175 150 125 100 75 50 25 25 50 
Amperes, Quadrature Current, Low Tension 


components of current for the several lengths. Vector 
O-ll represents the current input with the Fort Wayne 
transformers connected, and a line drawn from to 10 
would be the vector for the current in the transmission 
line at Lafayette, expressed in terms of the low-tension 

The actual charging currents, quadrature components, 
for different lengths of line are shown by dots in Fig. 4. 
For comparison, the upper line, giving the theoretical 
values, was drawn. Data for establishing this line were 
calculated from the standard formulas for line capacity, 
using the average spacing of 60 in. The theoretical 
value for the capacity current is 0.0437 amp. per mile of 
line. The lower line in the figure, which was drawn 

Oil Oil 001 06 OS 01 on OS Or oe or. 01 

the line open-ended and with it closed on transformers. 
The quadrature current distribution along the line for 
the two conditions is illustrated in Fig. 6. With the 
line open-ended, the distribution, at least for the case 
in hand, will be very nearly as shown by the line AB ; 
that is, at the station end the current will be a maxi- 
mum, and will shade down to zero at the farther end 
of the line. With the farther end closed on transform- 
ers, however, a different condition prevails. The quad- 
rature component of the exciting current of these trans- 
formers is represented by the distance 10'-11', Fig. 3, 
and has a calculated value of 132 amp. Transferred to 
high-tension terms, its value is 1.48 amp. To neutralize 
this lagging current requires 1.48 divided by 0.0437, or 

tH h- 






) iawo<j 


ioi li:in.)[i?j 









I 2 








- 6 O 



£ B 



- * § 





5 ' 

- B 


i . 












through most of the points plotted, represents the actual 
power component. The actual line currents, of course, 
would be found by adding the two components at right 
angles. As a matter of fact, however, the power com- 
ponents are so small that the actual currents do not 
differ greatly from those indicated by the upper line in 
the figure. 

The resistance of No. 2 B. & S. hard-drawn copper at 
ordinary temperatures is given by wire manufacturers 

10 20 30 40 50 00 70 30 !)0 100 110 120 
Length ol Line, Miles 


34 miles of line. This will result in a quadrature current 
distribution for the second case as indicated by the line 
CDE, Fig. 6. Therefore, the only current in the line 
at a distance of 81.4 miles from the station, is the power 
component necessary to supply the leakage and copper 
losses of the last 34 miles of line, plus the no-load 
losses of the transformers. This would be about % 

For the entire line the copper loss calculated for the 

January 12, 1918 



first case is 2.75 kw., as shown in Fig. 5. With the dis- 
tribution of current as in the second case the loss is 
only 1.06 kw. This decrease in copper loss means that 
the no-load losses of the Fort Wayne transformers, in- 
stead of being 26.4 kw., as indicated by the line CD, 
Fig. 2, are really 1.69 kw. (2.75 kw. minus 1.06 kw.) 
higher than this, giving a total of 28.1 kw. A check 
test made from the Fort Wayne end of the line gave 
results agreeing very closely with this figure. 

As a matter of interest, it may be stated that with 
all substation transformers connected to the line, sec- 

5 3 









10 20- 30 40 00 00 70 SO 00 100 110 120 
Length of Line, Miles 


ondaries open, the input to the line was 90.3 kw. with a 
leading power factor of 0.90. 

The author wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness 
to the Fort Wayne & Northern Indiana Traction Com- 
pany, whose courtesy permitted the test, and to L. H. 
Junken, C. N. Iry, E. Pugh, and A. V. Stout, from 
whose graduation theses the data for the above curves 
were abstracted. 

Coasting- at Chicago 

SINCE coasting recorders have been installed on the 
Chicago Elevated Railway, the Safety Bulletin pub- 
lished by that company states that records of power 
consumption show steadily increasing efficiency of the 
motormen. Some of the most efficient of the men say 
that they have found it easier to maintain schedule 
speed although they have coasted more. 

One interesting fact brought out at Chicago is that 
the responsibility for wasted electrical energy should 
not be entirely placed upon the motorman, as he cannot 
keep up his schedule without the co-operation of the 
rest of the train crew. This was proved when a motor- 
man who was found to be very efficient made a remark- 
ably poor showing on a certain day and complained that 
the fault was due to the conductor, who kept the train 
tied up at the stations. A conductor who was young and 
full of "pep" was put on the following day and the 
coasting time of the motorman was greatly increased. 

The coasting records taken on various lines, covering 
a period of one week, show a percentage of coasting 
ranging between 33 and 36.4 and a saving of power of 
10.6 per cent. The coasting records of individual mo- 
tormen show variations of 25 to 48 per cent. With a 
little more experience, this wide margin is expected to 
be cut down materially. These records are, of course 
inconclusive, due to the short time that the recorders 
have been in service, but the Elevated officials are con- 
fident that the recorders will do all that was claimed 
for them. 

Effects of Arc on Metal In and Around 
Electric Weld 

By O. A. Kenyon 

Electrical Engineer Arc Welding Machine Company, Inc., 
New York City 

rpHE writer was very much interested in tests re- 
J- ported in the issue of the Electric Railway 
Journal for Dec. 22, made at the works of the West- 
inghouse Company at East Pittsburgh, tending to show 
the effect of the arc on material adjacent to the weld. 

Although I have taken an active interest in effects 
of this kind for a number of years, I was not aware 
that there was any belief current to the effect that ma- 
terial adjacent to the weld was injured by an arc of 
60 volts. It is, however, generally admitted that it is 
possible to injure material that is deposited in the 
weld with an arc of 60 volts. 

The effect of an arc upon the material adjacent to the 
weld is dependent upon all factors which determine 
the temperature of the metal at that point and the 
length of time that the metal is maintained at a high 

Arcs connected in series with reactance produce a 
tremendous temperature rise at the moment of break- 
ing the circuit, and it is arcs of this kind which possess 
the power to injure metal by the mere striking and 
breaking of the arc. It would be interesting to con- 
tinue the investigations in series with which a reactor 
is connected, and also to include pieces in which the 
metal deposited in the weld is part of the test piece. 

Undoubtedly metal deposited on the solid plate in 
the form of a patch changes the structure of the steel, 
as was evidenced by the decrease in elongation and re- 
duction of area, as well as the increase in tensile 
strength. The writer has used this method for local 
heat treatment of welded joints, that is, by depositing 
a layer of metal on top of the weld after it is com- 
pleted and then machining it off, with the result that 
the weld is stronger and the contraction stresses are 
practically eliminated. 

Commissioners Indorse Fuel Saving but 
Take Little Formal Action 

The various public service commissions of this coun- 
try are standing ready to co-operate with the govern- 
ment in the saving of fuel, as far as they can be of any 
assistance. Only a few boards, however, have as yet 
taken any formal action in this matter. These facts 
have been brought out by a canvass, begun by the Elec- 
tric Railway Journal immediately after Dr. Garfield 
as United States Fuel Administrator asked the com- 
missions and electric railways to aid in eliminating 
wasteful uses of electricity. Previous articles, describ- 
ing formal action taken by the Massachusetts, New 
Jersey and New York First District commissions ap- 
peared in the issues of Dec. 8 and Dec. 15. 

In arranging a service flag to be hung in front of 
its place of business, the Kansas City (Mo.) Railways 
was confronted with the problem of providing a flag 
large enough to display properly the 200 stars that 
will appear in the center white field. By the time the 
flag is completed there will be approximately 212 stars, 
as that many men from the electric railways will be 
enrolled in the service of the government. 



Vol. 51, No. 2 

Basalt Blocks Make Good Headers in 
San Francisco 

SEVERAL kinds of header blocks have been used on 
the San Francisco systems, but the United Railroads 
has chosen the basalt blocks as far superior to others 
and now uses them exclusively on all parts of the sys- 
tem. Basalt is quarried from the basaltic dikes of Cali- 
fornia. The four common varieties are gray, blue, brown 
and porous. The latter is not well suited for headers, 
and of the others, that having a blue color is the best. 
This stone if subjected to heavy truck traffic will develop 
occasional breaks in ten years, but the ultimate life is 
usually fifteen years. The basalt blocks now cost about 
$55 per thousand. 

The United Railroads has effected some saving where 
it was necessary to reconstruct the paving between rails 
in basalt block pavement. These blocks were replaced 
with asphalt pavement and the blocks were cut up into 
two or even three pieces suitable for headers at a cost 
of about $10 to $12 per thousand. 

Brick headers have been extensively used in San 
Francisco, but under heavy traffic they break down 
quickly. On a thoroughfare where traffic is light an 
exceptionally good quality of brick put down in 1909 is 
still in service. Brick from the same source, however, 
and supposed to be of equal quality, which was put down 
later, has not given long life under any conditions and 
under heavy traffic is not expected to have a life of more 
than a few years. The paving brick available in San 
Francisco vary in price from local grades costing $25 to 
$30, up to $46 to $50 for the best grade shipped in from 
Puget Sound. The latter grade has been used exten- 
sively by the Municipal Railway and is considered sat- 
isfactory in residence districts or where the traffic is 

For a while Ohio wood from the Hawaiian Islands 
was used for headers. This is a very heavy wood with 
a very low absorption capacity and which will not 
buckle due to expansion. It therefore requires no creo- 
sote or other similar treatment. At one of the cross- 
ings where the traffic is very heavy, these blocks have 
been in service three years and show practically no 
wear. The Ohio blocks cost only $25 per thousand, 
while they were available, and they were rated as the 
best material for headers. The manufacture of the 
blocks was discontinued, however, because other mar- 
kets for the wood were found which offered greater 
profits. If other hardwoods could be procured from the 
tropics when facilities for water shipment are on a 
normal basis again, Pacific Coast electric railway oper- 
ators would doubtless be much interested in their 

Granite header blocks have been used to some extent 
and the California granite is regarded as wearing much 
better than brick but probably not as long as the best 
basalt. In removing the old granite wall from the site 
of the former City Hall it was decided to cut the stone 
up into header block sizes for the Municipal Railway. 
This is being done by stone masons entirely by hand 
work, at a cost of $37.50 per thousand. About 50,000 
are being made in this way. 

A New "Little David" Drill for 
Light Work 

THE Ingersoll-Rand Company has added to its line 
of "Little David" pneumatic tools a new light- 
weight, high-power, non-reversible drill especially 
adapted to that class of drilling and reaming work 
which may come within its capacity limits of reaming 
up to 5/16 in. and drilling up to 9/16 in. This new 
drill has been designated No. 5 "Little David." It 
weighs 15 lb. and develops a free spindle speed of 1000 
r.p.m. With drill chuck its over-all length is 14% in. 
and the distance from the side of the drill to center of 
spindle is but 1% in., which facilitates its operation in 
unhandy places. The spindle is threaded to accommo- 


date either a No. 1 M.T. socket or drill chuck, and these 
may be readily interchanged as desired. 

The four-piston motor is very simple and the con- 
venient accessibility of the reciprocating parts is pointed 
out to be of advantage. It is stated that the removal 
of five cap screws permits the crankshaft assembly to 
be withdrawn in its entirety. The valve is of the 
rotary type and is gear driven. Roller bearings are 
used on the connecting-rods and ball bearings on the 
crankshaft. The No. 5 "Little David" may be had with 
either breast plate spade handle or telescoping feed 
screw. In the latter case the length of feed measures 

Twenty Sources of Fuel Waste 

ATTRACTIVE posters emphasizing the necessity 
for saving fuel are being sent each week to all the 
Doherty properties. A very effective one pointed out 
the following potential sources of power waste: 

The maximum load in the history of the Common- 
wealth Edison Company of Chicago occurred at 5 p.m. 
on Dec. 28 when the meters registered 410,910 kw. 

Too many boilers in serv- 10. 

ice. 11. 
Holes in the fire. 12. 
Fires too heavy. 13. 
Improperly banked boil- 
ers. 14. 
Too much fuel in the 15. 

ashes. 16. 

Failure to operate boiler 17. 

dampers. 18. 

7. Irregular steam pres- 19. 

sure. 20. 

8. Safety valves blowing. 

9. Air leaks in the boiler 



Scale in the tubes. 
Soot on the tubes. 
Leaky baffles. 
Stokers or grates out of 

Leaky blow-off valves. 
Steam leaks of any kind. 
Dirty feed-water heater. 
Bare steam pipes. 
Low vacuum. 
Turbine blading worn. 
A dirty plant causes fuel 


January 12, 1918 ELECTRIC RAi: 

Mechanical Problems in Design of 
Electric Locomotives 

Tracking Qualities — Transmission of Power from 
Motor to Rail — Design of Motors — Further 
Development Possible 

THE service requirements for steam and electric loco- 
motives are very similar, so that many of the struc- 
tural problems are common to both designs. There are, 
however, many problems which are quite dissimilar, due 
to the fact that electric instead of thermal energy is 
utilized in the electric locomotives. These points are 
well covered in an article by W. K. McAfee appearing 
in the January issue of the Electric Journal. 

The mechanical problems in the design of the main 
structures and rotating parts of electric locomotives 
may be divided into the problems relative to tracking 
qualities, to the transmission of power from the motors 
to the rails and to the design of the motors themselves. 

The tracking qualities depend upon the position and 
weight of the motors, the positions of the center of 
gravity in the vertical and horizontal planes, and the 
weight transfer. The position of the motor determines 
the type of drive, and this in turn largely determines 
the size, number and speed of the motors. A low center 
of gravity often makes a cheaper locomotive, but better 
running qualities are secured by a relatively high center 
of gravity. The important factor concerning the hori- 
zontal center of gravity is such disposition of masses 
with reference to center pins as to eliminate the ten- 
dency to swing at high speeds, causing distortion of 
track and possible derailment. The weight on the rear 
drivers is increased and that on the front drivers de- 
creased when drawbar pull is exerted, but the tendency 
of the front wheels to slip is reduced by side rods. In 
the case of axle mounted motors the dead weight may 
produce undue stresses in the track structure, but artic- 
ulated trucks eliminate part of this weight bv trans- 
mitting it from truck to truck. 

Relative to the transmission of power from motors 
to the rails, solid gear drive with axle suspended motors 
is used on street and interurban cars. The flexible gear 
is one of the most important for heavy service, as 
shocks due to sudden starting and track irregularities 
are eliminated. The quill type of drive is one solution 
for mounting motors on the trucks, as with this type 
vertical motion is permitted between motors and driv- 
ing axles. Tracking qualities are bettered by mounting 
the motor higher and connecting to the driver by side 
rods, many different types of which have been de- 

One of the most important problems in the design of 
motors is the bearings. As the space taken by the bear- 
ings reduces the motor length and the output the most 
economical compromise is to concede enough length to 
the bearings to permit them to transmit the maximum 
power that the motor can economically deliver with the 
resulting length of core. Regenerative braking intro- 
duces another problem, as the bearing pressure is re- 
versed without reversing the direction of rotation of 
motor. The main motor shafts must be capable of 
resisting strain due to sudden stopping or severe over- 
load when the motors are directly connected to the 
drivers by means of side bars alone. If desired, yield 
may be introduced between the motor rotor and the 


crank on the motor shaft by springs or by a friction 
clutch. Braces must be designed to withstand heavy 
stresses due to occasional short-circuit, and castings 
must fulfill all electrical and mechanical requirements 
and at the same time not be excessive in cost of pattern 
and molds. Forced ventilation of motors is becoming 
more generally used in cooling, the goal being to get 
maximum cooling with minimum of air, and maximum 
of air with minimum of power from the blower motor. 

There is still an important field for development in 
the design of electric locomotives, one problem being 
to increase the drawbar pull without making an ab- 
normally long locomotive. 

Gasoline Rail Car de Luxe 

THE accompanying photograph shows a very at- 
tractive gasoline rail car which has just been 
completed and is being used for demonstration pur- 
poses in the Sacramento Valley, California. 

The car is all steel, built with the outside finish 
ribbed to resemble wood. Its weight is 14,000 lb., its 
length over all is 40 ft., its outside width is 7 ft. 6 in., 
and it has a passenger capacity of thirty-one. The 
arrangement of the floor plan, from front to rear end, 
is as follows: engine room, baggage room, smoking 


room, entrance gates and vestibule on each side with 
lavatories in the center, parlor section with individual 
chairs and separated by full glass partition from ob- 
servation platform at extreme rear end. The finish 
in white enamel with brown trimmings gives the car 
a de luxe appearance, so that it has attracted consider- 
able attention. Electric starting and complete light- 
ing current at 12 volts is supplied. 

This car was built by the Commercial Cars Con- 
struction Company, San Francisco, Cal. The car has 
not as yet been in operation long enough to deter- 
mine the operating cost data. 

Good Record for Armature Bearings 

The International Railway, Buffalo, N. Y., has been 
experimenting with a bronze armature bearing cast 
from a formula original with George Kuhn, master me- 
chanic, which has given excellent results. At last re- 
port the bearing had made considerably more than 104,- 
000 miles. It has been installed on four GE-74 motors, 
gear ratio 33 to 56. The motors are on an interurban 
car running on the high-speed line between Buffalo and 
Lockport. The company usually gets from 25,000, to 
30,000 miles with a babbitted bearing. 

News of the Eledric Railways 


Broadway Subway Opened 

Local Service by B. R. T. on Line Be- 
tween Rector and Forty-second 
Streets, Backbone of System 

On Jan. 5, at about noon, New York 
City celebrated the opening of another 
new rapid transit line, namely, the 
Broadway subway in Manhattan, for 
operation by the New York Municipal 
Railway Corporation. The new opera- 
tion consists of local service between 
Rector Street on the south and Forty- 
second Street, or Times Square, on 
the north. 

For some time past the Broadway 
subway has been in operation between 
Canal and Fourteenth Streets in con- 
nection with trains from the Sea Beach 
line in Brooklyn, the trains passing over 
the Manhattan Bridge and the Canal 
Street subway to the Broadway line. 
The new service extends the 5-cent 
zone for Brooklyn travelers northward 
from Fourteenth Street, therefore, to 
Times Square, but for a while it will be 
necessary to change cars at Fourteenth 
Street. Eventually all the tracks of 
the Broadway subway, which is a four- 
tracked line, will be placed in service, 
and then both local and express trains 
will traverse the whole length of the 

How Line Will Operate Finally 

When the line is placed in operation 
in its entirety it will run from the Bat- 
tery northerly through Church Street, 
Broadway and Seventh Avenue to Fifty- 
ninth Street, thence easterly under Fif- 
ty-ninth Street and the East River to a 
connection with the new rapid transit 
lines in Queens Borough. On the south- 
ern end there will be a tunnel to 
Brooklyn connecting with the Fourth 
Avenue subway, and connection is also 
made with that line through Canal 
Street and over the Manhattan Bridge. 

The construction of the Broadway 
subway, Manhattan, -was first proposed 
in 1911 as a means of relieving trans - 
portation conditions in that section of 
Manhattan south of Fifty-ninth Street, 
and as a distributing line through the 
heart of Manhattan for the people of 
Brooklyn and Queens. The proposal 
was made by the Brooklyn Rapid Tran- 
sit Company. Two full years of dis- 
cussion and planning followed before an 
agreement was finally reached and the 
plan ratified. Construction was begun, 
however, before the contract was exe- 
cuted, and the city has been building 
the subway for about six years. Two 
tracks have been placed in operation 
between Whitehall Street and Forty- 
second Street. It will be some time 
before all four tracks will be ready for 
express and local service, and before 
connections will be made with Brooklyn 

and Queens via the tunnels at the Bat- 
tery and at Sixtieth Street respec- 

In a pamphlet which it prepared for 
distribution among its patrons the com- 
pany said: 

"For intermediate imperfections of 
service the operating company begs the 
indulgence of its patrons. The limita- 
tions at terminals will temporarily re- 
strict the number of trains to be op- 
erated, and the other evidences of in- 
completion will produce some complaint 
and inconvenience. But both the Pub- 
lic Service Commission and the operat- 
ing company feel that it is better to 
begin operation with facilities as they 
are than to wait until the work is en- 
tirely finished." 

Brooklyn subway trains now oper- 
ated to Union Square via Manhattan 
Bridge and Canal Street will continue 
to be thus operated, but will use the 
express tracks between Canal Street 
and Union Square, with intervening 
stops. Change may be made there for 
local subway trains to Forty-second 
Street and vice versa. 

Severe Storm in West 

The severe blizzard which swept over 
the Central Western states on Sunday, 
Jan. 6, paralyzed street railway and 
interurban traffic. City service in Chi- 
cago was demoralized and hundreds of 
residents were compelled to remain in 
downtown hotels Sunday night because 
of their inability to get home. In the 
Calumet region conditions were worse 
than in Chicago proper. Pullman, In- 
diana Harbor, Gary and Hammond were 
left practically without railroad com- 
munication. In some cities of Illinois 
and Iowa electric railway and inter- 
urban systems were unable to move any 
cars after 5 p. m. 

Hundreds of soldiers from Camp 
Grant, near Rockford, 111., were caught 
in the city of Rockford and were un- 
able to return to their cantonment. 
Finally about 150 of them appealed to 
W. C. Sparks, general manager of the 
Rockford City Traction Company, who 
ordered two interurban cars, equipped 
with snow sweepers, to make the trip 
to Camp Grant. More than two hours 
were required for this trip of about 5 
miles. Joliet, 111., was also hard hit by 
the storm and while city railway traffic 
was maintained, the interurban service 
in and out of Joliet was very infrequent. 
Plainfield, 111., a village 10 miles north 
of Joliet, was completely isolated by the 
storm. Several cars were almost buried 
in the snow in a deep cut between Joliet 
and Plainfield. By Monday morning, 
Jan. 7, however, most of the railway 
companies were able to resume normal 

State Directors Urged 

Speaker Cox of Massachusetts House of 
Representatives Declares Against 
Public Ownership of Railways 

Public ownership of electric railways 
was condemned by Speaker Channing 
Cox of the House of Representatives of 
Massachusetts in his inaugural address 
at the opening of the 1918 Legislative 
session. He impressed upon the House 
the necessity of action to relieve the 
electric railways of their financial bur- 
dens and argued strongly for "intelli- 
gent State supervision with State direc- 
tors," as the solution of the present 
problem. The Speaker's reference to 
the electric railway situation was the 
most important feature of his address. 
In this connection he said: 

"The people of the commonwealth are 
dependent upon the continuance of the 
electric railway systems. Our future 
prosperity, our comfort, our conveni- 
ence, require not only a continuance but 
indeed an improvement of such service. 
One by one the electric railways are 
showing their inability to continue 
under present conditions. This is true 
of railways in cities and of those in 
rural communities. The money honestly 
invested in these railways represents in 
part the savings of the toilers. I hope 
that Massachusetts will always deserve 
a reputation of dealing honorably with 
those who have loaned their savings to 
build up our industries and to develop 
our commercial life, but the question is 
bigger and beyond fair treatment to in- 
vestors. It is a question of continuance 
of railway service and development and 
improvement. The issue is between 
progress and something worse than 
stagnation — retrogression. 

Something Must Be Done 

"Obviously the Commonwealth could 
take over the electric railways, paying 
therefor a fair value, and then operate 
them. I have little doubt that the own- 
ers of stock in Massachusetts electric 
railways would welcome such a step. 
But I hope the day is far distant when 
Government ownership and operation of 
electric railways will be necessary in 
Massachusetts. I cannot believe that 
the most efficient and economical con- 
duct of our electric railways lies in that 

Solution Not Impossible 

"With strong and intelligent State 
supervision, with State directors, the 
cost of electric railway construction and 
operation plus a fair return on the 
honest capital invested can be deter- 
mined. On that basis a proper and suf- 
ficient charge for service can be fixed 
by State authority. The public is 

January 12, 1918 



Views of Massachusetts Board 

Chairman Macleod of Massachusetts Public Service Commission 
Questioned on Electric Railway Problems 

Frederick J. Macleod, chairman of the 
Public Service Commission of Mass- 
achusetts, appeared recently before the 
legislative street railway investigating 
commission at Boston and submitted to 
an extended series of questions regard- 
ing the views of the board on the elec- 
tric railway situation in general. Mr. 
Macleod said that there were com- 
panies where there was no reasonable 
outlook that the road could put itself in 
a sound financial condition by any fares 
which it was possible to impose. In 
other words, higher fares would dis- 
courage riding to a point where the net 
results might be less advantageous to 
the companies than the lower rates. 
Under such conditions the company 
ought to be permitted to abandon the 
service if it found that it was not earn- 
ing operating expenses. On the other 
hand, if the communities affected be- 
lieved that the service was of vital im- 
portance, some provision ought to be 
available by which part of the con- 
tinued operation of the company should 
rest with the community served. He 
then cited the case of the Providence 
& Fall River Street Railway which 
would not stay abandoned. 

Assessment Matter Abandoned 

The question was raised whether the 
Massachusetts commission had ever 
considered the wisdom of assessing bet- 
terments on abutters where there were 
extensions of rapid transit lines. Mr. 
Macleod said the commission had sug- 
gested, in connection with the Boston 
Elevated investigation of a year ago, 
such a system, but that the subject was 
complex and that no detailed plan had 
been prepared. When Peter Witt ap- 
peared at the Bay State rate hearings 
before the board, representing the re- 
monstrants in that case, he expressed 
himself very strongly in favor of the 
application of that principle, and in the 
city of Cleveland when certain commu- 
nities were being built up and a cer- 
tain number of real estate operators 
were very anxious to get street rail- 
way service extended into this new ter- 
ritory, Mr. Witt, as street railway com- 
missioner of Cleveland, insisted upon 
securing special contributions from the 
real estate owners on those lines be- 
fore they were put into operation. 

Mr. Macleod said that the situation 
of Massachusetts electric railways re- 
flected in general electric railway con- 
ditions all over the country, Repre- 

(Concluded from page 100) 

reasonable. The public wants to pay 
the honest and necessary cost of serv- 
ice rendered. If we address ourselves 
to this problem with the public good 
singly in mind we can find a solution, 
difficult though it may be. It may not 
enhance our own personal political for- 
tunes but that consideration ought to 
be of no moment compared to the satis- 
faction of doing right." 

sentative Hays asked Mr. Macleod 
whether he thought that it was a part 
of the duties of the commission if it 
saw a road going down financially to 
advocate higher fares. Mr. Macleod 
did not know whether the commission 
had the authority to do that under the 
law. The Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission did not have the authority to 
deal with the matter in that way. He 
said: "So far as the necessity of in- 
crease in fares is concerned, if it was 
just that larger and higher fares should 
be charged in order to provide proper 
service for the communities and to keep 
the electric railways going, in so far as 
I am personally concerned, I would 
have no hesitation whatever in say- 
ing that such increases were neces- 
sary in the general interest." 

Caring for Depreciation 

The Massachusetts commission in 
certain fare cases had indicated that 
the company should provide deprecia- 
tion on a scale that had been indicated. 
Under the form of the return which 
the commission had prescribed the com- 
pany must report some reserve for de- 
preciation on electric railway equip- 
ment, but there had been no require- 
ment for larger depreciation reserve 
for maintenance of ways and struc- 
tures, and the Massachusetts Board 
had followed practically the same 
course as the Interstate Commerce 
Commission in that respect, and had 
urged the company to lay aside and 
had required it to lay aside some 
reserve for depreciation. But the com- 
mission had not attempted to indicate 
any definite amount which ought to be 
set aside by any company. Laying 
aside a depreciation fund was possible 
only if the revenue of a company was 
sufficient. The question of rates and 
the question of laying aside a proper 
depreciation fund were inextricably 
bound together. The commission had 
ample power to handle this matter, in 
the opinion of the chairman, who said 
that if that power had not been exer- 
cised it was due to the fact- that the 
commission as a matter of discretion 
did not believe that under the present 
financial condition of the companies it 
should attempt to make specific re- 
quirements for depreciation except in 
so far as the board was able to deal 
with companies in cases where in- 
creased fares were given. 

Improving Railway Credit 

The commission had attempted to 
make better credit for electric railways 
by taking action in giving the com- 
panies increases in fares to which they 
were entitled, by recommending the 
elimination or changing of certain 
forms of taxation and suggestions in 
regard to the regulations of jitneys. 

The commission had reversed itself 
on the one-man car question, but con- 
sidered itself in good company in that 
respect in view of the early lack of ad- 
vocacy of this type of rolling stock dis- 

played by Massachusetts companies. 
Chairman Macleod said that whereas 
the carmen's unions were opposed to 
the introduction of one-man cars at the 
outset, he thought that employees of 
operating companies now held a dif- 
ferent view, having a better apprecia- 
tion of the advantages of such cars to 
the employees themselves, as well as to 
the companies and the public. In the 
one-man car matter the commission 
gave very full and careful considera- 
tion to the objections raised by the em- 
ployees and the commission believed 
that these objections were not con- 
trolling and permitted the companies 
to make the experiment. 

Railway Hit 

P. R. T. Protests Against Proposed 
Power Rate Increase of Philadel- 
phia Electric Company 

Ellis Ames Ballard, chief counsel for 
the Philadelphia (Pa.) Rapid Transit 
Company, has filed a complaint with 
the Public Service Commission against 
the advances in rates for electrical en- 
ergy proposed by the Philadelphia 
Electric Company. According to this 
complaint, the Philadelphia Rapid 
Transit Company has contracts with 
the Philadelphia Electric and its sub- 
sidiaries, the Delaware County Elec- 
tric and the Beacon Light Companies, 
for a supply of current to operate trol- 
ley lines. Originally the contracts 
were made for a term of ten years, and, 
according to Mr. Ballard, they still have 
five years to run. 

Charges Contract Violation 

It is charged in the complaint that 
the schedules of increased rates asked 
for by the Philadelphia Electric and its 
subsidiaries are in violation of these 
contracts. The petition also sets forth 
that the increased rates may necessi- 
tate an advance in fares. Mr. Ballard 
is quoted as stating: 

"We are contesting the right of the 
Philadelphia Electric Company, first, to 
abrogate its contracts with us without 
notice, and, secondly, the method of 
breaking the contracts. I have not the 
exact figures of the railway's annual 
electric current bill at hand, but the 
sum is considerable. With other ex- 
penses of operation increasing, natural- 
ly there must be some increase of rev- 
enue if the electric power rate is to be 
increased. We have ten-year contracts 
with the electric company that still 
have five years to run. The rate in 
those contracts was fixed by the elec- 
tric company. They were good con- 
tracts for five years, but now that the 
shoe is beginning to pinch they want an 
increase, and we have protested against 

Individual consumers will not be af- 
fected by the increases, the petition of 
the electric company exempting mu- 
nicipal and residential bills. Appeal is 
made for an increase of 20 per cent in 
the surtaxes on all classes of power 
current. The increase will apply upon 
$9,000,000 of revenue out of a total 
gross revenue for 1917 of $11,700,000. 



Vol 51, No. 2 

Director General of Railroads Not Planning 
to Take Over Electric Lines 

Measure Now Pending in Congress Likely to Result in a Law That Will 
Clear the "Twilight Zone" 

Reports published in various news- 
papers that William G. McAdoo, direc- 
tor-general of railroads, has issued or- 
ders for placing certain electric rail- 
ways under Government control are not 
borne out by inquiries made at Mr. Mc- 
Adoo's office by the Washington corre- 
spondent of the Electric Railway 
Journal. There is no record at the 
director-general's office of an order plac- 
ing the lines of the Lehigh Valley Tran- 
sit Company under Government control, 
according to official statements made in 
Washington, and the director-general, 
it is stated, is not contemplating any 
similar move in regard to those 0/ any 
other lines, at this time. 

One of the most important reasons 
why no such step is now under consid- 
eration is the fact that the administra- 
tion railroad bill, designed to carry 
out provisions of President Wilson's 
recommendations to Congress in regard 
to transportation systems, is now be- 
fore Congressional committees. Until 
Congress acts, it is stated at the office 
of the director-general, there will be no 
move which members might consider an 
invasion of their all-powerful rights, or 
which, to say the least, might be con- 
sidered not in the best taste on the part 
of an executive official of the Govern- 

The Select Council of Philadelphia, 
Pa., on Jan. 3 concurred with the Com- 
mon Council and passed without debate 
the ordinance authorizing the lease of 
the city's high-speed transit facilities, 
when and as built, to the Philadelphia 
Rapid Transit Company. The bill was 
approved immediately by the Mayor. 
Only the formality of confirmation by 
the stockholders of the company and 
the sanction of the Public Service Com- 
mission are necessary to complete the 

Provisions of Lease 

The principal provisions of the lease 
are : 

Payments to the city and company, 
in proportion to the relative invest- 
ment of each, equal to a 5 per cent 

Eight-cent exchange tickets to be 
abolished outside of the delivery dis- 
trict in the central part of the city 
within sixty days after the signing 
of the lease, and universal free trans- 
fers to be substituted therefor. 

On the opening of the Frankford 
line, exchange tickets to be abolished 
inside the delivery loop and free 
transfers substituted therefor. 

Fares to be revised upward or 
downward, according to the amount 
of the gross revenue and the fixed 
demands on that fund. 

ment. Government executives rarely if 
ever take action on matters being con- 
sidered by Congress. This custom ap- 
plies even to the President of the 
United States. 

It is pointed out in Washington that 
the proclamation of the President tak- 
ing control of the railroads of the coun- 
try, and making allusion to the possi- 
bility of eventually taking over certain 
electric railways engaged in interstate 
commerce, was issued while Congress 
was in recess. Since that time the 
President has made a number of rec- 
ommendations to Congress in regard to 
the railroads, and it is expected that 
Congress will bring forth a law which 
will take many questions out of the 
"twilight zone." 

On the other hand, it is recognized 
in administration and executive circles 
in Washington that the time may come 
when it will be desirable from a Gov- 
ernment point of view to take over cer- 
tain electric railways serving works of 
important manufacturers of munitions 
and engaged in interstate commerce. 
Surveys of such fields and possibilities 
by the officials attached to the staff of 
the director-general of railroads are be- 
ing made, in a tentative manner, for 
the sake of gathering information. 

Broad Street subway, from League 
Island to Olney Avenue. 

Frankford line, from Front and 
Arch to Rhawn Street. 

Bustleton and Byberry surface line. 

Darby line, from Thirtieth and 
Market Streets to Darby. 

Parkway subway, from City Hall 
to Fairmount Park, connecting with 
an elevated line to Roxborough. 

Delivery loop-subway in Arch, 
Eighth and Locust Streets, connecting 
with the Broad Street subway. 

Chestnut Street subway, as a pos- 
sible connection between the Frank- 
ford and Darby elevated lines. 

One of the features of the proposed 
lease is a board of supervising engi- 
neers, which will have control over the 
operations of the unified system. 
Through an amendment to the lease, 
made before its passage by Common 
Council, the director of city transit 
will be a member of this board. The 
company will name a member and it is 
assumed that one of the transit com- 
pany's chief engineers will be chosen. 
The third member will be named by 
agreement of the city and the company. 

The next step is the signing of the 
lease by Thomas E. Mitten, president 
of the Rapid Transit Company. He 
cannot affix his signature for a month, 
for the reason that the proposition 
must be advertised to the stockholders 

for thirty days and then a meeting of 
the stockholders will be held. Finally, 
the lease will be submitted to the Pub- 
lic Service Commission for its ap- 

Trenton Tax Case Appealed 

Frank S. Katzenbach, Jr., counsel for 
the Trenton & Mercer County Traction 
Corporation, Trenton, N. J., has filed 
in the Supreme Court reasons why the 
court should reverse the decision of the 
State Board of Taxes and Assessments 
sustaining the assessment of the Mer- 
cer County Tax Board on the com- 
pany's property in 1916. One of the 
reasons is that the going value of the 
property, as defined by the State Tax 
Board, is not taxable under the laws 
of New Jersey. 

M. Bill in Rhode Island 

An act has been introduced in the 
House of Representatives of Rhode Is- 
land by Mr. Kiernan, creating a com- 
mission of three men to draw up and 
present as soon as possible, such legis- 
lation as would be necessary and de- 
sirable to enable the State to take over, 
run and own, all of the electric railways 
in Rhode Island. The measure has been 
referred to the judiciary committee for 

Editors Praise Mr. Dempsey 

Brooklyn Papers Are Agreed that Wise 
Choice Was Made in Electing 
Him Vice-President 

The election of J. J. Dempsey as a 
vice-president of the Brooklyn (N. Y.) 
Rapid Transit Company, announced in 
the Electric Railway Journal for 
Dec. 29, was promptly recognized by 
the Brooklyn papers as a just reward 
for ability displayed previously. Many 
complimentary things were said by 
them editorially of Mr. Dempsey in 
commenting on the changes in the per- 
sonnel of the company. The Standard 
Union said: 

"Mr. Dempsey's career has been bril- 
liant. There can be only one explana- 
tion of a rapid rise like this. Mr. 
Dempsey, of course, is a technical ex- 
pert of the first rank. In addition to 
that, he possesses personal qualities 
that enable him to obtain results from 
a large working force, under insistent 
demands for good quality of service 
from an exacting public. The Brook- 
lyn transit directors do well to give 
such a man as Mr. Dempsey the wid- 
est field for the exercise of his pow- 
ers. The war, with its draft of man 
power and curtailment of material re- 
sources, brings serious problems to the 
B. R. T. The system is to be congratu- 
lated on its success in producing a man 
from the ranks capable of approaching 
the highest places." 

The Times said: 

"It was eminently wise of the direc- 
tors to elect Mr. Dempsey vice-presi- 
dent of the company, because, unless it 
be Colonel Williams, who has been with 
the railroad system since he was the 
secretary of Gov. Roswell P. Flower, no 

Philadelphia Transit Lease Signed 

Both Branches of Councils Pass Measure for Development and Operation 

of High-Speed Lines 

January 12, 1918 



Financial and Corporate 

Oakland, Antioch & Eastern Reorganization 

Plan Filed 

San Francisco, Oakland & Sacramento Railway, the Proposed Successor 
Company, Will Have $8,500,000 of Stocks and Bonds Outstanding 

man in Brooklyn knows the borough 
transportation problem like Mr. Demp- 
sey, and none in the country surpasses 
him in the field of operative manage- 
ment. We regard it as a good fortune 
to the community that his merit has 
been so signally recognized by the rep- 
resentatives of the owning interest." 

News Notes 

Street Railroad Department Estab- 
lished. — On Jan. 3 the office of the City 
Street Railroad Commissioner of Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, was abolished and the 
Department of Street Railroads, admin- 
istered by the Director of Street Rail- 
roads, was established in accordance 
with the new city charter. Mayor John 
Calvin has appointed W. C. Culkins to 
the new position, the duties and author- 
ity of which are described in the new 
city charter and the new franchise ordi- 
nance of the Cincinnati Traction Com- 

Expense of the Toledo Street Rail- 
way Commission. — In replying to a re- 
quest from Councilman Frank Miller, 
Mayor Milroy made the following state- 
ment to the City Council of Toledo, 
Ohio, on Dec. 31: "There is no moral 
or legal obligation on the city to pay 
for any service of the commission. The 
commission, of course, must pay for its 
legal counsel and for its office room. 
There was a public spirited citizen who 
offered to pay this expense. If the 
commission reports an electric-railway 
plan suitable to the voters of Toledo, 
then I think there would be a moral 
debt to the commission. No expense 
could be charged to the city without 
the consent of the people by vote." 

New Franchise for East Cleveland. — 
A managerial form of government went 
into effect in East Cleveland, Ohio, on 
Jan. 1, with C. M. Osborn at the helm. 
Mr. Osborn is an engineer. He has had 
long experience in municipal affairs. 
Under him negotiations will be taken 
up with the Cleveland Railway for a 
new franchise covering both the Euclid 
Avenue and Hayden Avenue lines. The 
franchise, on the latter expired last 
April, but that on Euclid Avenue runs 
to February, 1921, with the same fare 
as prevails in Cleveland. At the pres- 
ent time cars are being operated on 
Hayden Avenue under a temporary con- 
tract at a fare of 5 cents. Citizens of 
East Cleveland want a blanket contract. 

Association Meeting Program 

Illinois Electric Railways Association 

It is expected that the Illinois Electric 
Railways Association will hold a con- 
vention at Chicago some time the latter 
part of January. A program is being 
arranged and it is possible that the 
meeting will be held on Jan. 26. 

A plan for the permanent financing 
of the Oakland & Antioch Railway, the 
Oakland, Antioch & Eastern Railway 
and the San Ramon Valley Railroad 
has been adopted by the committee 
representing the holders of the bonds 
of the companies and is about to be 
submitted to security holders. The 
submission of the plan at this time is 
pursuant to the order of the California 
Railroad Commission made in 1915, pro- 
viding that one be submitted for its ap- 
proval before the beginning of 1918. 

The details of the plan were made 
public in the following official announce- 

Details op Plan 

"The Railroad Commission in a de- 
cision rendered in November, 1915, pro- 
vided that a plan for the permanent 
refinancing should be submitted to it 
on or before Jan. 1, 1918. 

"Pursuant to this mandate, the bond- 
holders' committee of said roads, con- 
sisting of S. Bachman, Fred H. Beaver, 
A. Christeson, C. Osgood Hooker, John 
Lawson, Jesse W. Lilienthal, Paul A. 
Sinsheimer and Sydney M. van Wyck, 
Jr., proceeded to a careful considera- 
tion of the finances of the roads and, 
after many months of deliberation, is 
about to submit to the security holders 
the following plan : 

New Name for Company 

"A new company will be organized 
to take over the properties of the old 
companies. For the time being, the 
name San Francisco, Oakland & Sacra- 
mento Railway has been tentatively 

"The new company will be authorized 
to issue the following securities: 

"1. $3,000,000 par value of twenty- 
year first mortgage 5% per cent bonds. 

"2. $1,500,000 par value of 6 per cent 
preferred stock, consisting of 15,000 
shares of a par value of $100 each. 
Preferred stock will be non-assessable 
and will be callable at any time at 110. 

"3. $4,000,000 par value of common 
stock consisting of 40,000 shares of a 
par value of $100 each. The common 
stock is to be non-assessable. 

"The amount of the securities so au- 
thorized which the new company is to 
put out for purposes of reorganization 
is as follows : 

"1. Twenty-year first mortgage 5% 
per cent gold bonds. Not to exceed 
$1,950,000 of the par value of these 
bonds is to be issued or set aside for 
the purpose of carrying out the reor- 
ganization plan. The balance of the 
bonds, to wit, $1,050,000 par value, will 

remain in the treasury to be issued 
only under stringent restrictions. 

"2. Preferred Stock — Not to exceed 
13,300 shares of this stock will be is- 
sued for reorganization purposes. The 
balance, to wit, 1700 shares, is to re- 
main in the treasury. 

"3. Common Stock — All of the com- 
mon stock is to be issued. 

"These securities of the new company 
are to be distributed among the bond- 
holders of the companies and among 
persons holding bonds in pledge, so that 
they will receive securities of a par 
value equal to the par value of the 
securities now held by them upon the 
following basis: Twenty per cent 
bonds, 20 per cent preferred stock, 60 
per cent common stock. 

"Secured creditors are to be treated 
in accordance with the securities held 
by them and common stock remaining 
in the treasury after distribution to 
bondholders and holders of bonds in 
pledge is to be divided among the un- 
secured creditors." 

Receiver Asked in St. Louis 

Stockholder Begins Suit to Protect 
Equity, but Complaint Is Said to 
Disclose No Cause for Action 

On Jan. 7 suit was begun in the Unit- 
ed States District Court in St. Louis, 
Mo., for the appointment of a receiver 
for the United Railways of St. Louis. 
The petition made by the attorney for 
a New York holder of a small amount of 
preferred stock, is said to be for the 
purpose of preserving the equities of 
shareholders and securing certain resti- 
tutions from old directors. 

Judge Dyer on Jan. 10 refused to is- 
sue a temporary order appointing a re- 
ceiver for the company, and made sub- 
poenas returnable in ten days. At that 
time the company can either file an an- 
swer or a motion to dismiss the pro- 

The petition asserts that the company 
is solvent, but that money has been 
needlessly expended under power con- 
tracts made by directors in 1908 and in 
mill-tax litigation. Restitution of such 
money is demanded. Furthermore, it is 
alleged that if the pending resettlement 
franchise falls through the company 
may be forced into receivership in the 
interest of creditors and that this might 
mean disintegration of the property. 

James D. Mortimer, president North 
American Company, which controls the 
United Railways, has issued the follow- 
ing statement: 

"From a reading of the complaint it 



Vol. 51, No. 2 

does not appear to disclose a cause of 
action. The matters complained of are 
well known to the St. Louis public and 
have been explained at considerable 
length, so that they now know all the 
essential facts. The plaintiff, however, 
evidently remains unconvinced that the 
contracts under which the railway is 
purchasing electric power for the oper- 
ation of a portion of its system are 
advantageous to it. Without the power 
so purchased the railway could operate 
only one-third of the number of cars it 
now runs regularly during rush hours, 
and it could not engage a new power 
supply at rates nearly as low as those 
now paid. The accomplishment of the 
plaintiff's purpose would be most dis- 
advantageous to the company and the 
public it serves." 

Several protective committees have 
previously been appointed in the inter- 
ests of bondholders, but no interest has 
been defaulted on the company's indebt- 
edness. The Board of Aldermen, as 
noted from time to time in these pages, 
has under consideration plans for a re- 
settlement of the franchises under 
which the company operates. 

Better Outlook for Petaluma & Santa Rosa Line 

Despite Strike and Passenger Traffic Loss, $150,000 of Floating Debt 
Was Paid by the Company in 1916 

Abandonment Prevented 

Kentucky Court Says Company Must 
First Prove That It Cannot Operate 
Except at a Loss 

The Southern Traction Company, 
Bowling Green, Ky., will not be per- 
mitted to carry out its plan of selling 
its property to be scrapped for junk, 
for the Kentucky Court of Appeals has 
affirmed the finding of the lower court. 
Meanwhile differences between the rail- 
way and the company from which it 
purchased power have been composed, 
a suit for receivership brought by the 
city and county has been filed away and 
service resumed. Under the decisions 
of the courts the railway will be re- 
quired to show that it is losing money 
before it can scrap its lines and dis- 
continue service. The Court of Appeals 

How the Court Decided 

"We do not consider or determine the 
question whether under any circum- 
stances an electric railway that has ob- 
tained a franchise may, in opposition to 
the will of the municipality from which 
the franchise was obtained, abandon its 
line of road and remove its rails, poles, 
cars and other equipment, but we are 
agreed that in any event before a com- 
mon carrier should be permitted to do 
this it should be made plain that it can- 
not operate except at a loss." 

The Court of Appeals concurred in 
the opinion of the lower court, which 
held that if the bondholders and stock- 
holders, who are identical, do not desire 
a foreclosure and a sale to determine 
whether a purchaser can be had, they 
must continue operating. If they fail 
it might become proper and necessary 
for the court to take control through 
a receiver and operate the property 
until it could be ascertained whether it 
could be continued as a going concern. 

Conditions more nearly normal ex- 
isted in 1916 in the territory served by 
the Petaluma & Santa Rosa Railway, 
Petaluma, Cal., as far as the income 
from production was concerned. The 
prices prevailing were high enough to 
offset a shortage in production. This en- 
abled the producers to recover partially 
from the losses suffered in the two years 
previous and generally improved busi- 
ness conditions in the territory, with a 
natural indirect effect on the earnings 
of the railway. The decrease in the 
amount of production of many com- 
modities, however, made a correspond- 
ing decrease in tonnage for the railway 
without any direct benefit from the high 
prices obtaining. 

1916 1915 
Gross earnings . . . .$273,534.19 $283,047.63 
Operating exp 196,885.61 201,150.07 

Surplus $15, 046.05 $19 ,534.05 

Net earnings . $76,648.58 ~$81, 897.56 

Fixed charges 61,602.53 62,362.99 

Railway passen- 
gers 619,729 69 1,61 1 

Steamer passen- 
gers 2,826 6.020 

Railway treight 

(tons) 67,987 64,061 

Steamer freight 

(tons) 89,464 87,615 

Note — Operation was charged in 1916 
with $10,934 on account of depreciation and 
compensation insurance, while no charge 
was made for these items in previous years. 

Both steamers of the company were 
tied up between June 1 and July 20, at 
the busiest time of the year, on account 
of a general strike of bay and river 
steamboat firemen and deckhands. The 
company maintained its service during 
the strike, practically without inter- 
ruption and without any appreciable 
loss of patronage, and resumed the 
operation of its steamers without pay- 
ing any increase in wages. While the 
entire decrease of $9,500 in gross earn- 
ings is probably attributable to the 
strike, the company suffered practically 
no net loss on account of it. 

The reduction in operating expenses 
for the year amounted to $15,200, as 
shown by the accompanying compara- 
tive statement of earnings and expenses, 
with charges for depreciation and com- 
pensation insurance deducted in 1916 
and not in previous years. About 
$8,500 of this amount is accounted for 
by the elimination of the expense of 
operating the steamers during the 

The passenger earnings decreased 
$8,692 for the year. The decrease in 
1915 was over $10,000. Up to 1915 the 
passenger earnings show a consistent 
increase, and it is difficult to satisfac- 
torily account for such a marked de- 
crease in such a short time. There are 
several conditions which have probably 
contributed to it, the principal one be- 
ing the increase in the use of automo- 
biles, a great number having been sold 
throughout the territory during 1915 
and 1916. 

Notwithstanding the decrease in pas- 

senger earnings and the strike of the 
steamer deckhands and firemen, $15,000 
was paid on the company's floating debt 
during the year. The amount of cash 
available for meeting current obliga- 
tions was about $3,000 more at the close 
of the year than at the close of 1915. 

As to the outlook, the annual report 
states that there seems to be no reason 
to doubt that the earnings will easily 
meet operating expenses and fixed 
charges in 1917. Under normal condi- 
tions and any reasonable increase in 
rates, which will be applied for, a sub- 
stantial increase in the surplus should 
be realized. 

Municipal Railway Earned 
$7,000,000 in Five Years 

The San Francisco (Cal.) Municipal 
Railway system has earned $7,039,999 
since the beginning of operations, ac- 
cording to a statement issued recently 
by the Board of Public Works. On Dec. 
28, 1917, the road had been in operation 
five years. The statement which has 
been made public is only inclusive of 

Of the $7,039,999 earned there have 
been disbursements amounting to 
$5,193,084, with the balance in the de- 
preciation and various other funds. Of 
the depreciation fund $547,643 has been 
invested in bonds and there is a cash 
credit of $533,803. Of this amount con- 
tracts for future extensions totaling 
$454,857 have been pledged by the 
Board of Supervisors, leaving the actual 
cash balance of $78,946 in the Municipal 
Street Railway fund. 

New Toledo Bonds Offer to Pay 

Normal Income Tax 

On Jan. 7 Harris, Forbes & Com- 
pany and the National City Company, 
New York, N. Y., announced a pub- 
lic offering of $10,500,000 of two-year 7 
per cent coupon bonds of the Toledo 
Traction, Light & Power Company, To- 
ledo, Ohio, at 98V2 and interest to yield 
7.82 per cent. The bonds are a first 
lien and secured through deposit of se- 
curities, on the electric light and power 
and street railway business of Toledo. 
Earnings of the controlled operating 
properties at present are more than 
double the interest charges on the new 

With respect to tax provisions, the 
company agrees to pay any normal fed- 
eral income tax which it may lawfully 
pay at the source to an amount not ex- 
ceeding 4 per cent. The company also 
agrees to refund, through the Penn- 
sylvania Company for Insurance on 
Lives & Granting Annuities, Philadel- 
phia, the Pennsylvania 4 mills tax to 
holders of these bonds residing in that 

Five years ago the Toledo Traction, 
Light & Power Company sold $7,500,000 
five-year 6 per cent first lien collateral 

January 12, 1918 



bonds due on Feb. 1 next. The bonds 
were sold at 100 and interest to yield 
(i per cent. The new bonds to take 
their place will yield more than 1 per 
cent additional and at the same time 
be secured by collateral $4,000,000 in 
excess of the collateral that has secured 
the five-year 6 per cent bonds. In ad- 
dition to the $7,500,000 bonds to be 
taken up there will be some additional 
bonds, making $8,699,000 maturing 
bonds that will be retired. 

Utility Issues Investment Booklet 

Utility properties managed by H. M. 
Byllesby & Company, Chicago, 111., are 
distributing a sixteen-page investment 
booklet to 200,000 electric and gas cus- 
tomers. The booklet points out the 
difference between speculation and in- 
vestment and describes the advantages 
of the preferred stocks of successful 
utility organizations. The title is "The 
Straight Road to Financial Independ- 
ence." It was written by W. H. Hodge, 
manager of the publicity department 
of H. M. Byllesby & Company. 

News Notes 

Mount Vernon (111.) Line Wrecked. 

— According to official information just 
now available, the City Railway, Mount 
Vernon, 111., was wrecked and sold by 
the receiver in 1917. The Hyman- 
Michals Company, Chicago, purchased 
the material. 

Receiver for Abilene. — W. G. Swen- 
son was appointed near the end of 1917 
as receiver for the Abilene (Tex.) 
Street Railway. This action was taken 
on the petition of bondholders. The 
outstanding capital stock of the com- 
pany is $25,000, and the funded debt 

Receiver for Defunct Line. — A re- 
ceiver was appointed late in 1917 for 
the St. Louis, Lakewood & Grant Park 
Railroad, St. Louis, Mo. This line 
has not been in operation since the 
floods of 1915. A receiver was sought 
by the bondholders in order to sell 
whatever property still remains. 

Sacramento Line Abandoned. — The 
property of the Sacramento Valley 
Electric Railway, Dixon, Cal., was sold 
at foreclosure in 1917, without the ap- 
pointment of a receiver, and the line 
was abandoned. The right-of-way, 
roadbed, bridges, fences and ballast for 
12 miles of track are for sale. 

Chicago City Dividend Action. — The 
trustees of the Chicago City & Con- 
necting Railways have declared a semi- 
annual dividend of IV2 per cent on the 
preferred stock, which makes the total 
declaration 3 per cent for the twelve 
months' period. It has also been voted 
to retire $250,000 of the 5 per cent 
bonds and pay $50,000 of floating debt. 

Satisfactory Adjustment Made. — The 
Chickasha (Okla.) Street Railway has 
made a satisfactory adjustment with 
the State Board of Equalization to se- 
cure a fair valuation of the property. 
Some time ago the Electric Railway 
Journal published an item to the effect 
that this company intended to suspend 
operation unless such an adjustment 
was made. 

Missouri Company Voluntarily Stops 
Operation. — The owners of the Mexico 
Investment & Construction Company, 
Mexico, Mo., late in 1917 decided to 
abandon operation of the property, 
after a voluntary petition for permission 
to cease operation because of its un- 
profitableness. Dismantlement was to 
begin at once, and the material was to 
be offered for sale. 

Waycross Property Being Scrapped. 
— The foreclosed property of the Way- 
cross Street & Suburban Railway was 
resold late in 1917 to the Southern 
Equipment Company, Atlanta, Ga., for 
$30,000, and dismantlement was be- 
gun. The foreclosure sale of the prop- 
erty to the Waycross Savings & Trust 
Company was noted in the Electric 
Railway Journal of June 23. 

Receiver's Certificates for the Bay 
State. — Judge Morton in the United 
States District Court on Jan. 2 author- 
ized Receiver Donham of the Bay State 
Street Railway to issue $378,987 of re- 
ceiver's certificates to pay bond interest 
due ok Jan. 1. The receiver asked for 
$706,035. The company had $355,000 
on hand Jan. 1 of which $200,000 must 
be reserved for working capital. 

New Key Route Bond Issue. — The 
California Railroad Commission has 
made an order authorizing the San 
Francisco-Oakland Terminal Railways 
to issue its 6 per cent demand notes 
for $218,459 and to issue and pledge 
for their payment $337,000 of general 
lien bonds, under the company's general 
lien mortgage. The notes and bonds 
are to be issued to banks in lieu of 
notes and bonds now held by them. 

New Capital Issues Proposed. — The 
Murphysboro & Southern Illinois Rail- 
way, Murphysboro, 111., has applied to 
the Illinois Public Utilities Commission 
for authority to issue $63,000 of stock 
and $250,000 of bonds. The company 
now has 8 miles of electric railway in 
operation between Murphysboro and 
Carbondale and the new capital is de- 
sired to extend the line from Carbon- 
dale to Carterville or Herrin, thus 
reaching the coal fields of Williamson 

Suit to Foreclose Begun. — The Mer- 
cantile Trust Company, San Francisco, 
Cal., which has been operating the 
Fresno (Cal.) Interurban Railway, filed 
complaint on Dec. 28 looking toward the 
foreclosure of the trust deed covering 
all the property of the company. The 
trust deed was given in September, 
1914, to secure a bonded indebtedness 
of $250,000. According to the com- 
plaint filed by the trustee, interest at 
6 per cent payable semi-annually has 
not been paid since March, 1916. 

New Vice-Presidents for American 
Water Works & Electric Company. — At 

the regular meeting of the board of di- 
rectors of the American Water Works 
& Electric Company, Inc., J. H. Purdy 
and Harry E. Towle were elected vice- 
presidents of the company. Stuart H. 
Patterson's resignation as vice-presi- 
dent was accepted to take effect Feb. 1 
next. As noted in the Electric Rail- 
way Journal of Dec. 8, Mr. Patterson 
has been elected comptroller of the 
Guaranty Trust Company, New York. 

Bondholders Agree to an Extension. 
— -More than 85 per cent of the bond- 
holders of the Barre & Montpelier 
Traction Company, Montpelier, Vt.,, 
have agreed to an extension of their 
holdings, and it is anticipated that the 
balance will consent in the near future. 
For this reason, it is said, there seems 
to be no likelihood of the appointment 
of a receiver. An application to the 
court, noted in the Electric Railway 
Journal of Nov. 17, was followed by 
efforts to effect a readjustment of the 
finances of the company. 

Common Dividend Passed. — The Pa- 
cific Gas & Electric Company, San 
Francisco, Cal., with an authorized cap- 
ital of $100,000,000 and nearly $66,000,- 
000 common stock in the hands of the 
public or owned by subsidiary com- 
panies, has passed its dividend on the 
common stock. For eleven months to 
Nov. 30 the balance after all charges 
and the preferred dividend allowances 
was only $1,569,068, against $2,340,568 
for the eleven months of 1916. This 
was not nearly sufficient to meet the 
dividend on the common. 

Move to Lift Receivership. — The 
directors and the stockholders of the 
Southern Cambria Railway, Johnstown, 
Pa., have voted favorably upon an ad- 
ditional issue of bonds of $100,000 to. 
make settlement for damage claims of 
August, 1916, if they are accepted and 
the issue is approved by the Public 
Service Commission. It is said to be 
expected that the claims will be set- 
tled in this manner. The receivership 
of the company, noted in the Electric 
Railway Journal of Feb. 24, has been 
continued until June 1, 1918, to permit 
such a settlement. 

Orleans-Kenner Sale Jan. 15. — Will- 
iam C. Dufour, special master, will sell 
the property of the Orleans-Kenner 
Electric Railway, New Orleans, La., on 
Jan. 15 at New Orleans, under fore- 
closure of the mortgage dated April 13, 
1914. The property will be disposed of 
subject to all taxes due and unpaid, 
assessments on liens prior to the lien of 
the first mortgage, the purchaser to as- 
sume all debts, obligations and liabili- 
ties of the receiver. The court reserves 
the right of exacting payment in cash 
of a sufficient sum to meet and retire 
all obligations of the receiver and all 
costs and expenses of the receivership. 
The property was offered for sale in 
September, but no bids were received. 

Richmond Line Suspends Operation. — 
The Richmond & Chesapeake Bay Rail- 
way, running from Richmond to Ash- 
land, Va., 14.8 miles, has ceased to oper- 
ate. The attorney representing the con- 
trolling interest in the property 
obtained from the State Corporation 



Vol. 51, No. 2 

Commission an authorization for the 
suspension of business. The road was 
opened in 1907, and it was intended to 
continue construction to Washington, 
!>. C. The bonds are said to be held 
by Gould interests, which own the road. 
It was suggested that the Virginia 
Railway & Power Company take over 
the property in order to furnish trans- 
portation to suburban residents who 
were only partly supplied by other 
means, but the company did not take 
any action on the proposition. 

New Rochester & Syracuse Mortgage 
Filed. — The Rochester & Syracuse Rail- 
way, formed as successor to the Roches- 
ter, Syracuse & Eastern Railroad, has 
filed for record its first mortgage to the 
Trust Company of Onondaga at Syra- 
cuse, as trustee, to secure an authorized 
issue of not to exceed $5,000,000 of 
first mortgage 5 per cent gold bonds 
dated May 1, 1917, and due May 1, 
1957. Under the terms of the plan for 
the reorganization of the company, to 
which reference has been made pre- 
viously in the Electric Railway 
Journal, $2,500,000 of the bonds are 
issuable forthwith in partial exchange 
for old first mortgage bonds, $500,000 
are also issuable at once for improve- 
ments, and $2,000,000 are reserved for 
future improvements, additions, exten- 
sions, etc. 

Offer for Rails of "Dan Patch" Cut- 
Off.— President C. T. Jaffray of the 
First & Security National Bank, Minne- 
apolis, who is chairman of the bond- 
holders' committee which recently pur- 
chased the 14-mile cut-off of the "Dan 

Patch" line under foreclosure, received 
a telegram on Jan. 4 from R. B. March- 
and of J. G. White & Company, New 
York, N. Y., another member of the 
committee, offering a price of $75 a ton 
f.o.b. at an Atlantic port for the rails 
of this section. The remaining part of 
the company's 56-mile system was not 
bid in at the recent sale and is still 
being operated by the receiver. Mr. 
Jaffray, Mr. Marchand and A. H. Jack- 
son of the General Electric Company 
formed the bondholders' committee 
which bought the cut-off. Mr. Jaffray 
wants, if possible, to keep the line in 
operation for the benefit of the city of 

Seven Pines Line Sold to Ambassador 
YVillard. — Under a decree of the law 
and equity court on Dec. 17, Joseph E. 
Willard, ambassador to Spain, acquired 
from the Richmond & Rappahannock 
River Railway its line between Twenty- 
ninth and P Streets, Richmond, and 
Seven Pines. Mr. Willard is the prin- 
cipal stockholder and the only bond- 
holder of the Richmond & Rappahan- 
nock River Railway, the receivership of 
which was noted in the Electric Rail- 
way Journal of Nov. 17. The Seven 
Pines lines, it is said, will be operated 
as a separate and distinct corporation, 
the Richmond & Seven Pines Railway 
having been chartered for this purpose. 
The remaining 16.3 mile section is 
headed toward dismantlement. Accord- 
ing to the latest information the State 
Corporation Commission has granted 
the petition of the Richmond & Rappa- 
hannock Railway for dissolution, but 

the sale of the equipment is to be held 
up until Director of Railroads William 
G. McAdoo decides upon the utility of 
the line for public or war purposes. 
Service has been discontinued on the 
unsold part of the property. 

Reasons lor Plymouth & Shelby Re- 
ceivership. — A change in mileage has 
taken place in connection with the 
Sandusky, Norwalk & Mansfield Rail- 
way and the Plymouth & Shelby Trac- 
tion Company, which explains the re- 
cent receivership of the latter line. 
The change is the result of a lawsuit 
which was begun against the receiver 
of the Sandusky, Norwalk & Mansfield 
Electric Railway in 1913, when the 
Plymouth & Shelby Traction Company 
sued for rental from the receiver. The 
receiver, however, contended that at 
least 1 mile of the track belonged to 
the Sandusky, Norwalk & Mansfield 
Railway, and he questioned the owner- 
ship of the other 6.97 miles of track 
supposed to be part of the Plymouth & 
Shelby Traction Company. In October, 
1917, the United States District Court 
finally disposed of the case and con- 
veyed the 1 mile of track to the San- 
dusky company. Moreover, the court 
held that the Plymouth & Shelby Trac- 
tion Company was a fraudulent corpo- 
ration and placed the property in the 
hands of the receiver of the Sandusky 
line. The bondholders of the Plymouth 
& Shelby Traction Company will have 
to show they were innocent purchasers 
of bonds, and all who are not found to 
be such will have their bonds wiped out 
by the court. 

Electric Railway Monthly Earnings 


Operating Operating Operating Fixed Net 

Period Revenue Expenses Income Charges Income 

lm . Nov '17 $181,128 *?135,239 $45,889 $35,619 $10,270 

1 16 173,987 ♦115,884 58,103 35,819 22,284 

10" " '17 1,819,988 *1, 301, 182 518,806 357,279 161.527 

1 16 1,711,658 *1, 137, 113 574,545 362,313 212,232 


1 " 

12 " 
•1 2 " 


I " 
■12 " 
■12 " 



















lm., Nov.. '17 $1,822,283 *$1,X86,101 $636, 1S2 $466,230 $1 69,952 

1 16 1,510,666 *S60,290 650,376 426,081 224,295 

12" " '17 19,460,726 *11,919,695 7,541,031 5,255,160 2,285,871 

12" " '16 16.705,21.8 *9. 064, OSS 7,641,130 5,020,444 2,620.686 


Operating Operating Operating Fixed 

Period Revenue Expenses Income Charges 

lm., Nov., '17 $71,307 *$57,327 $13,980 $15,457 

1 " " '16 61,871 *47,460 14,411 15,246 

12 " " '17 899,313 *672,771 226,542 186,425 

12 16 798,318 ♦543,474 254,844 188,312 



1 " 
I 2 " 
12 " 


Nov., '17 $212,264 *$134,094 $78,170 $40,628 

'16 199.981 *120,520 79,461 42.314 

'17 2,452,118 *1, 577, 178 874,940 492,061 

'16 2,370,491 *1, 445, 906 924,585 509,791 





1 " 
1 1 " 
1 1 " 









lm., Nov., 

1 " 
II " 
II " 








lm, Nov., '17 $788,828 *$698,131 

1 " " '16 759,716 *636,392 

11 17 9,185,515 7,293,993 

11 16 8,758.236 ♦6,294,702 

$90,697 $109,825 t $ 3 . 3 2 7 
123,324 96.488 :j:49,557 
1,891,522 1,098,820 £991,276 
2.463,534 1,079,33711,633.225 


lm., Nov., '17 $243,036 ni70, 298 $72,638 $69,843 $2,795 

1 16 229. 9S6 *154,531 75,455 69.058 6,397 

1 2 1 7 3.07S.224 ♦2,036,623 1,041.601 816.409 225,192 

1 2 16 2,845,347 ♦1.751,043 1,0947304 808,838 285,466 


lm., Nov., '17 $525,811 ♦$324,600 $201,211 $177,512 $23,699 

1 16 479,367 ^242, 563 236,804 182,115 54,689 

12 17 5,942.084 ♦3.354.412 2,587.672 2,156,099 431,573 

12" " '16 5,453,455 4 3, 035, 833 2,417,622 2,177,998 239,624 


lm., Nov., '17 $18,669 ^$24,472 f$5,803 $2,633 tt$S,410 

1 16 14,063 17,211 f-3,148 2,018 tt5,138 

II " " '17 228,459 ♦256,773 f2S,314 24,630 tt52,631 

11" " '16 210,971 ^226, 143 U5.172 20,014 t-t34.89S 

♦Includes taxes. fDeficit. {Includes non-operating income. interest on notes held by the New York, New Haven & Hartford 
SExcludes interest on bonds of the company, paid by the Railroad not credited to income of that company. 
.New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad under guarantee, also 

January 12, 1918 



Through Service Case Decided 

Public Service Commission Refuses to 
Order Restoration of Through Serv- 
ice by Foreign Cars 

Restoration of through service by 
foreign cars between Lexington and 
Harvard Square, Cambridge, Mass., 
was recently petitioned the Massa- 
chusetts Public Service Commission by 
citizens of Lexington. The service 
complained of is furnished by the Mid- 
dlesex & Boston Street Railway, oper- 
ating between Lexington and Arling- 
ton Heights and by the Boston Ele- 
vated Railway between the latter point 
and Harvard Square, where transfer 
to Boston is made via the Cambridge 

Formerly the cars operated by the 
Middlesex & Boston Street Railway 
were operated over the Boston com- 
pany's tracks to Harvard Square on a 
thirty-minute headway. In June, 1916, 
through service was discontinued. The 
Middlesex & Boston Street Railway cars 
are now operated to Arlington Heights 
only so that Lexington passengers go- 
ing to or from Boston are compelled to 
change cars at the former point. 

The Boston Elevated Railway oper- 
ates surface cars on a six-minute head- 
way between Arlington Heights and 
Harvard Square, and the Middlesex 
& Boston Street Railway on a thirty- 
minute headway during normal hours, 
with rush-hour service on fifteen- 
minute time. The petitioners com- 
plained that the transfer causes them 
much inconvenience and delay, espe- 
cially when outward bound from Bos- 
ton to Lexington. 

Large Cars and Trailers Necessary 

At the hearing the Boston Ele- 
vated Railway presented evidence that 
the line from Arlington Heights to 
Harvard Square, especially between the 
latter point and Arlington Center, has 
a very heavy traffic and contended that 
the present facilities for handling sur- 
face car traffic at Harvard Square were 
inadequate and that, in order to util- 
ize present car and track facilities most 
efficiently, large car and trailer oper- 
ation was necessary. Under the old 
arrangement the lack of carrying 
capacity and the smaller entrances and 
exits of the cars of the Middlesex & 
Boston Street Railway caused delay in 
loading which retarded traffic generally 
on the line. 

Commission Concedes Objections 

The commission has issued a deci- 
sion, in which it concedes these objec- 
tions to be valid. It points out that if 
either company had sufficient or suit- 
able cars to operate on the joint route, 
these objections would be of less 
weight; but as neither company has such 
cars that it can divert to this use, it 
follows that the part of the complaint 

relating to through service must be 
dismissed. Incidental to the discus- 
sion of through service there was much 
complaint regarding the inconvenience 
of transfer facilities at Arlington 
Heights, the terminus of each system. 
The commission recommends that as 
soon as financial conditions warrant, a 
waiting station be constructed with 
platform arranged between tracks of 
the two companies, to facilitate trans- 
fer under shelter. 

Diagram of Detroit Speed 

The Detroit (Mich.) United Railway 
published in Electric Railway Service 
recently the accompanying diagram, 
showing the average rate of speed of 
Detroit city passenger cars as it has 
been in the past, commencing with the 
year 1910 down to the present time 
and estimated from 1917 to 1925 based 
on past experience. In Detroit skip- 
stop operation has not increased the 
speed of the cars as has been stated 

Massachusetts Governor 

Governor McCall of Massachusetts 
Urges Equitable Rates of Fare for 
Electric Railways 

A rate of fare which will pay the 
fair cost of rendering good service was 
advocated by Governor McCall of Mass- 
achusetts in his inaugural address. In 
referring to transportation problems, 
he said: 

"I urge upon you (the Legislature of 
1918) the importance of improving the 
efficiency of the transportation systems 
of the commonwealth. The national 
government is now operating the steam 
railroads of the country, and for the 
present they are practically taken from 
the field of our consideration. Our 
electric railway systems are in a de- 
plorable condition, both with regard to 
their financial strength, and, as to the 
most of them, with regard to the char- 
acter of the service they render the pub- 

"The State should require that these 
corporations be honestly and economi- 
cally managed, and that they provide 
good accommodations for their patrons 
and do away with the excessive crowd- 
ing of cars. The companies should, 
however, be permitted to receive for this 


estimated ran years mn id &zs inclusive based on average moM isio m isi6 


so often; the saving has been wholly 
in reducing the number of unnecessary 

From a speed of something more than 
9% m.p.h. in Detroit in 1910 the re- 
duction has been gradual, except when 
conditions in 1914 permitted a slight 
improvement. Since then the decline 
has been steady until at the present 
time the average is less than 8% m.p.h. 
The abolition of skip-stop operation will 
make the decline even more marked in 
the years to come if Detroit continues 
to grow. The company asks whether 
the outlook is pleasing to those who 
travel over its lines for any consider- 
able distance. 

service a late of fare which would pay 
the fair cost of rendering such service. 
Our people do not desire transportation 
wholly or in part free, but they desire 
and should receive good service and at 
its fair cost. The chief elements of 
cost of such service are reasonable 
wages, maintenance of the property, 
and a fair return upon actual invest- 
ment, and not upon inflated values. 

"I recommend legislation designed to 
enable our electric railways to be effi- 
cient servants of the public. If the 
Public Service Commission does not 
possess sufficient authority in the prem- 
ises I recommend that additional au- 
thority be granted to that body." 



Vol. 51, No. Z 

Company Paper 

San Diego Electric Railway States What 
It Hopes to Accomplish with 
Its New Paper 

Brief mention was made in the Elec- 
tric Railway Journal of Jan. 5, page 
62, of the establishment of the San 
Diego Electric Railway News. The 
company has stated its aim in the first 
issue of the paper as follows: 

"The purpose of this little paper is 
to create friendship between the public 
and the street car system. Its policy is 
to tell people the truth about railway 
operation in order that they may ac- 
quire a better knowledge of the subject 
and consequently be better able to ex- 
ercise their judgment in railway mat- 
ters when the same shall be necessary. 
It is hoped through this publication to 
promote a closer relationship between 
the traveling public and the electric 
railway system. 

Columns Open to the Purlic 

"The San Diego Electric Railway 
News will print from time to time mat- 
ters of interest in connection with the 
transportation of passengers not only 
in San Diego, but in other communities 
in the United States and in foreign 
countries as well. 

"The columns of the paper will be 

kept open to the public as far as pos- 
sible. The editor will be glad to receive 
signed letters containing suggestions 
regarding service, etc. After such let- 
ters have been referred to the proper 
department head for consideration, if 
they are of sufficient public interest, 
they will be published with the com- 
pany's statement in reply. 

Employees Human — Like Praise 

"The San Diego Electric Railway 
aims to give satisfactory service to its 
patrons and to have its employees both 
courteous and attentive to the needs of 
the public. Its officials are glad to be 
informed of any defect in the service 
or any discourtesy or inattention on the 
part of its employees. Any complaints 
along these lines should be sent to the 
editor of the San Diego Electric Rail- 
way News where they will be promptly 
taken care of. At the same time, it is 
hoped that the public will just as 
readily write to the editor when they 
think a conductor or motorman or any 
other employee is deserving of praise 
for attention to his duties and his atti- 
tude toward the patrons of the com- 

"This little paper will be published 
once a month and distributed in the 
company's cars as long as the edition 


Six-Cent Fare for Portland 

Commission Considers Existing Rates 
Confiscatory — Public Ownership 
Would Not Help 

The Portland Railway, Light & Pow- 
er Company was granted a 6-cent fare 
in a decision handed down by the Public 
Service Commission of Oregon on Jan. 
5. The new rates are effective from 
Jan. 15. They are as follows: Cash 
fares, 6 cents. Unlimited tickets five 
for 30 cents to be sold by all conduct- 
ors. Unlimited book tickets of fifty to 
be sold for $2.75. Limited tickets for 
school children 4 cents each. All tick- 
ets and cash fares are to include trans- 
fer privileges. In its ruling the com- 
mission says: 

"It is evident to the commission that 
if the company be denied relief it must 
inevitably go into the hands of a receiv- 
er, for on the interurban lines the oper- 
ating expenses equal the receipts, and 
the earnings of the light and power de- 
partment are insufficient to meet the 
bond interest of the whole system or 
even to make a fair return on the in- 
vestment in that branch of the utility." 

The commission holds that relief is 
absolutely necessary because since 1912 
the company has encountered financial 
stringencies, suffered from an enormous 
increase in the number of private auto- 
mobiles, had to meet jitney competition 
and been confronted with war prices, a 
combination of adverse conditions with 
which no industry unable to protect it- 
self by an increase of prices could pos- 
sibly contend. 

Public Ownership Would Not Help 

The commission holds that public 
ownership would not solve the problem 
because the cost of service would not be 
less than now and because if the city 
undertook to take over the property it 
would be required to pay probably 25 
per cent more than the commission val- 
uation, and the money for such purpose 
could not be secured for less than 6 per 
cent, so that the present interest charge 
would not be reduced. 

The decision also holds that in spite 
of the fact that the company for the 
last two months has attempted to inau- 
gurate all the economies suggested in 
the commission's former decision refus- 
ing an increase in fare relief sufficient 

Freight Plan Discussed 

Matter of Handling Freight on Chicago 
Surface and Elevated Lines Before 
Council Committee 

The proposed plan to allow the sur- 
face and the elevated railways operat- 
ing in Chicago, 111., to carry freight 
was discussed on Jan. 4 before the sub- 
committee of the City Council on local 
transportation. The Aldermen favored 
the proposition, except that such a plan 
might interfere with the carrying of 

John E. Wilkie, assistant to the pres- 
ident of the Chicago Surface Lines, is 
reported to have said: 

"We would have to construct ele- 
vators and loading stations and cer- 
tainly would have to look on the propo- 
sition as a permanent one and not a 
war measure, because it would entail 
the expenditure of a lot of capital." 

G. T. Seely, assistant general man- 
ager of the Chicago Elevated Railways, 
agreed with Mr. Wilkie. He said: 

"Before this could be carried out a 
plan should be made for developing it on 
a big scale. It would not help matters 
simply to adopt it as a war measure. 
The investment must be considered." 

Most of the members of the sub-com- 
mittee declared that they would sanc- 
tion the plan if it provided for carrying 
freight after the usual hours. The rep- 
resentatives of the roads will go into the 
matter and report back to the sub-com- 
mittee before any further action is 

Pittsburgh Fare Answer 

The Pittsburgh (Pa.) Railways on 
Jan. 3 filed with the Public Service 
Commission an answer to the complaint 
of the city of Pittsburgh against the 
proposed increase in fares from 5 to 
5V2 and 6 cents. The company declares 
the proposed increase is absolutely 
necessary if it is to operate under its 
present organization. 

It is hinted in answer that unless the 
increase is allowed the company will 
break up into separate units repre- 
sented by various underlying companies, 
thus depriving the public of benefits in- 
cident to operating the lines as a unit. 
Intense labor competition due to the 
war, the high cost of materials, and 
the refusal of trainmen to operate 
trailers and trippers are among the 
reasons set forth urging more fare. 

It is maintained that the service is 
reasonably adequate under existing 
conditions. The Public Service Com- 
mission will fix a date for a hearing on 
the city's complaint. The increase is 
to become operative on Jan. 22. 

to prevent insolvency would not be 
forthcoming. The commission also 
points out that the law forbids the es- 
tablishment of rates whose effect would 
be confiscatory of the property of a util- 
ity and that "it has been shown to the 
satisfaction of the commission that the 
existing rates with the present cost of 
operation are in fact confiscatory." 

January 12, 1918 



Hearing on Indianapolis-Cincinnati Fares 

Indiana Commission Takes Under Advisement Request for a Two and 

One-Half Cent Rate 

The preliminary hearing on the peti- 
tion of the Indianapolis & Cincinnati 
Traction Company for a 2% -cent rate 
of fare was heard before the Public 
Service Commission of Indiana on Jan. 
3. The principal argument hinged on 
the question as to whether the 2-cent 
railroad passenger fare law of the 
State applied to the interurban rail- 

President Henry Represents 
the Company 

Charles L. Henry presented the case 
of the company. His argument was 
based on three principal points. He 
contended that if the 2-cent fare law, 
as applied to the interurban roads, was 
shown to be confiscatory, there should 
be relief under the Constitution for the 
interurbans. legardiess of the 2-cent 
fort law; that many decisions of courts 
and opinions of attorney-generals and 
rulings of the public service commission 
and the former railroad commission 
showed that the trend of opinion gen- 
erally on these authorities was to the 
conclusion that the 2-cent fare law did 
not apply to interurbans, and that the 
Public Service Commission act, and its 
later interpretation, implied, at least, 
that the law was not applicable to the 
interurban roads, and, therefore, that 
the interurbans might legally secure 
through the commission increased fares 
for passenger service. 

City Attorney Protests 

R. W. Harrison, city attorney of 
Shelbyville, one of the principal towns 
on the lines of the company, argued 
that the Indiana courts had uniformly 
held that statutes may not be repealed 
by implication. He pointed to the fact 
that the Legislature of 1917, which 
amended the 2-cent fare law, did not 
see fit to amend it so as to make the 
interurbans specifically exempt from its 
provisions. He stated that the Legisla- 
tures had felt that the interurbans, by 
competition, would be kept within the 
2-cent limit, and that the law intended 
throughout that the interurban roads 
should not exceed the 2-cent-a-mile 

Opposition Lacks Support 

Mr. Henry has received a communi- 
cation from the Chamber of Commerce 
of Shelbyville that they were not in 
sympathy with the attitude of the city 
in opposing the petition of the company, 
and that they believed the interurban 
railways were entitled to receive in- 
creases in the rates of fare for both 
passenger and freight service. 

Case Under Advisement 

The Public Service Commission an- 
nounced at the conclusion of the argu- 
ment that it would take the case under 
advisement, and if it decided that it had 
jurisdiction in the matter would appoint 
a time within a few days to hear the 
evidence. On Jan. 7 the commission 

forwarded a communication to the com- 
pany, stating that it had been unable 
to reach a decision in regard to its 
jurisdiction, but appointed Jan. 9 as the 
time when a hearing would be held and 
the attitude of the commission in the 
case made known. 

News Notes 

Straight Fare for Danville. — The 

Danville Street Railway & Light Com- 
pany, Danville, 111., a subsidiary of the 
Illinois Traction System, is said to be 
preparing to petition the Public Util- 
ities Commission of Illinois for per- 
mission to abolish the sale of eleven 
tickets for 50 cents and to charge in- 
stead a straight 5-cent fare. 

"Trolley Weal" to Issue Quarterly. — 
In keeping with the national movement 
for conservation of material and labor, 
the Trolley Weal, which is published in 
the interests of the employees of the 
Public Service Corporation of New Jer- 
sey, will, until further notice, be issued 
quarterly instead of monthly. The 
next issue of the Trolley Weal will ap- 
pear in March. 

Near-Side Stops Desired. — Council- 
man Meyers has prepared a resolution 
to be introduced in the Council of 
Cleveland, Ohio, which will require all 
cars to stop on the near side at cross- 
ings. At the present time they stop 
on the near side at all safety zones and 
at crosstown lines. His desire is to 
make this custom uniform throughout 
the city. 

Electric Railway Rate Application 
Not Affected. — The Railroad Commis- 
sion of California has decided that 
Government railroad control will not 
affect the applications for rate increases 
which electric railways have filed. The 
news has strengthened electric railway 
securities, and, with the freight busi- 
ness these lines are developing, the 
prospects in this field are much better 
than they have been. 

New Beaver Valley Rates. — The 
Beaver Valley Traction Company, New 
Brighton, Pa., has issued on the thirty 
days' statutory notice a new schedule 
of rates and fares for service in the 
Boroughs of Beaver, West Bridge- 
water, Rochester, Monaca, Freedom, 
Conway, New Brighton, Beaver Falls, 
College Hill and surrounding territory. 
The fares between all points shown in 
the former tariff as 5 cents will here- 
after be 6 cents. A fare zone has been 
added for through passengers from 
Twelfth Street, Conway, to Vanport. 
Cut-rate tickets in books of twenty- 
one for $1 will be discontinued. The 

new 6-cent tickets will be offered in 
strips of ten for 55 cents. The new 
rates are effective from Jan. 26. 

New York Roads Cancel Interchange- 
able Fares. — The Auburn & Syracuse 
Electric Railway; the Buffalo, Lockport 
& Rochester Railway; the New York 
State Railways and the Rochester & 
Syracuse Railroad have all filed with 
the Public Service Commission for the 
Second District of New York rate 
changes which indicate that the rules 
and regulations governing the sale of 
interchangeable coupon ticket books at 
a price of $10 for an aggregate of $12 
worth of transportation will be can- 
celed and their sale discontinued, effec- 
tive from Feb. 1. 

More Snow Equipment Recommend- 
ed. — Because of the practical tie-up of 
a number of surface railways in the 
Bronx, some of which were not opened 
for full service until four days after 
the recent storm, the Public Service 
Commission of the First District has 
sent a letter to Edward A. Maher, Jr., 
vice-president of the Union Railway, 
recommending that that company pur- 
chase six snow plows in order to clear 
its tracks in time of future storms. 
The letter points out that the type of 
snowsweepers used by the company are 
not sufficient or efficient during a heavy 
fall of snow. 

Fare Hearing in New York Goes 
Over. — The hearing before the Public 
Service Commission for the First Dis- 
trict of New York on the applications 
of the Third Avenue Railway, the New 
York Railways, the Brooklyn Heights 
Railroad, the Staten Island Midland 
Railway and the Richmond Light & 
Railroad Company relative to changes 
and advances in rates of fare has been 
postponed until Jan. 21. F. J. H. 
Kracke and Charles Bulkley Hubbell, 
new commissioners appointed recently 
by Governor Whitman, have taken up 
their duties with the commission as the 
successors to William Hayward and H. 
W. Hodge, both in military service. 
Meanwhile they will acquaint them- 
selves with the proceedings so far 
taken with respect to the fare applica- 

I. T. S. Flat Fare Allowed.— The Pub- 
lic Utilities Commission of Illinois on 
Jan. 5 issued an order allowing the Illi- 
nois Traction System to change the ba- 
sis of fares from the 5-cent zone system 
to a 2-cent-a-mile basis on the showing 
of the company in the petition that the 
change would remove discrimination 
and would increase the revenue less 
than one-third of 1 per cent. The ruling 
also allows a 2% -cent cash fare where 
paid on the train by a passenger board- 
ing at an agency station. This is de- 
signed to relieve conductors now over- 
burdened by the collection of cash fares 
and the war tax and to encourage the 
purchase of tickets at stations. The 
company will file the proposed tariffs to 
become effective on Feb. 1. The rea- 
sons for the proposed change were sum-, 
marized in the item "I. T. S. Applies for 
Mileage Basis Fares," which appeared 
in the Electric Railway Journal for 
Oct. 27, page 791. 



Vol. 51, No. 2 

Thomas F. Mullaney has just re- 
signed as chief engineer of the Third 
Avenue Railway, New York, N. Y. 

W. C. Culkins, who has been street 
railway commissioner of Cincinnati, 
Ohio, has been appointed to the office 
of Director of Street Railroads under 
the provisions of the new city charter 
and the new franchise ordinance of the 
Cincinnati Traction Company. 

Henry N. Staats, who resigned on 
Dec. 1 as insurance expert of the Ameri- 
can Electric Railway Association, has 
accepted the position of insurance ex- 
pert of the Associated Building Owners 
of America. Mr. Staats has an office 
in the Monadnock Building, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

Carrie A. Swartz has been appointed 
assistant claim adjuster of the Colum- 
bus Railway, Power & Light Company, 
Columbus, Ohio. Miss Swartz is also 
acting secretary of the American Elec- 
tric Railway Claims Association, the 
secretary and treasurer of which, B. B. 
Davis, died recently. 

H. C. Kaerscher, formerly master 
mechanic of the Elmira Water, Light 
& Railroad Company, Elmira, N. Y., 
has been appointed to succeed Niles 
Persons as assistant master mechanic 
of the New York State Railways, Roch- 
ester lines. The appointment of Mr. 
Persons to Gary, Ind., is noted else- 
where in this department. 

Edward Coy was recently appointed 
engineer of maintenance of way of the 
Chicago, Ottawa & Peoria Railway, 
Ottawa, 111., as noted in the Electric 
Railway Journal of Dec. 22. In the 
item which appeared at that time re- 
viewing Mr. Coy's career the name was 
printed "Troy" through a typograph- 
ical error. 

Walter C. Douse has been appointed 
purchasing agent of the Toronto & York 
Radial Railway, Toronto, Ont., to suc- 
ceed G. K. Hyde. Mr. Douse spent 
nearly five years with the Toronto 
Hydro-Electric system as chief clerk 
and was also connected for almost five 
years with the Toronto (Ont.) Railway 
as assistant purchasing agent. 

Thomas P. Burke, who since August 
last has been supervisor of the railway 
lines of the Public Service Corporation 
of New Jersey between Trenton and 
Newark, has resigned from the com- 
pany. Before that Mr. Burke was 
supervisor of the Middlesex division 
for eleven years. He has been con- 
nected with the Public Service Cor- 
poration and its predecessors for more 
than twenty-three years. 

Carl H. Van Hooven, claim agent of 
. the Manila Electric Railroad & Light 
Company, Manila, P. I., is on a visit 
to the United States. He is calling on 
a number of the representative elec- 
tric railways throughout the country 
to study their methcd> of handling 

claims. Mr. Van Hooven went to 
Manila from St. Paul more than ten 
years ago and began work on the street 
railway there as a motorman. Since 
then he has taken a degree at the uni- 
versity and been admitted to the Bar. 

Niles Persons has resigned as assist- 
ant master mechanic of the New York 
State Railways, Rochester Lines, to ac- 
cept a position as master mechanic of 
the Gary & Interurban Railway. Pre- 
vious to becoming connected with the 
company at Rochester Mr. Persons was 
assistant master mechanic of the United 
Traction Company, Albany, N. Y. He 
has been in railway shop and mainte- 
nance work for the last twelve years, 
starting as apprentice in the armature 
department of the United Traction 

John A. Hillman has resigned as mas- 
ter mechanic of the Dayton (Ohio) 
Street Railway. Mr. Hillman started 
his electric railway career as a helper, 
wiring electric cars for the Cincinnati 
(Ohio) Traction Company. From there 
he went to the Cincinnati, Newport & 
Covington Traction Company and then 
to the Cincinnati, Georgetown & Ports- 
mouth Railroad, Cincinnati. He then 
became connected with the Bullock Elec- 
tric Company, Cincinnati, and later en- 
tered the employ of the Cincinnati Trac- 
tion Company. Mr. Hillman's next 
position was with the Cincinnati Car 
Company, where he was in charge of 
truck repairs. He left the Cincinnati 
Car Company to become connected with 
the Dayton Street Railway. 

John Hayes Smith, consulting engi- 
neer, Milwaukee, Wis., has closed his 
office to accept a position as assistant 
engineer to the Public Service Commis- 
sion of Pennsylvania. Mr. Smith was 
graduated from Cornell University. 
He associated himself with the West- 
inghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Company shortly after graduation and 
remained in the employ of that company 
about six years. He was the first 
manager of the Electric Journal, Pitts- 
burgh. He resigned from that paper 
to become editor of the Electrical Age, 
New York, in which capacity he con- 
tinued for four years. Since that time 
Mr. Smith has been in Milwaukee. For 
two years he was with the Milwaukee 
Electric Railway & Light Company, re- 
signing as commercial engineer to take 
up consulting work. 

N. R. Longfellow has severed his con- 
nections with the Lewiston, Augusta & 
Waterville Street Railway, Lewiston, 
Me., to accept the position of general 
manager of the Waterville, Fairfield & 
Oakland Railway, Waterville, Me. Mr. 
Longfellow is thirty-two years of age. 
At the age of seventeen he entered the 
service of an electric launch manufac- 
turing company in New Jersey. Two 
years later he entered the service of the 
Augusta, Winthrop & Gardiner Rail- 

way, Lewiston, Me., as general repair 
man. In 1910 he was made foreman 
of the repair shops at Augusta, then 
under the management of the Lewis- 
ton, Augusta & Waterville System. In 
1914 he was made general foreman of 
repairs for the entire system with head- 
quarters at Lewiston and has continued 
in that capacity since then. Mr. Long- 
fellow is a man of pleasing personality 
and is exceptionally popular with all 
the employees and the heads of the 

Robert A. Hadden, Joplin, Mo., has 
been appointed assistant manager of the 
Bangor Railway & Electric Company, 
Bangor, Me., succeeding Maurice E. 
McCormick, who resigned to accept the 
position of assistant to Harry Hooper, 
manager of the New Brunswick Power 
Company, St. John, N. B. Mr. Hadden 
was educated in Missouri and engaged 
in electric railway work there. His 
first work in the East was in New 
Jersey, where, as a representative of 
the Cooley & Anderson Company, Ann 
Arbor, Mich., he was engaged under 
the direction of the Public Service Cor- 
poration of New Jersey on valuation 
work. His association with that com- 
pany lasted for several years. In 191(i 
Mr. Hadden was engaged by the Ban- 
gor Railway & Electric Company as an 
appraisal and valuation expert. His 
work was of such high order and his 
services of such value that when the 
vacancy occurred in the office of assis- 
tant manager Mr. Hadden was offered 
the position. After leaving Bangor in 
1916 he went to the Acme Power Com- 
pany in Toledo, Ohio, controlled by 
H. L. Doherty & Company. There he 
had general oversight of electrical con- 
struction work in one of the largest 
electrical plants in the country. 

M. J. Perrin, manager of transporta- 
tion of the San Diego (Cal.) Electric 
Railway, recently completed his thir- 
tieth consecutive year of service with 
the company. One night in December 
last he and about twenty other heads 
of various Spreckels companies and 
departments who have been associated 
with Mr. Perrin during his long con- 
nection with the railway celebrated the 
event in a dinner at the Hotel del Coro- 
nado. Among those present were: 
William Clayton, vice-president and 
managing director of the Spreckles 
Companies; Reed Dilworth, James Mac- 
Mullen, Major C. G. Ross, B. M. War- 
ner, A. Ervast, Claus Spreckels, John 
J. Hernan, E. M. Harris, George 
Holmes, J. Fred Traggardh, Frank Von 
Tesmar, E. L. Phillips, E. J. Burns, 
W. A. Moore, Nat R. Titus, George A. 
Cheney, D. W. Pontius, H. G. Wellman, 
W. R. Saxon, Neil Brown and M. J. 
Perrin. While the majority of the 
guests had been connected with the 
company or associated with Mr. Perrin 
for a shorter period than thirty years, 
there were many personal reminis- 
cences of times dating back to the 
horse-car days. The evening was closed 
with the presentation by Mr. Clayton 
on the part of those present of an 
appropriate token of regard for the 

January 12, 1918 



Changes in Twin City Officers 

New General Manager and New Division Superintendents Appointed by 
the Twin City Rapid Transit Company 

tended the public schools in Minneapolis 
and was graduated from the South 
High School in that city in 1904. He 
then took a course in the Minneapolis 
Business College. For about a year 
after leaving school he was employed 
in a grain office at Duluth. He next 
was secretary to the manager of the 

A number of changes has been an- 
nounced in the personnel of the Twin 
City Rapid Transit Company, Minne- 
apolis, Minn., further strengthening the 
organization of that company. Foster 
Hannaford, for two years superintend- 
ent of the St. Paul lines, has been 
appointed general manager of the 
company, the duties of which office 
have been carried on for six years by 
President Horace Lowry. C. B. Good- 
sell has been appointed superintendent 
of the Minneapolis lines to succeed 
Donald Goodrich, who has enlisted in 
the naval reserve. Austin L. Cunning- 
ham has been appointed superintendent 
of the St. Paul lines to succeed Mr. 
Hannaford. 0. J. Gilcreest has been 
appointed assistant to J. J. Caufield, 
general superintendent. 

Mr. Hannaford 
Foster Hannaford, for two years su- 
perintendent of the St. Paul lines of 
the Twin City Rapid Transit Company, 
has been made general manager of the 
company. Horace Lowry, president of 
the company, has carried on the work 
of this office for six years. After he was 
graduated from the Sheffield Scientific- 
School Mr. Hannaford was for two 
years in the Westinghouse shops at 
East Pittsburgh, did technical work for 
one year abroad and then entered the 
employ of the Illinois Traction Com- 
pany. He became superintendent of 
substations of that company, and then 
chief engineer of the McKinley power 
plant at St. Louis, the largest power 
plant of the Illinois Traction System. 
Later he became operating engineer 

City Lines. Mr. Cunningham has 
worked for the company as dispatcher, 
inspector, chief clerk and supervisor. 

Mr. Gilcreest 

Mr. Gilcreest was born in Gainesville, 
Tex., on Aug. 18, 1886. He was gradu- 
ated from high school in 1905 and was 
graduated from the electrical engineer- 
ing department of the University of 
Texas at Austin in 1909. During the 
summer of 1909 he was with a construc- 
tion crew at Gatesville, Tex. In the fall 



Minneapolis Journal for a year. He 
joined the Twin City lines on April 1, 
1907, as secretary to the general man- 
ager, and in 1913 was appointed as- 
sistant to the general superintendent, 
in which position he has continued to 
the present. 

Mr. Cunningham 

Mr. Cunningham was born on March 
26, 1884, in St. Paul. He was educated 

of 1909 he entered the testing depart- 
ment of the General Electric Company 
at Schenectady, and in the fall of 1910 
took a post-graduate course at the Mas- 
sachusetts Institute of Technology. In 
the fall of 1911 he returned to the Gen- 
eral Electric Company and then served 
one year in the switchboard engineer- 
ing department and two years in the 
railway commercial department. On 
Oct. 13, 1914, he entered the service of 
the Twin City Lines. Mr. Gilcreest has 
worked for the company as motorman 
and conductor, inspector, supervisor and 
later on followed up power saving and 
n:ore efficient operation of car as to 
coasting, etc. 



and finally general superintendent of 
the Galesburg Railway, Light & Power 
Company, controlled by the Illinois 
Traction Company. In January, 1916, 
Mr. Hannaford returned to St. Paul, 
his birthplace. He is the son of Jule 
M. Hannaford, president of the North- 
ern Pacific Railway. 

Mr. Goodsell 

Mr. Goodsell was born on Sept. 21, 
1886, at Fergus Falls, Minn. He at- 

in the public schools. He left Cretin 
High School in 1901, before completing 
his course, and enterel the service of 
Swift & Company and then worked as 
a weigher in railway mail service. In 
1906 he worked for a general contract- 
ing company. In 1908 he was time- 
keeper and branch office cashier for the 
Barber Asphalt Company, and from 
February to September, 1908, was with 
the Mendota Stone Company. The same 
year he entered the service cf the Twin 

Alex P. Humphrey, Jr., son of Judge 
Alex P. Humphrey, the chief counsel 
and vice-president of the Louisville 
(Ky.) Railway, was killed when his air- 
plane fell 1500 ft. at Camp Taliaferro, 
Tex. Cadet Humphrey had been in 
training since last August. 

Peter Leidenger, western sales man- 
ager of the Dayton (Ohio) Manufac- 
turing Company, died suddenly of pneu- 
monia at the Buckingham Hotel, St. 
Louis, Mo., on Dec. 28. Mr. Leidenger 
was born at Ironton, Ohio, in 1862. He 
had been with the Dayton Manufactur- 
ing Company for the last thirty years. 

George Alvah Kittredge, a pioneer in 
the operation of electric railways in 
India, died at his home in Brookline, 
Mass., on Dec. 26, aged eighty-four 
years. Mr. Kittredge lived in Bombay 



Vol. 51, No. 2 

for more than half a century, going 
there as a representative of consular 
interests soon after his graduation from 

A. C. Miller, president of the Chicago- 
New York Electric Air Line Railway, 
Gary, Ind., until May 1, 1916, died sud- 
denly on Jan. 4. He was also vice- 
president and general manager of the 
Gary & Interurban Railroad for a num- 
ber of years. 

William Abial Scott, who in 1905 in 
association with Governor L. B. Hanna 
and J. W. Smith established the Fargo 
& Moorehead Street Railway, Fargo, 
N. D., now controlled by the Northern 
States Power Company, is dead at his 
home in Fargo. He was the first vice- 
president of the company. Mr. Scott 
was founder of the North Dakota State 
Fair Association. 

Charles S. Foller, sales manager of 
the Union Spring & Manufacturing 
Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., is dead. Mr. 
Foller was evidently drowned in an at- 
tempt to cross the Monongahela River 
•on the ice. Mr. Foller went to Pitts- 
burgh when he was twenty-four. For 
five years he was affiliated with the 
American Locomotive Company in that 
city. Then he entered the employ of 
the Union Spring & Manufacturing 
Company. Mr. Foller is survived by 
his widow, one son and three daughters. 

Edward B. Smith, head of the bank- 
ing house of Edward B. Smith & Com- 
pany, Philadelphia, Pa., is dead. Mr. 
Smith was born on Sept. 23, 1861. He 
entered banking in 1886 and in 1892 
organized the firm of which he was 
the head. The firm had a part in many 
of the large Philadelphia underwrit- 
ings, among others the Philadelphia 
Electric Company. Among the elec- 
tric railways of which Mr. Smith was 
a director were the Lehigh Valley 
Transit Company and the Philadelphia 
& Western Railroad. He was one of 
the organizers of the Lehigh Power 
Securities Company. 

Lee Howell, president of the Evans- 
ville, Suburban & Newburgh Railway, 
died on Jan. 3 at Evansville, Ind., at 
the age of seventy-seven. Mr. Howell 
had spent all his business life in the 
service of railroad, interurban and 
steamboat companies. After serving in 
the cavalry division of the Confederate 
Army from 1862 to the close of the 
war, he began work in the steamboat 
service on the Ohio and Tennessee riv- 
ers. In 1872 he became contracting 
agent for the Louisville & Nashville 
Railroad and held this position for eight 
years. In 1880 he was appointed gen- 
eral freight agent and in 1882 division 
freight agent of the Evansville, Hen- 
derson & Nashville division of the 
Louisville & Nashville Railroad, and on 
Nov. 1, 1882, became general freight 
agent of the Evansville & St. Louis 
and the Evansville, Henderson & Nash- 
ville division of that company, with 
headquarters at Evansville. He was 
also the head of the Evansville & Bowl- 
ing Green Packet Company, operating a 
line of steamboats between Evansville 
and Bowling Green, Ky., on the Ohio 
and Green Rivers. 

Construction News 

Construction News Notes are classified un- 
der each heading alphabetically by States. 

An asterisk (*) indicates a project not 
previously reported. 

North Vancouver, B. C— The British 
Columbia Electric Railway, it is re- 
ported, will ask the City Council of 
North Vancouver for permission to lay 
tracks on the ferry wharf and to op- 
erate cars thereon. The North Van- 
couver District Municipality will vote at 
the January elections on a by-law au- 
thorizing a grant of $2,500 to aid the 
company in this construction. 

Waterloo, Iowa. — The Waterloo, Ce- 
dar Falls & Northern Railway has ac- 
cepted the franchise passed by the 
voters of Waterloo on Dec. 5. 

Cumberland, Md. — The Cumberland 
Electric Railway has received a twen- 
ty-five year extension of its franchise 
from the City Council of Cumberland. 
Under the terms of the new franchise, 
which will expire in December, 1942, 
the company will construct an extension 
to the Kelly-Springfield Tire Company 
and the new Ridgedale addition. The 
plans also include the double-tracking 
of Green and Water Streets. 

Cincinnati, Ohio. — The Cincinnati, 
Lawrenceburg & Aurora Electric Rail- 
way has received a franchise from the 
City Council of Cincinnati to operate its 
line from the western corporate limits 
of Cincinnati to Anderson's Ferry. The 
ordinance authorizes the removal of ap- 
proximately 3 miles of track from the 
Lower River Road to a private right-of- 
way on Commercial Avenue. 

Track and Roadway 

Edmonton (Alta.) Municipal Rail- 
way. — A report from the Edmonton 
Municipal Railway states that it has 
under construction 900 ft. of track in- 
terconnecting two parallel lines. 

Municipal Railway, San Francisco, 
Cal. — About 2.44 miles of line will be 
placed in service by the Municipal Rail- 
way during this year. 

Denver (Col.) Tramway. — A report 
from the Denver Tramway states that 
during 1918 it expects to place in serv- 
ice 1% miles of new track. It also 
expects to third-rail the Gold division 
from Gravel Spur, about 4 miles. 

Connecticut Company, New Haven, 
Conn. — It is reported that this company 
will build an extension to its line from 
Terryville to Thomaston. 

Georgia Railway & Power Company, 
Atlanta, Ga. — In view of the inadequacy 
of the single-track line from Buckhead 
to Camp Gordon, the Georgia Railway 

& Power Company plans to double- 
track the line to a point near the inter- 
section of Piedmont Road and Peach- 
tree Road. If it should later develop 
that extension of the double track be- 
yond the point at present contemplated 
would be necessary for improved serv- 
ice, the company plans to continue the 

Chicago (111.) Surface Lines. — An ex- 
tension will be built by the Chicago 
Surface Lines on Monroe Street from 
La Salle to Canal Street. 

Peoria (111.) Railway. — This company 
reports that it will reconstruct 5 miles 
of track during this year. 

Indianapolis Traction & Terminal 
Company, Indianapolis, Ind. — The Board 
of Public Works has extended until June 
1, 1918, the time limit fixed for double- 
tracking the West Michigan Street line 
from Holmes Avenue to Tibbs Avenue. 
March 15 was the date fixed as the time 
when the company should complete the 
turn-outs and other improvements in 
Brookside Avenue, so that the line may 
also be double-tracked, if found neces- 
sary. The board extended until July 1, 
1918, the time limit for completion of 
the North Illinois Street car line ex- 
tension from Maple Road to Forty- 
sixth Street, and the same date was set 
for the completion of the South Street 
tracks from Virginia Avenue to Dela- 
ware Street. 

Wichita Railroad & Light Company, 
Wichita, Kan. — This company reports 
that during this year it expects to place 
in service about IV2 miles of new track. 

United Railways & Electric Com- 
pany, Baltimore, Md. — This company 
reports that it expects to place in serv- 
ice during 1918 a 2-mile extension to 
Fairfield and a 1-mile extension on 
Columbia Avenue. 

Pascagoula Street Railway & Power 
Company, Pascagoula, Miss. — This com- 
pany reports that it will rebuild 3 miles 
of track this year. 

Kansas City (Mo.) Railways.— The 
City Commissioners of Kansas City, 
Kan., have let the contract for building 
the- Central Avenue viaduct, subject to 
the approval of the Kansas City Rail- 
ways. The cost will be $192,000, of 
which one-third will be borne by the 
Kansas City Railways and the other 
two-thirds equally by the Missouri 
Pacific Railway, the Union Pacific Rail- 
road and the Chicago, Rock Island & 
Pacific Railway. The completion of the 
Central Avenue viaduct will extend the 
traffic way from Riverview Avenue, 
Kansas City, to the high line bridge 
across the Kaw River. 

United Railways, St. Louis, Mo. — A 
report from the United Railways states 
that the company expects to place in 
service SV2 miles of new track during 
1918. It also plans to reconstruct about 
15 miles of track during this year. 

January 12, 1918 



New York Municipal Railway, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. — The new Broadway subway, 
connecting- Rector Street, West Broad- 
way and Forty-second Street at Broad- 
way, was opened for service on Jan. 5. 
This is the most important link in the 
dual subway system to be placed in 
operation since 1913. The New York 
Municipal Railway, which will operate 
the new line, has been operating trains 
under Broadway between Union Square 
and Canal Street, thence into Brook- 
lyn, for some time. 

Nova Scotia Tramways & Power 
Company, Ltd., Halifax, N. S— This 
company reports that it expects to 
place in service about 3V2 miles of city 
track during 1918. 

Cleveland & Sharon Rapid Transit 
Company, Cleveland, Ohio. — A report 
from C. H. Felton, secretary of the 
Cleveland & Sharon Rapid Transit Com- 
pany, states that grading on its pro- 
posed line from Lockwood to Middle- 
field via North Bloomfield and Mesopo- 
tamia has been mostly done. It is ex- 
pected that the line will be completed 
this year. The line will be operated by 
the Cleveland & Eastern Traction Com- 
pany, furnishing direct connection with 
Cleveland. No contracts for materials 
have been let. [Dec. 16, '16.] 

City Railway, Dayton, Ohio. — During 
1918 this company will place in service 
1*4 miles of new track and will rebuild 
1 mile of track. 

Dayton & Troy Electric Railway, 
Dayton, Ohio. — This company reports 
that it will rebuild 1% miles of city 

Springfield (Ohio) Railway. — An ex- 
tension is being built by the Springfield 
Railway in the Northern Heights addi- 

Oklahoma Union Railway, Tulsa, 
Okla. — The Board of City Commission- 
ers has granted the Oklahoma Union 
Railway permission to double track its 
Fourth Street line from Boulder east 
to Boston Street, in order to facilitate 
the handling of the interurban and West 
Tulsa lines which radiate from that 

Brantford (Ont.) Municipal Railway. 

— A report from the Brantford Munici- 
pal Railway states thai it expects to 
place in service 2% miles of new track 
during 1918. 

'"Montrose, Ont. — The Hydro-Electric 
Power Commission of Ontario is build- 
ing a line from the Welland River, near 
Montrose, around Niagara Falls City 
to the Niagara River near Queenston, 
about 12 miles, in connection with the 
Chippawa-Queenston power canal. It 
is reported that about 8 miles of con- 
struction has been completed at the 
northern end of the line. The line will 
be double-track, standard-gage, 70-lb. 
rails and will be ballasted with rock. 
The work is being done under the di- 
rection of F. A. Gaby, chief engineer 
of the commission. 

•Whitby, Ont. — Work has been be- 
gun on the construction of a line in 
Whitby from the Grand Trunk main 
line station to the military hospital on 
the lake front. This road will be the 

initial unit of the street railway sys- 
tem authorized by vote of the munici- 
pality in adopting the hydro-radial pro- 
posal from Toronto to Whitby. 

Portland & Oregon City Railway, 
Ore. — A report from the Portland & 
Oregon City Railway states that it will 
place in service 10 miles of new track 
in 1918. 

Portland Railway, Light & Power 
Company, Portland, Ore. — About 1 mile 
of track will be rebuilt by this com- 

Shamokin & Mount Carmel Transit 
Company, Mount Carmel, Pa. — This 
company reports that it will construct 
about V2 mile of new track. 

Ponce (Porto Rico) Electric Com- 
pany. — This company reports that it 
plans the reconstruction of about V2 
mile of track. 

Austin (Tex.) Street Railway. — Op- 
eration has been begun by the Austin 
Street Railway on its extension to 
Travis Heights. 

El Paso (Tex.) Electric Railway.— 
This company reports that it will build 
1 mile of new track in 1918. 

Mineral Heights Street Railway, 
Greenville, Tex. — A report from this 
company states that it is planning to 
change its method of operation from 
the overhead system to gasoline motive 

Norfolk Southern Railroad, Norfolk, 

Va. — An extension will be built by the 
Norfolk Southern Railroad in the vil- 
lage of West Munden. 

Richmond & Rappahannock River 
Railway, Richmond, Va. — Joseph E. 
Willard, Ambassador to Spain, has ac- 
quired from the Richmond & Rappa- 
hannock River Railway its line between 
Twenty-ninth and P Streets, Richmond, 
and Seven Pines, the receivership of 
which was noted in the Electric Rail- 
way Journal of Nov. 17. The Seven 
Pines lines, it is said, will be operated 
as a separate and distinct corporation, 
while the remaining section is headed 
toward dismantlement. According to 
the latest information the State Cor- 
poration Commission has granted the 
petition of the Richmond & Rappahan- 
nock Railway for dissolution, but the 
sale of the equipment is to be held up 
until William G. McAdoo decides upon 
the utility of the line for public or war 
purposes. Service has been discon- 
tinued on the unsold part of the prop- 
erty. The Richmond & Seven Pines 
Railway was recently chartered to oper- 
ate the property purchased, the presi- 
dent of which is Thomas B. Love, who 
is also president of the Richmond & 
Rappahannock River Railway. 

Charleston-Dunbar Traction Com- 
pany, Charleston, W. Va. — A report 
from the Charleston-Dunbar Traction 
Company states that during this year 
it expects to place in service 9 miles 
of track between the cities of Dunbar 
and Poca. 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light 
Company, Milwaukee, Wis. — This com- 
pany reports that during 1918 it will 
reconstruct 5 miles of track. 

Chops and Buildings 

Southern Pacific Company, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. — Plans have been submitted 
to the Railroad Commission of Cali- 
fornia by the Southern Pacific Com- 
pany for the erection of a new $130,000 
depot on the Alameda, San Jose, and 
the moving of the freight yards to the 
College Park district. The company 
will abandon its present railway lines 
on Fourth Street and will move to its 
new right-of-way on the western side 
of the city. The new freight yards 
will cost $430,000, while the entire 
change will cost more than $1,300,000. 

Inter Urban Railway, Des Moines, 
Iowa. — It is reported that the Inter 
Urban Railway has had plans pre- 
pared for the construction of a four- 
story brick terminal station to cost 
about $200,000. 

Trenton & Mercer County Traction 
Corporation, Trenton, N. J. — Contracts 
have been awarded by the Trenton & 
Mercer County Traction Corporation 
for the construction of a new building 
to replace that portion of the carhouse 
at Trenton recently destroyed by fire. 
Newton A. K. Bugbee & Company, 
Inc., will do the steel work; Edward 
LaRue will do the carpentry and Burton 
& Burton the mason work. The im- 
provements will cost approximately 
$11,000. The design of the building will 
be changed from that of the old struc- 

Long Island Railroad, New York, 

N. Y. — Fire recently destroyed the 
storage and office building of the Long 
Island Railroad at Long Island City, 
together with two freight cars. The 
loss is estimated at $125,000. 

Toronto (Ont.) Suburban Railway. — 
A new carhouse and express shed will 
be built by the Toronto Suburban Rail- 
way at Guelph. 

Power Houses and 

Connecticut Company, New Haven, 
Conn. — The Public Utilities Commmis- 
sion of Connecticut has approved the 
application of the Connecticut Com- 
pany to erect electric transmission 
lines in New Haven and North Haven. 

Hagersfown & Frederick Railway. 
Frederick, Md. — In addition to the 
plant at dam No. 4, the Hagerstown & 
Frederick Railway is building a new 
power house at dam No. 5. These 
plants will be connected with the Se- 
curity plant, which is being enlarged. 
New transmission lines are being built 
to Waynesboro and Martinsburg. 

Twin City Rapid Transit Company, 
Minneapolis, Minn. — A new automatic 
substation is being built by the Twin 
City Rapid Transit Company at Con- 
cord and Isabel Streets, St. Paul. The 
substation will be ready shortly and will 
have a capacity of 2000 hp. 

Manufactures and the Markets 


Freight Congestion Serious 

Time for Pacific Coast Deliveries from 
East Doubled — Demurrage Rates 
to Be Increased Jan. 21 

So far as can be learned from lead- 
ing shippers and receivers, deliveries 
have grown worse rather than better. 
The situation is said to be more acute 
in the New York territory than at any 
other point in the country. The conges- 
tion of fi eight and that of unloaded 
cars causing this condition has reached 
the stage where drastic action has been 
found necessary. Secretary McAdoo, 
Director-General of Railroads, has 
named the week of Jan. 14 to 21 for the 
unloading of cars which have for 
months been used by consignees here as 

A jobber carrying one of the largest 
stocks of railway supplies in the coun- 
try said deliveries are not only a sore 
spot, but the situation is almost unbear- 
able. Not only is freight affected by 
the embargoes, but the express com- 
panies, which afforded some relief, even 
at a higher cost, have in some cases em- 
bargoed all but direct and incidental 
Government business. 

Transportation conditions are very 
much affecting the supply of line ma- 
terial, which is becoming quite scarce 
in some quarters. Shipments held up 
by embargoes east of Pittsburgh are 
a cause of anxiety on the part of dis- 
tributers. An order for locust pins 
placed early in June last has not been 
delivered yet. An acute shortage is in 
sight. Yellow-pine cross-arms are also 
in bad shape. Of three cars ordered 
six months ago one was received here; 
the others are "somewhere" in the 
South in transit. Fir arms are hard to 
get, as the lumber is being requisitioned 
by the government for aeroplanes and 

The time reauired for Eastern 
freight deliveries to the Pacific Coast has 
jumped from seventeen days, which was 
the average a month or six weeks ago, 
to thirty to forty days, which is the 
time in which shipments are now arriv- 
ing. However, government control of 
railroads is confidently expected to im- 
prove freight shipments. 

The California Railroad Commission 
has decided that Government railroad 
control will not affect the applications 
for rate increases which electric rail- 
ways have filed. This news has 
strengthened electric railway securities, 
and, with the freight business these 
lines are developing, the prospects in 
this field are much better than they have 

Relief of congested conditions of the 
Pacific Northwest terminals is expected 

to result speedily from the appointment 
of a joint committee of railway and 
steamship officials to devise a solution 
of the problem. Federalization of rail- 
road lines will lead, it is believed, to an 
early settlement of terminal problems 
and is certain to result in an issuance 
of an order to abandon intraterminal 
switching. Transcontinental lines are 
striving to reorganize service, which 
was disrupted during the past ten days 
by floods. Work of repairing and re- 
building washed-out bridges in moun- 
tain divisions particularly is being 
rushed under difficulties. Collections 

On Monday of this week Director- 
General of Railroads McAdoo issued a 
statement showing the imperative ne- 
cessity that exists for releasing cars 
for further service and for relieving ter- 
minals which are now badly congested 
and at the same time issuing order No. 
3. This order increases demurrage 
charges to a maximum of $10 per car 
per day reached on the eighth day of 
detention beyond free time. The new 
demurrage rates will go into effect on 
Jan. 21. 

Government Statistics on 
Rail Manufacture 

Value of Product in 1914 Was More 
Than $54,000, a Decrease of 35 Per 
Cent from 1909 

Statistics have just been put out by 
the Bureau of the Census on iron and 
steel products manufactured in 1914 
showing the production of steel rails 
and certain rail equipment. Table I 
shows the rail production in 1899, 1904, 
1909 and 1914. The rail production in 
1914, it will be noticed, was around 35 
per cent less than in 1909. 

Rail production in 1914 absorbed 10 
per cent of the mill tonnage as com- 

pared with 14.8 per cent in 1909, 17.2 
per cent in 1904 and 21.6 per cent in 
1909, 17.2 in 1904, and 21.6 per cent in 
1899. Rail fasteners and rerolled or re- 
newed rails absorbed around an addi- 
tional 2 per cent. 

Data on railroad spikes are available 
for 1914 only and show fifteen estab- 
lishments engaged in their manufacture. 
The output of these mills was 1,366,177 
kegs of 200 lb. each, having a total value 
of $4,201,388. 

Trolley Cord Still Advancing 

Uncertainties of Present Market Cause 
Supply Men to Hesitate to Make 

Railway supply men in New York 
are very careful when it comes to quot- 
ing prices on any material of iron, steel 
or copper. The eccentricities of the 
market are apparently beyond their 
comprehension at times, so they state. 
On one particular article, namely trol- 
ley cord, the gyrations have been un- 
usually hard to follow. Prices have 
been jumping right along, the latest, 
effective about two weeks since, going 
up 7 cents a pound. At that, imme- 
diate acceptance of the quotation must 
be made, or else the offer is subject 
to cancellation. 

A reasonable time is allowed between 
the date when a quotation is asked and 
the placing of the order, otherwise a 
new condition is presented for both the 
seller and buyer. Not infrequently the 
factory intervenes with a higher figure 
than originally named, and no prelimi- 
nary notice is given of the advance. 
This has led to no end of complications 
before an adjustment is reached. Just 
now the attitude of the seller of sup- 
plies and accessories is precarious on 
the matter of prices, which are likely 
to change without the slightest intima- 
tion from the producer. 

Rails 1914 

No. establishments 15 

Tons 1 1,842.041 

Value $54,009,918 

Open-hearth — 

Tons " 1,522,684 

Value $45,336,381 

Bessemer — 

Tons 319,357 

Value $8,673,537 

Rerolled or renewed rails — 

No. establishments 8 

Tons 63,671 

Value $1,438,237 

Rail fastening's (incl. splice bars, tie- 
plates, fishplates, etc.) — 

No. establishments 26 

Tons 349,307 

Value $11,526,956 

1909 1904 1899 

13 14 

2,858,599 2 2,194,605 a 2,251.337 

$81,128,295 $58,256,750 $46,533,159 


1,643,527 2,065,024 
$44,727,515 $54,627,488 








1 Includes 27,286 tons of alloy steel rails; titanium steel, 7395 tons; nickel-chrome 
steel, 4174 tons; manganese steel, 3864 tons; and kinds not specified, 11,853 tons. 

'Includes iron rails; 1904, 900 tons; value, $20,700; 1899. 880 tons; value, $31,180. 

' Includes 1,522,362 tons of basic open-hearth, 144 tons add •pen-hearth, and 178 tons 
of electric steel rails. 

January 12, 1918 



Steel Prices in Effect Until 
March 31 

Current Quarter Contracts Calling for 
Later Deliveries Subject to Gov- 
ernment Price Revision 

President Wilson has approved the 
recommendation of the War Industries 
Board that the maximum prices here- 
tofore fixed by the President upon the 
recommendation of the board upon ore, 
coke, pig iron, steel and steel products, 
subject to revision on Jan. 1, 1918, be 
continued in effect until March 31, 1918. 
No new contracts calling for delivery 
of any of said commodities or articles 
on or after April 1, 1918, are to specify 
a price unless coupled with a clause 
making the price subject to revision by 
any authorized United States govern- 
ment agency, so that all deliveries after 
that date shall not exceed the maximum 
price then in force, although ordered or 
contracted for in the meantime. 

Particular attention is being paid by 
the steel interests to that part of the 
approved recommendation pertaining to 
contracts placed during the current 
quarter for later delivery. As stated, 
no prices are to be specified for deliv- 
eries later than March 31 except as 
subject to Government revision. The 
natural assumption, and this is borne 
out by the uneasiness of the steel pro- 
ducers, is that any government revision 
of prices will probably not be upward. 

As matters now stand, therefore, con- 
tracts may be placed for certain quan- 
tities of steel product for delivery later 
than the current quarter at a certain 
price or not, but in any event subject 
to future Government price regulation, 
which at the present writing does not 
seem to be inclined toward higher 

Probable Market Effects of Fed- 
eral Road Control 

There seems every reason to believe 
that the assumption of control by the 
Federal government of the steam rail- 
roads will lead shortly to large orders 
for both rolling stock and road equip- 
ment. The purchases will undoubtedly 
be made under priority orders of the 
first class. In markets so far behind 
on orders as those for rolling stock and 
rails it becomes evident that buyers not 
falling in the preferred classes will 
find it more difficult then ever to obtain 
materials and equipment. 

How far the control of electric rail- 
ways will be taken over by the govern- 
ment is not known at this writing. Al- 
ready it has been announced that the 
Lehigh Valley electric system has been 
taken over. In the event of a wide con- 
trol of traction properties, it appears 
that early purchases will probably have 
to be made of freight rolling stock and 

Owing to the existing situation roads 
have been less careful in rail replace- 
ment than formerly. Consequently 
there is undoubtedly a considerable 
amount of rail of the country that 
badly needs replacement. 

Just how these purchases are to be 

financed is for the present a matter of 
speculation. It does seem certain, how- 
ever, that nothing of any consequence 
will be done in the way of purchases 
for a month or more. Still, provided 
the government wishes, as has been re- 
peatedly stated, to maintain the roads 
in as high a state of efficiency as pos- 
sible, sooner or later orders of consid- 
erable size for new equipment of one 
kind or another must find their way 
to the manufacturers. 

Market Develops for Sleet 

Deliveries Being Made Out of Stock 
With Feeling in Trade That Prices 
Will Go No Higher 

As might be expected devices for re- 
moving sleet from wires were in strong 
demand during and following the re- 
cent snow storms in different parts of 
the country. A number of appliances 
of this kind are in the market, accom- 
plishing their work along pretty much 
similar lines. Manufacturers of the 
sleet cutters, or scrapers as they are 
called, operating in this field, reported 
an immense sale. 

While there has been no recent 
change in the price of sleet cutters, 
with the constant change in copper and 
brass the manufacturers frankly admit 
the possibility of a reduction in the 
near future. It was admitted that, in 
their judgment, prices were at peak, 
and that the tendency seemed to be 
for shorting of prices rather than in- 
creasing. Deliveries are said to be 
prompt, as the goods are kept in stock. 
The greatest difficulty just now was in 
securing skilled workmen. Mechanics 
of the ordinary kind in their line were 
plentiful enough, but the men desired 
were scarce and hard to engage at any 
reasonable wages. 

Confusion Regarding Priority 

Fuel Administrator Announces That All 
Priority Orders Were Suspended 
on Dec. 31 

The Fuel Administration issues the 

"Despite the fact that formal an- 
nouncement was made that all priority 
orders in connection with freight ship- 
ments were suspended at midnight Dec. 
31, considerable confusion apparently 
exists in many quarters, as evidenced 
by many telegrams to the United States 
Fuel Administration, inquiring as to 
the status concerning priorities." 

The following typical answer to these 
telegrams is being sent out by the 
Fuel Administration: 

"By direction of Director-General 
McAdoo, all priority orders heretofore 
issued with respect to transportation 
have been suspended and no further pri- 
orities may be claimed thereunder. Fu- 
ture orders for priorities will be issued 
in emergencies under Mr. McAdoo's di- 
rection as occasion may require." 

Increased Demand for Trolley 
Wire Noted 

Stories Stimulate Orders for Mainte- 
nance Equipment — Reduction Noted 
in the Price for Wire 

Buying has about reached the mini- 
mum level, but maintenance of track 
and transmission lines must be kept in 
workable condition at all hazards, the 
selling trade takes satisfaction in say- 
ing. This means something, and the 
manufacturers and handlers of trolley 
wire declare they are fortunate in hav- 
ing reasonably heavy orders placed 
with them for prompt delivery. 

At this time of the year there is 
always a certain amount of movement 
in trolley wire, but the recent snow 
storms have occasioned the buying of 
an additional quantity. A number of 
large orders have been recently booked 
from railways in the eastern territory, 
a greater portion of which was for 
quick delivery. The producers, how- 
ever, commenting upon the orders, 
stated it was evident only necessity 
compelled the purchase. The traction 
companies, it was well understood, 
were finding it difficult to secure funds 
to maintain their properties in proper 
shape, let alone for extensions, and also 
steam roads for the electrification of 
parts of their systems in contemplation. 
At any rate, the orders, such as they 
were, and representing a considerable 
amount at that, declared one manufac- 
turer, were welcome, although the 
major facilities of his plant are given 
over to governmental work. 

Another manufacturer, in speaking 
of the buying of trolley wire by the 
railways, stated the quantity was above 
the average for the winter season, and 
was doubtless for maintenance pur- 
poses only. 

The price of trolley wire has been 
gradually lowered during the past two 
months, totaling in all a reduction in 
the neighborhood of 10 per cent. When 
one of the largest manufacturers of 
copper wire was asked about the cur- 
rent status of base he promptly said 
"there is no base." The same authority 
averred that under the pressure of com- 
petition and eagerness for orders base 
had been quoted at 26 cents for large 
interests, although 30 cents is the gen- 
erally recognized figure. 

Weatherproof wire is also on the 
downward scale, according to various 
sources of information. It was stated 
that the cost of weatherproof had been 
greatly enhanced by the high cost of 
cotton, which had advanced consider- 
ably. At one time the covering used 
for weatherproof wire was a waste or 
by-product, but now plays a large part 
in adjusting wire prices. With the re- 
duction, however, in copper ingots and 
consequently base wire the price of 
weatherproof has been readjusted. On 
a large order 28 cents was quoted last 
week for weatherproof. 

In 100 lb. lots weatherproof wire 
was quoted Monday morning of this 
week for 34^ to 35% cents in the New 
York market and 38 to 38.35 cents in 



Vol. 51, No. 2 

Rolling Stock 

Galesburg (111.) Railway & Light 
Company suffered the loss of a car by 
fire Dec. 27, the damage figuring $2,500. 

Toronto & York Radial Railway 
Company, Toronto, Can., is reported as 
negotiating for the purchase of four 

Long Island Railroad Company, Long 
Island City, N. Y., lost a storage and 
office building by fire on the night of 
Dec. 30. Two freight cars besides were 

Illinois Traction System, Peoria, 111., 
on Dec. 31 had two passenger coaches 
and a motor car burned in a fire, which 
partially destroyed its shops and barns 
at Staunton, 111. The damage is esti- 
mated at $35,000. 

Sandwich, Windsor & Amherstberg 
Railway, Windsor, Ont., Can., has added 
to its rolling stock recently three single 
truck p.a.y.e. cars built in Canada 
and two double truck steel cars built 
in the United States. 

Pensacola (Fla.) Electric Company 
recently put in commission two motor 
cars on its Bayshore line. The cars, 
which accommodate ninety passengers 
each driven by two 50 hp. motors re- 
spectively, were on delivery since early 
in August last. 

J. G. Brill Company, Philadelphia, 
Pa., is working on parts for the cars 
recently damaged by fire in the bam of 
the Trenton & Mercer County Traction 
Corporation, as reported in last week's 
Electric Railway Journal. One of 
the damaged cars was repaired at the 
Trenton repair shop. The cars are 
valued at $7,500 each. 

Georgia Railway & Power Company, 
Atlanta, Ga., have installed trailer cars 
on its line to Camp Gordon. Old gon- 
dola cars were rebuilt in the company's 
shops, the motors being removed and 
new trucks, with 26-in. wheels, substi- 
tuted. Couplers and air-brakes were 
installed. Work on several p.a.y.e. 
cars has also been begun in the com- 
pany's plant. 

Bangor Railway & Electric Company, 
Bangor, Me., has recently placed an 
order for three passenger trolley cars 
of the one-man safety type. They are 

said to cost $6,000 each, f.o.b. St. Louis. 
Delivery is expected in March. Con- 
sidering the trouble the Lewiston, Au- 
gusta & Waterville system claims to 
have had in getting delivery of new cars 
ordered many months ago, there is 
some speculation as to whether Bangor 
K'ets her new cars on time. 

Trade Notes 

New Advertising Literature 

Consolidated Expanded Metal Com- 
pany, Braddock, Pa.: "The Military 
Camps of Our Allies," twelve-page 
pamphlet descriptive of the buildings 
for housing troops in France, Belgium 
and Great Britain employing expanded 
metal lathing with cement plaster. 
There are many illustrations. 

Moller & Schumann Company, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y.: Bulletin No. 3 treats of the 
company's air drying and baking Hilo 
White enamels. Each article is de- 
scribed as to the kind of work for 
which it is suited. The method of 
handling the enamel in order to assure 
satisfactory results is also given. 

Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, 
Mass.: "The Little Journal" for Decem- 
ber contains plans and perspective view 
of the new Charles River Road Labora- 
tory of the company at Kendall Square, 
Cambridge. The leading article is on 
conservation of our national resources. 
Instances are pointed out of the waste 
going on in potash, fuel, labor, etc., 
when the greater part of these posses- 
sions could be saved by the application 
of scientific principles. 

Wilson Welder & Metals Company, 
New York: Electric welding catalog 
No. 2. A book, descriptive of the 
Wilson system of electric welding which 
was developed on a large trunk line 
railroad several years ago. An espe- 
cial claim made for this system is the 
control over the heat at the point of 
application, so that the heating can be 
kept constant and the welding uniform. 
Any number of welders can work from 
one large machine. Reduction in en- 
ergy consumption and labor, as com- 
pared with other electric welding out- 
puts, is also claimed. The company also 
supplies specially prepared welding- 
metal. The catalog is well illustrated 
and contains a number of tables. 

McGovern & Company, Inc., New 
York, N. Y., dealers in second-hand 
machinery, increased their capital from 
$150,000 to $200,000. 

Ralph C. Davison, for the past six 
years with the American Mason Safety 
Tread Company, has joined the Amer- 
ican Abrasive Metals Company, makers 
of Feralun safety treads and anti-slip 

H. T. Glover, formerly sales manager 
of the Esterline Company, Indianapolis, 
Ind., who enlisted last June with the 
Canadian Expeditionary Force, is about 
to start for Europe, if he has not al- 
ready done so, as a member of the 
divisional signalers of the Canadian 
forces. Mr. Glover is a British subject, 
which accounts for his enlistment in 

W. Jerry Stanton has resigned from 
the sales department of the General 
Electric Company, Philadelphia office, 
to become sales manager of the Rail- 
way Improvement Company, New 
York. Mr. Stanton is a native of 
Schenectady and since his school days 
he has been employed in the testing, 
engineering and sales departments of 
the General Electric Company. 

General Electric Company, Lynn, 
Mass., will soon begin the construction 
of three new buildings. The plans call 
for a two-story brick and concrete office 
building 142 ft. by 60 ft.; a one-story 
building 226 ft. by 582 ft. to be con- 
structed of steel, brick, concrete and 
cement plaster, to be used for general 
manufacturing purposes, and a two- 
story building 67 ft. x 340 ft. to be used 
for a cleaning and core shop. 

New York Municipal Railway Cor- 
poration, Brooklyn, N. Y., that opens 
its new subway extension from Four- 
teenth Street to Times Square (Broad- 
way division, New York) to-day (Jan. 
5), will have Johnson fare boxes in- 
stalled on the stations. The Railway 
Appliance Company, which is Eastern 
agent for the Johnson Fare Box Com- 
pany, has encountered more or less dif- 
ficulty in getting delivery on the boxes 
owing to the embargo. Other ship- 
ments are in transit. 



Rubber-covered wire base, New York, cents per lb. 30 
Wire, weatherproof (100 lb. lots), cents per lb. 

New York 34% -3 

tWire, weatherproof (100 lb. lots), cents per lb., 

Chicago 3S-38 

Rails, heavy, Bessemer, Pittsburgh $38 

Rails, heavy, O. H. Pittsburgh, per gross ton $40 

Wire nails, Pittsburgh, per 100 lb $3 

Railroad spikes, 9/16 in., Pittsburgh, per 100 lb.. $3 

Steel bars, Pittsburgh, per 100 lb $5 

Sheet iron, black (24 gage), Pittsburgh, per 100 lb. $5 
Sheet iron, galvanized (24 gage), Pittsburgh per 

100 lb $4. 

Galvanized barbed wire, Pittsburgh, cents per lb. . $4 
Galvanized wire, ordinary, Pittsburgh, cents per lb. $3 

Cement (carload lots), New York, per bbl $2. 

Cement (carload lots), Chicago, per bbl $2 

Cement (carload lots). Seattle, per bbl $2 

Linseed oil (raw, 5 bbl. lots), New York, per gal. $1 
Linseed oil (boiled, 5 bbl. lots), New York, per gal. $1 
White lead (100 lb. keg). New York, cents per gal. 10 
Turpentine (bbl. lots). New York, cents per gal. 4.S 


Jan. 9 


8 34i/o-35% 













Jan. 3 Jan. 9 

Copper, ingot, per lb 23% ^^ ft 

Lead, cents per lb 6% c 5 

Nickel, cents per lb 50 50 

Spelter, cents per lb 7.82%-7.92% 7.87% 

Tin, Straits, cents per lb *85.50 *85.50 

Aluminum, 98 to 99 per cent, cents per lb 36 36 


Jan. 3 

Heavy copper, cents per lb 22 

Light copper, cents per lb 19% 

Red brass, cents per lb 17% 

Yellow brass, cents per lb 14% 

Lead, heavy, cents per lb 6 

Zinc, cents per lb 5% 

Steel car axles, Chicago, per net ton $42.42 

Old carwheels, Chicago, per gross ton $35.00 

Steel rails (scrap), Chicago, per gross ton $33.00 

Steel rails (relaying), Chicago, per gross ton $55.00 

Machine shop turnings, Chicago, per net ton.... $17.50 

Jan. 9 






ectric Railway 

Consolidation of Street Railway Journal and Electric Railway Review 

Volume 51 

New York, Saturday, January 19, 1918 

Number 3 

The Electric Railway Industry 
Needs Greater Coherence 

IT WAS Benjamin Franklin who during our struggle 
for independence made the famous remark about 
hanging together or hanging separately. The same re- 
mark applies to-day to the electric railways, and unfor- 
tunately some are already beginning to "hang sepa- 
rately." The war is acting as a tremendous force in 
lining up all industries to make them exert their maxi- 
mum effort to bring it to a successful issue. Unless 
an industry can demonstrate that it is directly or indi- 
rectly essential to this end it will fare ill at the hands 
of the public until the war is 
won. The war then forces 
the electric railways with 
other industries to pull to- 
gether, first to demonstrate 
to the government their es- 
sential character, and second 
to enable them to give a ser- 
vice commensurate with the 
needs of the hour. An intel- 
ligent fear of what will hap- 
pen if the war be not won is 
an influence for unity 
throughout the whole country 
which must prove overwhelm- 

But electric railways have 
more than the war to influ- 
ence them. They must unite 
to impress the public with the 
necessity for increased in- 
come and to learn how to give 
a twentieth century trans- 
portation service. Organic- 
ally this is not an easy thing 
to do, for the reason that the 
industry is made up of many 
individual units which have 
little in common. They are 

individually strong on what are termed "local condi- 
tions," which make it seemingly difficult for one com- 
pany to co-operate with others. But through organ- 
ization local conditions can be overcome. 

The first step is to use more effectively the organiza- 
tions already available in the national and sectional 
associations. The second is to supplement these, if 
they are not adequate for the work. The third is for 
each company to feel a responsibility not only for its 
own welfare but for that of other railway properties. 
There are unlimited opportunities for good if the ener- 
gies of all branches of the industry — operating, manu- 
facturing and financial — are united. 

Uncle Sam Must Have 




The federal government faces 
mentous contingency in regard 
manufacture of heavy field artillery 
guns must be had, in large numbers and 
promptly. But it takeg*time and tools to 
make them with. The government is 
short of both and machine-tool makers 
cannot supply the tools in time to pre- 
vent heavy slaughter of our men in the 
campaigns of 1918. The tools must be 
taken from the shops where they are not 
in use directly or indirectly on work 
necessary in the winning of the war. 
Electric railway operators and manufac- 
turers of supplies can do something to 
help in this emergency. Some sugges- 
tions are given on page 137. Read these, 
if you skip everything else in this issue. 

Reduced Schedule 

Speeds in Detroit 

THE chart which we printed in our news columns 
last week, showing a constantly decreasing schedule 
speed for cars in Detroit since 1910, discloses a condi- 
tion which is very serious, if it is at all general. Ac- 
cording to this chart, the average schedule speed of the 
Detroit cars has decreased during the last seven years 
from 9.6 m.p.h. to 8.5 m.p.h. The fact that the man- 
agers of the Detroit Railway published this chart in 
their company publication shows that they realize the 
situation and are doing their best to correct it. We 

recommended that other com- 
panies make a similar record 
to determine whether the 
average schedule speed of 
their cars is also falling, and 
if so to take immediate action 
toward a change. 

A lower schedule speed 
means less attractive service, 
larger investment in equip- 
ment and higher operating 
costs. Thus it is objection- 
able to both the patron and 
the company. In thinking of 
schedule speed, one should 
keep clearly in mind that it 
does not vary with maximum 
speed. Indeed, it is often pos- 
sible to increase schedule 
speed and decrease maximum 
speed. Schedule speed is 
largely under the control of 
the authorities and the man- 
agement, but maximum speed 
is largely a question of the 
freedom of the streets from 

- There is no doubt that pres- 
ent - day urban conditions 
tend to reduce the schedule speed of cars unless heroic 
efforts are made to overcome this tendency. There is 
increasing interference from vehicular traffic and foot 
passengers, caused by the greater volume of traffic on 
the street, and these necessitate non-passenger stops 
and slowdowns for the cars, which are exasperating and 
expensive. But if vehicular and foot-passenger conges- 
tion on the street is a necessary accompaniment of the 
growth and business activities of a city, one may natu- 
rally ask what can the railway do? The answer is this : 
Educate the public and the authorities to two facts. 

The first of these is that high schedule speed is not 
only the foundation of good service, but it is also the 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 51, No. 3 

foundation of economical service, and if a company can 
operate economically it can introduce improvements 
which it otherwise could not supply. The second is that 
the railway cars should not be held down as regards 
schedule speed and even maximum speed of cars in 
streets to the standards of thirty years ago, because the 
standards of speed as well as of service have changed 
during that time. 

If these facts are understood, the railway company 
should get the co-operation which it needs from both 
the authorities and the general public for introducing 
longer spacing between stops, rerouting reforms for its 
own cars and even restrictions on the use of certain 
streets by vehicles, all in the interest of higher sched- 
ule speed and better electric railway service. 

Public Speed Standards 

Have Changed in Thirty Years 

IT is a noticeable fact that each advance in the art of 
urban transportation has been accompanied by an in- 
crease in speed. In its early days the horse car itself 
made better time than the rumbling, creeping bus, in 
part probably because of its higher rate of acceleration 
and because the cars were lower and easier of access. 
Hence the time of passenger interchange was less. Then 
the horse car was succeeded by the electric car, which 
although first built on the model of its predecessor was 
faster because of a higher accelerating rate and higher 
maximum speed. Later improvements in car body de- 
sign and equipment still further greatly reduced the 
time of passenger interchange as well as increased the 
rates of acceleration and braking, although these im- 
provements have been counterbalanced, at least in part 
in many cities by a reduction in schedule speed from 
street congestion and other causes. This brings us to 
the present day. 

Under existing urban conditions even the fastest 
electric railway car seems slow in comparison with 
the automobile. It is this latter vehicle which now sets 
the pace on the streets, and this pace is a fast one. The 
electric car must compete with it in schedule speed, if it 
is to do its full duty to its patrons. The average rider 
will forget all considerations of safety and comfort as 
well as of justice to vested interests if only he can 
reach his destination more quickly. Sentiment cuts no 
figure with him. Just as the electric railway manager 
uses an automobile in reaching various points on his 
company's system because he saves time thereby, so his 
patrons will desert him if they can find service more at- 
tractive than his own. Comparatively speaking, 30 
m.p.h. for street vehicles to-day is as slow as the 10 
m.p.h. of thirty years ago. Hence the best present at- 
tainable speed of the electric surface car frets the 
restless rider. 

This paper has consistently advocated every plan of 
railway transportation which contained possibilities of 
speed. Large parts of whole issues have been given up 
to them. We have, however, no generally applicable 
formula for obtaining higher schedule speed. Skip 
stops, stagger stops, short stops, more power per unit 
of weight (provided safety is duly considered), better 
car operation, both by motorman and conductor, etc., 
are all good. The main thing is to speed up, remember- 
ing that the speed quality of service is judged by the 
speediest available competitive facilities. 

Constitutional Barrier Is 

Bugaboo of Commission Imagination 

?rpiS not a comedy of errors, for to the company the 

J_ situation is tragic. The New York & North Shore 
Traction Company, financed under commission super- 
vision and economically managed, is in financial need. 
Its franchises stipulate a 5-cent fare, but a high court, 
whose decision has not been reversed, lately held that 
this restriction could not estop commissions from 
granting just and reasonable rates to this company. 
Accordingly the Second District Commission in Albany 
unanimously increased the rates of the company for 
part of its line, but the First District Commission in 
New York City, in whose jurisdiction the rest of the 
campany's system lies, now unanimously refuses to 
grant the relief which it admits is needed. The court, 
it intimates, didn't know the law. 

Wherein do the two commissions differ? The Albany 
body, as it ruled in detail last November in the Hunt- 
ington Railroad case, believes that franchises cannot 
be allowed to interfere with the exercise of the sov- 
ereign police power of the State, which covers rate- 
making. The Metropolitan Commission asserts that 
local authorities have a constitutional right to insert 
unalterable maximum fare clauses in franchises as a 
condition to their consent to operation. The two de- 
cisions are diametrically opposed, and nothing less than 
a proper interpretation of the Constitution is the issue. 

The New York State Constitution undeniably re- 
quires the consent of local authorities to electric rail- 
way operation. But does that mean that a municipality 
can impose any condition it thinks proper? There 
should be no pussy-footing about this point. Either 
the local authorities are absolute sovereigns in granting 
consents, or they are subject to certain restrictions. 
If, as Commissioner Whitney alleges, a municipality is 
a completely independent power in dealing with the 
authorization of new utilities, rates are not the only 
point subject to sovereign whims. What of service, of 
facilities, of a prohibition of any control whatsoever 
by a State regulatory body — in other words, of unre- 
stricted home rule? Manifestly the Constitution never 
contemplated this. Mr. Whitney's argument, com- 
pleted, is a fine example of reductio ad absurdum. 

The unescapable fact is this — that local authorities 
are not absolutely free in granting consents to util- 
ities. The Constitution does not even by implication 
prescribe the terms of consent. The best proof of this 
is the fact that, before the regulatory system was 
put in operation, proper terms of consent were outlined 
in statutory law, such as the Railroad Law and city 
charters. Now the provisions of such laws in regard to< 
rates have been superseded by the Public Service Com- 
mission Law, and this should be followed. In other 
words, the constitutional "consent" clause, not explic- 
itly drawn in early years of regulation, has from time 
to time been interpreted by statutory law in accord with 
modern thought and experience. What the New York 
City Commission asks for is an obsolete interpretation. 

But is this commission quite clear itself as to rate- 
making fundamentals? If Commissioner Whitney be- 
lieves that the State has no paramount rate-making 
power when municipalities care to fix maximum fares 
in consents, his statement about the rate of fare is 
ridiculous: "Neither [the Legislature or the city], 

January 19, 1918 

Electric Railway Journal 


could advance it above a maximum fixed by the other." 
Thus, if the Legislature should revert to rate-fixing 
and prescribe a 5-cent maximum, no fair-minded city 
authorities could consent to a new utility beginning 
operation at a higher rate. Can a municipality's will 
in rate-making then be considered supreme? No, its 
consent must be given with recognition of the rate- 
making power of the Legislature under the police 
powers authorized by the Constitution. 

This is the view taken by the Albany Commission, 
and it is the sane one. The New York City Commis- 
sion has simply gathered a mass of technical and legal 
subtleties — most of them originating in days of unde- 
veloped regulation — and by means of hard construc- 
tions and strained inferences accomplished what has 
been called the "torture of laws." The Constitution 
protects the State rate-making power, just as it does 
municipal consent. The Metropolitan Commission 
would read into the latter provisions which would de- 
stroy the first. Why this favoritism? 

New York City Commission 

Gives Companies Little Chance 

THE constitutional obstacle which the New York City 
Commission finds will prevent the grant of a rea- 
sonable fare to the North Shore Company seems a false 
creation of the imagination. But suppose that the 
commission, unlike its broader-minded and more con- 
structive companion commission in Albany, is afraid to 
proceed without reassurance from the court of last re- 
sort. This is no reason why the company should be 
penalized and even allowed to go to ruin in the mean- 
time. The only fair procedure would have been to 
grant relief with provision for restitution if later re- 

But the means of relief suggested in the decision 
are more to be criticised. Here is the situation. In- 
stead of granting the needed revenues the commis- 
sion suggests three possible remedies. First, the com- 
pany might ask the city for a release from the fran- 
chise fare limit. This is a touch of sardonic humor, 
in view of the fight made by the city against the com- 
pany at the hearings. Second, the company might ask 
the city for release from certain franchise payments. 
These obligations, let it be explained, are a part of the 
municipal consent which the commission deems su- 
preme under the protection of constitutional law. 

Or, third — and here is the climax of the scheme — 
the city might municipalize the property. Commis- 
sioner Whitney scrupulously avoids saying that munic- 
ipal ownership should be sought, but to anyone reading 
between the lines the decision seems to urge the com- 
pany toward this. The company is left between the 
devil and the deep sea — between litigation under finan- 
cial difficulties and municipal ownership under some 
plan which is inferentially to be considered easy of 
accomplishment. It should be noted that heretofore in 
public utterances, one of which was published in the 
issue of Dec. 1, Commissioner Whitney has taken pains 
to explain with what comparative facility the rapid 
transit act could be extended to authorize the purchase 
or lease of the surface lines. 

Without doubt there will be certain surface railway 
problems to be solved in New York City when the new 

rapid transit system is completed. It is most unseemly, 
however, for any commissioner to talk so much about 
public ownership of companies while fare cases for 
such carriers are pending. Commissions are appointed 
not to spread political propaganda, but, with other du- 
ties, to adjudicate rate cases impartially. While the- 
oretically a commissioner can talk municipal ownership 
and still protect the fair return of the existing private 
investment, practically such talking is as flagrantly 
wrong as the holding of securities in regulated utilities. 

Electric Railways Offer ] 
Attractive Occupation for Women 

THE New York Railways Company deserves the 
thanks of the industry for demonstrating the prac- 
ticability of the use of women conductors on surface 
cars. Whether the experiment would have been under- 
taken had it not been for the existing labor shortage 
on account of the war, it is hard to say. At any rate, 
it is a proved success. Some 300 women are now being 
employed as conductors on the Broadway, Seventh 
Avenue and Eighth Avenue Lines, as well as on four of 
the crosstown lines (including one storage-battery 
line), and others will be employed when the accommo- 
dations for them at the different terminals are installed. 
We believe this was the first instance of the kind, at 
least on any considerable scale, in this country although 
to the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company belongs the 
credit of using women first in transportation service, 
namely as guards on its Fourth Avenue subway line. 

One reason which has possibly held back other com- 
panies from this course has been a fear of disapproval 
on the part of present men employees. The New York 
Railways Company, however, disarmed all possible crit- 
icism from such source by explaining, first, the neces- 
sity of the plan from a labor standpoint, and, second, 
by assuring the present men that none of them would 
be supplaced. Women would be engaged only to fill va- 
cancies, and any man could retain his position on his 
line and on its seniority list if he cared to do so, or if 
he wished to train as a motorman the company would 
give him the instruction and let him keep the rate of 
pay which he had earned by seniority as a conductor. 

The women receive the same rate of pay as the men, 
choose their runs according to their position on the 
seniority lists in the same way as the men, and work on 
cars in which fares are collected after the passenger 
becomes seated as well as on prepayment cars, so that 
no distinction is made in their class of work. Car 
posters, however, explain to the public that the women 
are doing a patriotic duty and passengers are requested 
to help them by having their fares and transfers ready. 
Although the period since the women have been at work 
has been about as unfavorable so far as weather is 
concerned as could be imagined, there has been no com- 
plaint from the new employees or from the public. 

The result of the New York experiment is that a 
new and responsible occupation has been opened for 
women at good rates of pay, under working conditions 
far less arduous than those under which many women 
work. We see no reason why women conductors should 
not be employed on many other roads in this country 
to the benefit of the women and in the interests of good 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 51, No. 3 

The Front-Entrance, Center-Exit Car and 
Higher Schedule Speed 

For Conductors' Stations on Recent Pay-As-You-Pass-Cars See Diagrams on Page 122 


iMimm flllll 


Buffalo 6- Lake Erie 

Syracuse — Utica 

Experience in Several Cities Is Cited to Show 
That This Type of Car Is Meeting Expectations 
— Minor Details Are Undergoing Improvement 

FOUR years ago the Cleveland Railway introduced 
a type of car in which the conductor was stationed 
near a center exit, the entrance being at the front. 
The fares were paid as the passengers passed the 
conductor, the fare-collection period being thus ex- 
tended as compared with that in the pay-as-you-enter 
car. The story of the inception of the new type of 
car was fully covered in an article by its inventor 
printed in the issue of this paper for Jan. 5, 1918. 
Since its inception in Cleveland it has been introduced 
in Schenectady, Syracuse, Rochester, Buffalo, Toledo, 
and on the lines of the Mahoning & Shenango Railway 
and the Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Company. 

The purpose of the present article is to give the re- 
sults of a study of the operation of the front-entrance, 
center-exit car on the properties mentioned. For this 
purpose a number of cities were visited by members of 
the staff of the Journal, managers and heads of the 
several departments concerned were interviewed, and 
the car operation was examined under rush-hour as 
well as average conditions. As any good car is bound 
to be satisfactory to patrons when there is plenty of 
unoccupied seating capacity within, attention was par- 
ticularly concentrated on the rush hour. 

In order to focus attention on the essentials, such 
questions as the following were kept in mind, and were 
addressed to the officials consulted : 

1. What have proved to be the most conspicuous vir- 
tues of these cars? 

2. Are any data available as to the relative loading 
and unloading speeds of these cars as compared with 
cars of other types? 

3. What changes have suggested themselves as a re- 
sult of the use of these cars? 

4. Is there noticeable crowding at the entrance end 
of the cars? 

5. Has there been any noticeable loss in fares due 
to the working off of old transfers on the conductors 
at heavy unloading points during the rush hours? 

6. Has there been any tendency to "beat it" at the 
front entrance door when the motorman is away from 
his post for the purpose of changing switches, etc.? 

7. Is there much confusion due to the use of the 
front entrance on account of the patrons being ac- 
customed to entering at other points in the cars? 

Other questions will suggest themselves to the 
reader, and it is hoped that any such will be answered 
at least indirectly in the reports of observations which 

It is the unanimous testimony in all cities that the 
new cars are conspicuous for the facility with which 
passengers can board and alight. Obviously with two 
lines entering and leaving, and no throttling of ingress 
due to fare collection and transfer issuing, there ought 

January 19, 1918 

Electric Railway Journal 


to be a considerable saving in time over earlier cars. 
Curves showing this feature were reproduced on page 
31 of the Jan. 5 issue. One superintendent said that 
he had received much favorable comment from car 
users, especially from aged people who liked to ride 

wise seats the latter were preferred by some because 
their use resulted in a greater floor space for standing 
passengers. As the car is particularly adapted for 
rush-hour service this argument is a strong one. Op- 
posed to it, however, is the psychological fact that 

upon these cars on account of the ease with which they 
could get on and off. 

In Cleveland one of the officials of the railway esti- 
mated that loading and unloading with these cars are at 
least 50 per cent faster than with the company's cen- 
ter-entrance cars. As the cars in the city are used 
mostly on crosstown lines where the passengers are in 
general picked up in groups, this loading feature is 
especially important. In Schenectady when the cars 
were first put into operation it was estimated that 

passengers prefer to sit in cross-seats, because it is 
easier to brace oneself against the inertia force when 
the car stops and starts, and there is a certain sense 
of privacy due to the stall arrangement thus provided. 
At any rate, it is easier to persuade the riders to go 
to the rear of the car, paying their fares en route, 
when they see cross-seats there. 

After experience with the longitudinal seats several 
companies will use cross-seats in later cars, although it 
is only fair to say that opinion as to the wisdom of 


from three to five minutes would be saved on a half 
hour of running time. 

When these pay-as-you-pass cars were first designed, 
and for some time afterward, there was a tendency to 
use longitudinal seats in the rear as well as the front, 
where they are of course necessary. As the seating ca- 
pacity is substantially the same with cross and length- 

doing so is not unanimous. In the opinion of at least 
one manager the public is not adverse to the earlier ar- 
rangement after a few days' experience, especially 
those passengers who are obliged to ride in the rush 
hour. On the other hand, considered as a seating prop- 
osition rather than a standing one, there is no doubt 
that the cross-seats conduce to a better use of the seat- 


Electric Railway Journal 

Vol. 51, No. 3 

ing space. The whole question resolves itself eventually 
into one of the extent to which the rush hour is to 
settle the seating arrangement; and, keeping the pas- 
sengers' comfort in mind, there is no doubt that those 
fortunate enough to secure seats at all in the rush 
hour are much more comfortable in cross-seats. 

Quite directly connected with the pay-as-you-pass 
principle is the matter of floor levels and ramps. Here 
there are two sets of conflicting requirements between 
which a compromise is necessary. In the first place, 
it is desirable to get the passengers to their seats and 
to the street with as little climbing as possible. A low- 
floor car is therefore practically a necessity, and a 
single exit step is desirable. But ramps to permit one 
exit step may cause accident, although properly placed 
stanchions will minimize this danger. At times other 
than loading and unloading, a ramp is uncomfortable 
for those who have to stand upon it, and it should 
be as easy as possible for passengers to pass from 
the front of the car to the rear. Therefore, the tend- 
ency seems to be to do away with the ramps as will be 
done in the new Syracuse, Toledo and other cars. 

The early Syracuse car has 5% in. in the ramps, and 
one exit step. The new cars will have these step 

the number of arguments between passengers and con- 
ductors as to whether fares have been paid or not. 

Some support must be provided for passengers stand- 
ing and in transit. Horizontal hand poles and vertical 
stanchions have been used for the purpose, preferences 
regarding them being divided. In Rochester several 
stanchions have been added to the original equipment, 
the horizontal rods being removed. The latter are, 
however, in general retained, extending the length of 
the car when longitudinal seats are provided in the 
rear. In the new Syracuse cars the rod will extend 
from the front of the dividing stanchion only, as it is 
considered not desirable to encourage standing in the 
center of the car. The rod in this case will be placed 
66V2 in. above floor slats, and IS 1 /* in. out from the 
frieze board. 

There is considerable objection to stanchions in that 
they mar the appearance of the car and interfere 
with cleaning. On the other hand they are comfortable 
for the passengers and are adapted to the use of 
children and short adults. 

In seeking the best locations for stanchions in longi- 
tudinal seat cars the New York State Railways, Syra- 
cuse lines, secured from several other roads informa- 

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Mahoninq 8c Shenanqo 

k-Z^Hi k- ;r - 5'-6*~» A r 
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Syracuse - U+ica 

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Mahoninq & Shenango 


heights: Front entrance, rail to step 13% in., step 
to platform 12 in., platform to floor 5% in.; center 
exit, rail to step 13% in.; each step 8 7/16 in.; slight 
drainage ramp in floor at middle of car. In Syracuse 
it was found that most accidents occurred near the 
middle of the front ramp, there being very few on the 
back ramp. This checks with experience in Rochester, 
where it was noted that the accidents occurred through 
the starting of the cars. In Syracuse the moving of 
the middle stanchion to a position half way up the 
front ramp has had a beneficial effect in reducing ac- 
cidents. Another benefit of this has been to cut down 

tion as to their practice. A diagram like that shown 
was prepared to indicate the several stanchion layouts 
superimposed. Dummy stanchions were also placed in 
a car and representatives of several departments were 
asked independently to place them where they thought 
best. The averages of these locations were then se- 
lected as far as was practicable from the structural 
standpoint. Some deviation was necessary in cases, 
such, for example, as when the ideal location proved 
to be over a trapdoor in the floor. The final selections 
are indicated on the diagram on page 121. 

One of the big problems in rush-hour transportation 

January 19, 1918 

Electric Railway Journal 


is to utilize all of the space within the car by impelling 
patrons to distribute themselves uniformly. There is 
a tendency to crowd about the entrance, and passengers 
are often quite selfish in this matter. Experience in 
Toledo, Schenectady, Buffalo, Cleveland and elsewhere 
indicates that the new car is not a panacea for this 
difficulty, although conducive to good results if the 
conductor makes proper use of his favorable location 
to urge the passengers to move rearward. The motor- 
man can help also. The possibility of getting a crowd 
on board promptly should, if utilized, tend to keep the 

the rush of unloading a car, particularly at a translei 
point. The conductor has so much to do in issuing 
transfers and collecting fares of alighting passengers 
and those passing his stand that an unscrupulous per- 
son might be inclined to push into the rear without pay- 
ing, or to impose on the conductor as suggested above. 
One railway man offered to demonstrate to the writer 
that this could be done on the cars of his own company, 
although he regarded with favor the pay-as-you-pass 
plan in general. 

The fact is that the public is not to any considerable 


passengers moving once they are in the car. In Sche- 
nectady the management noted that there is no crowd- 
ing until the seats are full and about thirty people are 
standing. Then congestion seems to be about the 
same as with the pay-as-you-enter cars. If the con- 
ductor will request passengers near him to pay theii' 
fares and move rearward he can usually secure co-op- 
eration, but sometimes they refuse and persist pro- 
vokingly in standing around the stanchions near the 
conductor and to some extent blocking the passageway. 

In Cleveland also there is considerable congestion, 
but the railway management believes that the conduc- 
tor should be able to supervise the passenger distribu- 
tion well on account of his central position. As one 
official puts it: "When the conductor is stationed away 
at the back end of the car his e